Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts such as surprising contrasts or similarities , and think about the significance of these relationships.
Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way. Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming.
Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :. You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis. After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:. Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.
This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters. Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children.
Now you write:. In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore. This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Anson, Chris M. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman. After reflecting on the topic a little while longer, you decide that what you really want to say about this topic is that something should be done to reduce the amount of sugar these children consume.
More attention should be paid to the food and beverage choices available to elementary school children. This statement asserts your position, but the terms more attention and food and beverage choices are vague. Use specific language.
You decide to explain what you mean about food and beverage choices , so you write:. Experts estimate that half of elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar. It merely reports a statistic instead of making an assertion. Make an assertion based on clearly stated support. You finally revise your thesis statement one more time to look like this:. Because half of all American elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar, schools should be required to replace the beverages in soda machines with healthy alternatives.
Your thesis changed to reflect your new insights. Remember that your thesis needs to show your conclusions about a subject. For example, if you are writing a paper for a class on fitness, you might be asked to choose a popular weight-loss product to evaluate.
Here are two thesis statements:. This is a weak thesis statement. First, it fails to take a stand. Second, the phrase negative and positive aspects is vague. Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers. Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinship systems, using your own family as an example, you might come up with either of these two thesis statements:.
This is a weak thesis because it merely states an observation. While most American families would view consanguineal marriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian families, like my own, believe that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in an extended family. This is a strong thesis because it shows how your experience contradicts a widely-accepted view. A good strategy for creating a strong thesis is to show that the topic is controversial. Readers will be interested in reading the rest of the essay to see how you support your point.
Readers need to be able to see that your paper has one main point. If your thesis statement expresses more than one idea, then you might confuse your readers about the subject of your paper. For example:. Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and Web pages can provide both advertising and customer support. To revise the thesis, the relationship between the two ideas needs to become more clear. One way to revise the thesis would be to write:.
Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketing potential, companies should exploit this potential by using Web pages that offer both advertising and customer support. This is a strong thesis because it shows that the two ideas are related. Hint: a great many clear and engaging thesis statements contain words like because , since , so , although , unless , and however.
A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say:. This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons.
Second, many causes and effects is vague.
Note that this process may require you to do some additional training, either in the classroom or in a lab. Notify your departmental academic advisor of your decision to write a thesis. Make adjustments and carefully improve your research design as needed, based on their guidance. Talk to your mentor, and visit the University Scholars Program websit e. Fill out the Appointment of Supervisory Committee Form , obtain the necessary signatures, and turn in the completed form to your major department.
You are required to have at least three committee members, one of whom must be from outside your major program. You must submit all of the following items to your major department by the deadline s specified by that particular department consult your departmental academic advisor :. All of the items from section 10 above must be submitted to MediatedSubmissions uflib. A departmental advisor can walk you through the process as required by that major program, and provide you with an Honors Thesis Procedural Flow Chart.
Graduating With Honors Am I eligible? Who should undertake an honors thesis project? Register for research credits as needed. See your departmental advisor for assistance with the registration process. For assistance with formatting, go to the Honors Program website. Make sure you work closely with your faculty mentor s during this critical time; their editing and constructive suggestions will help you produce an even better thesis.
Note that all information must fit on the front of the form and must be typed in the proper format, with all appropriate signatures included. Present your research to your committee. Upon completion of your presentation, if the supervisory committee approves your designation as magna or summa cum laude they will sign the Final Oral Examination Form.
The department chair will also sign this form, then both of these forms will be forwarded to EG Undergraduate Student Affairs. NoodleTools - Citation builder and research organizer. Wall Street Journal - Business topics and news stories. The following databases are newly acquired or being evaluated for a future subscription. American Indian Experience This link opens in a new window. This opens a pop-up window to share the URL for this database.
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Choose 'I will upload the formatting guidelines' if you have specific instructions about formatting that need to be followed, for example, if you are submitting a thesis for editing and your university has specific thesis-formatting guidelines. Then, upload these guidelines when you upload your document for editing.
Choose 'Elite Editing House Style' if you would like us to format your document according to our own guidelines, which have been specially designed to meet general university requirements. APA formatting is designed specifically for draft manuscripts of journal articles and certain aspects are not appropriate for a thesis that is divided into chapters and is in its final form.
If you are submitting a thesis we will modify APA style according to the preferred thesis style of most universities. Professional Academic Editing. I had my 70,word PhD thesis edited promptly and to an exceptional standard by Elite Editing. It sped up my completion date and helped me finish on time, which is the most important thing. The service was fantastic with excellent communication; so I was informed at each stage of the process.
I would recommend Elite Editing to everyone, especially those who are close to completing their thesis. Thank you for the services provided with editing my PhD thesis. Your professionalism and high quality work were greatly appreciated and helped make this stressful time for me easier and more manageable. Quick turnaround times and a high level of service and communication made this a valuable and smooth process for me.
I would definitely recommend your services to others for PhDs, manuscripts or other important writing. How to Write an Introduction Certainly, every essay must include an opening paragraph, and this is your introduction. June 22, Alternative Specifications for students on the September degree list were posted from June 22, to March 24, March 23, Alternative Specifications for students on the May degree list were posted from March 23, to March 24, March 18, Theses for the May degree period may be submitted electronically in accordance with the Emergency Academic Regulations in effect March 15, This guide has been prepared by the MIT Libraries, as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs, to assist students and faculty in the preparation of theses.
The requirements in this guide apply to all theses and have been specified both to facilitate the care and dissemination of the thesis and to assure the preservation of the archival paper copy. Individual departments may dictate more stringent requirements. Questions not answered in this guide should be referred to the appropriate department officer or to the MIT Libraries mit-theses mit.
Degree candidates must submit the required copies of their thesis to the appropriate office of the department or program in which they are registered on the dates specified in the Academic Calendar. The department may ask for copies in addition to those required for the Libraries. The student may, of course, keep personal copies.
If your department does, only one copy should be submitted. Please check the requirements of your department. Undergraduate students do not pay a library processing fee. Abstracts of all doctoral theses Ph. PQDT can be searched by author name, subject terms, and all words in the title and abstract. Most MIT theses are written by a single author. In those cases where two or more students are responsible, only a single copy for undergraduates or set of copies for graduate students should be submitted to the MIT Libraries.
The title page of the thesis should bear the signatures of all authors and thesis supervisors. Undergraduate students who wish to undertake joint thesis research should submit a request to the Office of the Vice Chancellor. Graduate students who wish to undertake joint thesis research should submit a request to the Office of Graduate Education via the general petition process.
Recycled temporary covers and binder clips are available in the Lewis Music Library 14E Undergraduate students do not pay a processing fee. The academic department is required to deliver the proper number of copies of the thesis to the MIT Libraries within one month after the last day of the term in which the thesis was submitted Faculty Regulation 2.
One copy is the official copy and is kept as part of the permanent archival collection, and the other is reserved for future disposition. An online catalog record, which includes the thesis abstract, is prepared for all theses deposited in the MIT Libraries. This information appears in Barton, our online catalog, which is accessible to researchers at other institutions, as well as in the OCLC database WorldCat, an online international bibliographic system available to libraries and individuals worldwide.
Students may choose to submit a PDF of the thesis via the Libraries voluntary submission portal. Submitting a PDF, in addition to the physical copies, preserves color content, text searchability, and embedded links within your thesis when it is submitted to DSpace MIT.
When the purpose is to correct significant errors in content, the student should create an errata sheet using the form and instructions pdf and obtain approval first from both thesis supervisor or program chair, before submitting for review by the Vice Chancellor.
If the purpose of change is to excise classified, proprietary, or confidential information, the student should fill out the application form pdf and have the request approved first by the thesis supervisor or program chair, before submitting for review by the Vice Chancellor.
Students and supervisors should vet thesis content carefully before submission to avoid both scenarios whenever possible. The following guidelines assist the student in determining who holds ownership of the thesis copyright. The Institute will hold ownership of the copyrights to theses if:. A student will generally hold ownership of the copyright to their thesis if they have authored the thesis without sponsored research funds and without significant use of MIT administered facilities or funds.
Actual determination of sponsorship is made by reference to the account from which the student receives support. Questions regarding sponsorship may be addressed to the administrative officer of the laboratory or department. Specific questions on permission to copyright should be referred to the Technology Licensing Office , tlo mit. When copyright is held by the Institute, requests for permission to reuse or republish a thesis should be directed to permissions-lib mit.
When copyright is held by the student, requests for permission to use portions of the thesis in third-party publications must be addressed to and granted by the student author. Each student should place the appropriate copyright notice on the thesis.
Copyright notice consists of four elements:. See sample title pages. A copyright notice should also appear on any non-paper material e. Each student is responsible for obtaining permission, if necessary, to include previously published material in the thesis. This applies to most third-party materials i. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher to include the article, or any portion of it, in the thesis.
Similarly, permission must be obtained to include papers written while the student was employed by a commercial company or nonprofit organization if title belongs to the company or organization. A sample permission letter pdf is available from the Office of the General Counsel. If the student knows, prior to publication or employment, that such material will be included in a thesis, they may wish to retain title to the material or to reserve sufficient rights to use the material.
Written notification of patent holds and other restrictions must reach the MIT Libraries before the thesis in question is received. Under normal circumstances all theses are open and available for public inspection once they have been received by the MIT Libraries. A student may request to delay the distribution of their thesis under specific and limited circumstances. When MIT holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in a thesis, students and their supervisors must work with the MIT Technology Licensing Office to determine if a patent application is to be filed.
If so, the Technology Licensing Office will notify the MIT Libraries, and the thesis will be withheld from distribution for up to one year. When a student holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in his or her thesis, permission to withhold a thesis temporarily from distribution must be granted by the Vice Chancellor or their designee see instructions below. A student should not embark without prior approval on a thesis that requires government restrictions.
The Institute recognizes that certain government agencies and other third- parties which sponsor research may require that theses be submitted for security review before they can be placed in the Libraries or published. Permission to withhold a thesis temporarily from distribution must be granted by the Vice Chancellor or their designee see instructions below.
If the hold is granted, the Office of the Vice Chancellor will inform the MIT Libraries, and the thesis will be withheld for a period of up to 90 days. If an extension is required, the student must contact the Office of the Vice President for Research to request the hold be extended. Occasionally, upon completing a thesis, a student may believe that its distribution will jeopardize the privacy or safety of the author, other individuals, or organizations. The appropriate office will advise the MIT Libraries of the restricted period.
In all cases the restricted period should be kept to a minimum. Permission to withhold a thesis temporarily from distribution must be granted by the Vice Chancellor or their designee. The title page is always considered to be page 1, and every page must be included in the count regardless of whether a number is physically printed on a page. The entire thesis including title page, prefatory material, illustrations, and all text and appendices must be paginated in one consecutive numbering sequence.
Theses should be prepared double-sided whenever possible. In a double-sided thesis, both sides of every page starting with the title page and including any pages that have been left blank must be accounted for in the numbering sequence. Therefore, in a double-sided thesis, odd-numbered pages are always on the right and even-numbered pages on the left. Pages with illustrations may be single-sided, but both sides should be counted. Single-sided theses should be numbered only on the front of every sheet.
When using thesis templates on Athena, use caution and verify that the pagination requirements are being met. Your work will be a more valuable research tool for other scholars if it can be located easily. Search engines use the words in the title, and sometimes other descriptive words, to locate works. The title page of the first copy must bear the original signatures of the author, supervisor, and chairman; a photocopy of the signed title page is acceptable for the second copy.
For candidates receiving two degrees, both degrees to be awarded should appear on the title page. Whenever there are co-supervisors, both signatures are required.
I'm not convinced yet, but I'm interested to see how I might be. An effective thesis cannot be answered with a simple "yes" or "no. Superlatives like "the best" almost always lead to trouble. It's impossible to weigh every "thing" that ever happened in Europe. And what about the fall of Hitler? Couldn't that be "the best thing"?
A good thesis has two parts. It should tell what you plan to argue, and it should "telegraph" how you plan to argue—that is, what particular support for your claim is going where in your essay. Steps in Constructing a Thesis. First, analyze your primary sources. Does the author contradict himself or herself? Is a point made and later reversed? What are the deeper implications of the author's argument?
Figuring out the why to one or more of these questions, or to related questions, will put you on the path to developing a working thesis. Without the why, you probably have only come up with an observation—that there are, for instance, many different metaphors in such-and-such a poem—which is not a thesis.
Once you have a working thesis, write it down. There is nothing as frustrating as hitting on a great idea for a thesis, then forgetting it when you lose concentration. And by writing down your thesis you will be forced to think of it clearly, logically, and concisely. You probably will not be able to write out a final-draft version of your thesis the first time you try, but you'll get yourself on the right track by writing down what you have.
Keep your thesis prominent in your introduction. A good, standard place for your thesis statement is at the end of an introductory paragraph, especially in shorter page essays. Readers are used to finding theses there, so they automatically pay more attention when they read the last sentence of your introduction.
Although this is not required in all academic essays, it is a good rule of thumb. Anticipate the counterarguments. Once you have a working thesis, you should think about what might be said against it. This will help you to refine your thesis, and it will also make you think of the arguments that you'll need to refute later on in your essay.
Every argument has a counterargument. If yours doesn't, then it's not an argument—it may be a fact, or an opinion, but it is not an argument. This statement is on its way to being a thesis. However, it is too easy to imagine possible counterarguments. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the process of researching and writing. Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you.
As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed. Argumentative thesis statement The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education : the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.
Expository thesis statement The invention of the printing press in the 15th century allowed for much less restricted circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation. Literary analysis thesis statement Mary Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Victor Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on ; he starts out as a naive but sympathetic idealist, but by the end we see him as a thoughtlessly cruel figure.
In an argumentative essay, your thesis should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning. Take a look at these two versions of a thesis statement in an essay about U. In this improved thesis statement, you also state your reasoning and summarize the main points that you will use to convince your reader of your position. The rest of your essay will expand and argue for these points.
Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing. See editing example. The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction. Example of an essay introduction The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education.
The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.
The best thesis statements are concise , contentious and coherent. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up. Particularly in an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should be something that others might question or disagree with. Your thesis statement might mention several aspects of your topic, but they should all add up to a coherent whole, expressing one main idea.
Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper. Everything else you write should relate to this key idea. The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:. Without a clear thesis, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say. Follow these three steps to come up with a thesis :.
The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator.
Home Knowledge Base Essay How to write a thesis statement. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education : the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.