This helped in improving the crop yield. But plantation of paddy sapling requires a lot of human labour. Dasas, dasis and landless labourers were employed for this purpose. The landless labourer was called the kammakara. In the course of about years, Magadha emerged as a prominent Mahajanapada. It was under the rule of the Nanda dynasty. The factors which favoured the rise of Magadha are as follows: i This region is irrigated by rivers; like Ganga and Son and other tributaries of Ganga.
Hence, the land was fertile and there was plenty of water. Fertile land ensured high crop yield. So, this area was prosperous. These rivers also served as a good channel for water transport. The forest provided plenty of wood. Wood could be used for making buildings, chariots and carts. Elephants could be captured from the forest and trained for the army. Vajji was a powerful kingdom, with its capital at Vaishali in modern-day Bihar.
While Magadha was under a monarchy, Vajji was under a democratic rule. The government was known as Gana or Sangha. A gana was not ruled by a single ruler but by a group of many rulers who were known as the raja. The rajas performed the rituals as a group and met in assemblies. Discussion and debate were used for taking major decisions.
For example, preparation for a battle or plan for public welfare was chalked out by discussion in the assemblies. However, such meetings were out of bound for women, dasas and kammakaras. Buddha and Mahavira also belonged to the ganas. Buddha and Mahavira were great thinkers of that period and their preaching are still important for us. Many other rajas made several attempts to conquer the ganas of Vaishali. But they did not get success.
Bimbisara and Ajatasattu were two powerful rulers to rule over Magadha. They used all the possible means to conquer other Janapadas. Mahapadma Nanda was another powerful ruler. He further spread the Magadha territory to the north-western part of the subcontinent. The Magadhan rulers were so powerful that even the army of Alexander the Great was afraid to venture into their territory. Building a fort served many purposes. Some of them are as follows: It was a way to show off the might of the raja.
A fort made a city more secure. A fortified city was easier to manage. A person's varna was based on his birth. Thus, the son of a Brahmin was always a Brahmin. Similarly, the son of a shudra would always remain a shudra. A shudra was not allowed to do the work meant for other varnas. But some people did not agree with this system. Even some rajas did not agree with this system. For example; in the north-eastern part of India, the society was not as sharply polarized. In this part of the country, the priests did not enjoy so much power.
The term Janapada is composed of two Hindi words, i. Jana and Pada. This means a place where people Jana set their feet Pada and settle down. After successfully performing the Ashwamedha Yajna, a Raja could become the king of a Janapada. Even today, a district is called a Janapad in Uttar Pradesh. Although a Janapada was bigger in size, yet people still lived in huts and reared cattle.
People grew many crops like rice, wheat, pulses, barley, sugarcane, sesame and mustard. The archaeologists have excavated many sites from the Janapadas. They used to receive gifts; in lieu of performing sacrifices and rituals. The rulers came under this varna. They were expected to fight battles and to protect people. They could also perform sacrifices. They were expected to serve the other three varnas.
Sometimes, women were also considered as shudras. The shudras were not allowed to perform sacrifices. They could not even attend such ceremonies. Meritpath provides well organized smart e-learning study material with balanced passive and participatory teaching methodology. Meritpath is on-line e-learning education portal with dynamic interactive hands on sessions and worksheets. Mind Maps. Matching Game. Word Search Game.
Pick It Right. Memory Game. Drag The Blank. They were gradually assimilated into the local population. The Aryans absorbed several local words into their language, and learnt practices. In turn the Aryan religious practices and culture made a lasting impact on the local inhabitants. Janapadas The rajas who performed these big sacrifices were now recognised as being rajas of janapads rather than janas.
The word janapada literally means the land where the jana set its foot, and settled down. Archaeologists have excavated a number of settlements in these janapadas, such as Purana Qila in Delhi, Hastinapur near Meerut, and Atranjikhera, near Etah the last two are in Uttar Pradesh. They found that people lived in huts, and kept cattle as well as other animals.
They also grew a variety of crops - rice, wheat, barley, pulses, sugarcane, sesame and mustard. The janapadas were ruled by rajans or chiefs. PuranQila in Delhi Hastinapur in Meerut. Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas about years ago, some janapadas became more important than others, and were known as mahajanapadas. Most mahajanapadas had a capital city, many of these were fortified.
This means that huge walls of wood, brick or stone were built around them. Of these, Magadha emerged the most powerful of all. The other powerful states were Avanti , Vatsa and Kosala. What is a State? A state is a political organisation that has sovereignty supreme power over a geographical area.
The rajan or chief of janapada had total control and imposed laws over the area they lived. The early states were usually of two types - monarchies and republics. Monarchies and republics The 16 mahajanapadas were concentrated in the Gangetic plain and they were mostly monarchies. The king became more powerful and the kingship was now passed from father to son, i. The king was considered divine. The king imposed taxes to administer the land.
Altekar , this theory is based on a misunderstanding of the text: the term "Paura" in the relevant portion of the Dharmasutra refers to a resident of the city, not a member of the city assembly. Once again, Altekar argued that these conclusions are based on misinterpretations of the literary evidence. For example, Jayaswal has wrongly translated the word "amantra" in a Ramayana verse as "to offer advice"; it actually means "to bid farewell" in proper context.
There was no border security for a kingdom and border disputes were very rare. One king might conduct a military campaign often designated as Digvijaya meaning victory over all the directions and defeat another king in a battle, lasting for a day. The defeated king might sometimes be asked to give a tribute to the victorious king.
Such tribute would be collected only once, not on a periodic basis. The defeated king, in most cases, would be free to rule his own kingdom, without maintaining any contact with the victorious king. There was no annexation of one kingdom by another. Often a military general conducted these campaigns on behalf of his king. A military campaign and tribute collection was often associated with a great sacrifice like Rajasuya or Ashvamedha conducted in the kingdom of the campaigning king.
The defeated king also was invited to attend these sacrifice ceremonies, as a friend and ally. New kingdoms were formed when a major clan produced more than one King in a generation. The Kuru clan of Kings was very successful in governing throughout North India with their numerous kingdoms, which were formed after each successive generation. Similarly, the Yadava clan of kings formed numerous kingdoms in Central India.
Parts of western India were dominated by tribes who had a slightly different culture, considered non-Vedic by the mainstream Vedic culture prevailing in the Kuru and Panchala kingdoms. Similarly, there were some tribes in the eastern regions of India considered to be in this category. Very little was mentioned in the ancient Indian literature about the kingdoms to the North, beyond the Himalayas. China was mentioned as a kingdom known as Cina, often grouped with Mleccha kingdoms.
The Vedas mention five sub-divisions of ancient India: . The Vedic literature mentions the following jana s or janapada s: . The Puranas mention seven sub-divisions of ancient India: . According to research by political scientist Sudama Misra, the Puranic texts mention the following janapada s: . The Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata mentions around janapadas, while the Ramayana mentions only a few of these. Unlike the Puranas, the Mahabharata does not specify any geographical divisions of ancient India, but does support the classification of certain janapadas as southern or northern.
The Buddhist canonical texts - Anguttara Nikaya , Digha Nikaya , Chulla-Niddesa , although with some differences between them, primarily refer to the following 16 mahajanapadas "great janapadas" : . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Major realms, republics and kingdoms of Vedic India. For the film, see Janapada film. Peoples and societies. Religion and mythology. Indo-European studies. Scholars Marija Gimbutas J. See also: List of Rigvedic tribes.
See also: Category:Kingdoms in the Mahabharata. Indo-European Perspectives ed. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph. Bhandarkar Lectures on the Ancient History of India from - B. Asian Educational Services. ISBN Motilal Banarsidass.
Janapada state in ancient India. The Coinage of Ancient India. Kusumanjali Prakashan. Manish Prakashan. State and Government in Ancient India. Political History of Pre-Buddhist India. Indian Publicity Society. Links to related articles. Tribes and kingdoms mentioned in the Mahabharata. Part of a series on the. Madrasian culture Soanian , c. Neolithic , c. Maurya Dynasty , c. Early medieval.
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Covered the area of present Patna, Gaya, and parts of. Covered the area of Hindukush. Views Read Edit View history. Palaeolithic 2,- BC Madrasian Culture. Conjectural reconstruction of the main gate of Kusinagara, city of - Periods of Sri Lanka. Help Learn to edit Community. Part of a series on. Home 20 Trending Quiz Feedback. Unsourced material may be challenged. Raychaudhuri, as a HistorianAdd to home.The Janapadas ( BCE) were the realms, republics (ganapada) and kingdoms (saamarajya) of the Vedic period on the Indian subcontinent. Jaanapada Loka is a folk museum that has an exclusive display of the village folk arts of Karnataka. It is under the aegis of the Karnataka Janapada. The term Janapada composed of janas means 'people' or 'subject' and pada means 'foot'. Janapada's were the earliest gathering places of men.