literature review works cited

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Literature review works cited

The literature review is a written explanation by you, the author, of the research already done on the topic, question or issue at hand. Essentially you will need to:. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Boatwright Memorial Library.

Literature Reviews: Overview. Guidelines for Writing a Literature Review. Listen to minutes , and then compare this to Mandery's written footnote below. Write a Literature Review VCU Libraries "Lit Reviews " with links to helpful tools and resources, including powerpoint slides from a literature review workshop.

Literature Reviews UNC Writing Center Overview of the literature review process, including examples of different ways to organize a lit review. Run time: What is a Literature Review? A literature review provides a thorough background of the topic by giving your reader a guided overview of major findings and current gaps in what is known so far about the topic. The literature review is not a list like an annotated bibliography -- it is a narrative helping your reader understand the topic and where you will "stand" in the debate between scholars regarding the interpretation of meaning and understanding why things happen.

A literature review can be a part of a research paper or scholarly article, usually falling after the introduction and before the research methods sections. In these cases, the lit review just needs to cover scholarship that is important to the issue you are writing about; sometimes it will also cover key sources that informed your research methodology. Lit reviews can also be standalone pieces, either as assignments in a class or as publications. This can be especially helpful for students or scholars getting into a new research area, or for directing an entire community of scholars toward questions that have not yet been answered.

Most lit reviews use a basic introduction-body-conclusion structure; if your lit review is part of a larger paper, the introduction and conclusion pieces may be just a few sentences while you focus most of your attention on the body. If your lit review is a standalone piece, the introduction and conclusion take up more space and give you a place to discuss your goals, research methods, and conclusions separately from where you discuss the literature itself. Lit reviews can take many different organizational patterns depending on what you are trying to accomplish with the review.

Here are some examples:. Any lit review is only as good as the research it discusses; make sure your sources are well-chosen and your research is thorough. More info on the research process is available in our "Conducting Research" resources. Usually you will need to synthesize research rather than just summarizing it. This means drawing connections between sources to create a picture of the scholarly conversation on a topic over time.

Often, the literature review is where you can establish your research as filling a particular gap or as relevant in a particular way. You have some chance to do this in your introduction in an article, but the literature review section gives a more extended opportunity to establish the conversation in the way you would like your readers to see it. You can choose the intellectual lineage you would like to be part of and whose definitions matter most to your thinking mostly humanities-specific, but this goes for sciences as well.

In addressing these points, you argue for your place in the conversation, which tends to make the lit review more compelling than a simple reporting of other sources. Research and Citation Conducting Research. Writing a Literature Review A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other also called synthesis.

Where, when, and why would I write a lit review? What are the parts of a lit review? Conclusion: Summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance Connect it back to your primary research question How should I organize my lit review?

Here are some examples: Chronological : The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time, which helps familiarize the audience with the topic for instance if you are introducing something that is not commonly known in your field.

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It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Boatwright Memorial Library.

Literature Reviews: Overview. Guidelines for Writing a Literature Review. Listen to minutes , and then compare this to Mandery's written footnote below. Write a Literature Review VCU Libraries "Lit Reviews " with links to helpful tools and resources, including powerpoint slides from a literature review workshop.

Literature Reviews UNC Writing Center Overview of the literature review process, including examples of different ways to organize a lit review. Run time: What is a Literature Review? A literature review provides a thorough background of the topic by giving your reader a guided overview of major findings and current gaps in what is known so far about the topic.

The literature review is not a list like an annotated bibliography -- it is a narrative helping your reader understand the topic and where you will "stand" in the debate between scholars regarding the interpretation of meaning and understanding why things happen. Your literature review helps your reader start to see the "camps" or "sides" within a debate, plus who studies the topic and their arguments.

A good literature review should help the reader sense how you will answer your research question and should highlight the preceding arguments and evidence you think are most helpful in moving the topic forward. Aerospace Engineering journals cited were predominantly in the Science classification. This was surprising since the subclass for Aeronautics and Astronautics is TL, in the Technology classification.

Journals in the Science classification fell into the Mathematics and Physics subclasses. The most highly cited journals in these areas are fluids-related: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Physics of Fluids, and Experiments in Fluids. Table 7. As with literature types and journal classifications, the age profile of materials used differs by department.

The averages for Computer Science and Electrical Engineering shown in Table 8 are similar; average age of Aerospace Engineering literature is substantially older for all types listed. This does not imply that Aerospace Engineering students cited only older literature: 50 percent of conference papers and journal articles cited were six years and four years old, respectively. Those ages are similar to the 50 percent mark for Computer Science and Electrical Engineering citations.

But the aerospace engineering materials appear to have a longer shelf life. Table 8. The literature used by researchers in aerospace engineering has a longer useful life than that used in other disciplines. Aerospace Engineering students' use of older literature bears further examination, particularly as it relates to reports. Reports of that research are still valuable in the field today. Citation counts spike at the year mark the s and the year mark the s. The first includes NACA work on wing and airfoil sections.

The second set of citations includes research on boundary layers and heat transfer that would have been particularly important for spacecraft launch and reentry. The data for all subclasses are scattered, particularly since many subclasses have only one or two associated citations.

Table 9 shows a selection of subclasses for each discipline for comparison. Table 9. Average age of journal citations for select subclasses outside the primary subclass for the discipline. As assumed at the outset of the study, graduate students in engineering and computer science overall cited academic journal articles more often than any other type of literature.

However, this was not true in all disciplines: Computer Science students cited conference papers more frequently than journal articles. Conference papers have generally been considered grey literature, but are increasingly findable on the web through conference web sites, sponsoring society databases, and institutional repositories.

It may be that, as Fortnow suggests, computer science researchers will join the rest of the academy and move toward more polished journal articles as the standard for citation. But at this time it seems just as likely that fields such as electrical engineering will increasingly accept conference papers as a mode of sharing new research and place less emphasis on journal articles.

More longitudinal research across different types of publications is needed to determine whether a trend exists. In light of their future need for journal articles and conference papers, all engineering and computer science graduate students should be taught how to search for such literature in licensed databases, as well as in Google Scholar and on societies' and publishers' web sites.

They should understand which search tools will provide the most efficient path to the particular literature they need, and how to find either a particular item from a citation or everything they can on a topic. All liaisons with collection responsibilities spend some of their selection time on books. Selectors in engineering and computer science are aware that they spend more time managing serials in their collections than books, and this study indicates that their time allocation is appropriate.

The data in this study can help explain to others in the library system how engineering selectors' needs and processes differ from those of many of their colleagues. In addition to highlighting the heavy use of journal articles and conference papers across the engineering disciplines studied here, the data show the importance of reports to aerospace engineering students.

But many more are available at the University of Minnesota only in microfiche form. Liaisons can help introduce students to the culture of literature in that field by offering instruction on how to find and use papers that have not been digitized. The wide range of literature cited, particularly in computer science, supports Tucci's assertion that "interdisciplinary work may well present librarians with excellent opportunities to convince those faculty members now practicing self-service that librarians have critical information-seeking knowledge and skills and can help them improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their research Liaisons instructing new graduate students need not school them on the use of literature in every other possibly overlapping field, nor gain all that knowledge themselves.

But they should make students aware that differences, as well as other databases, exist, and that other librarians are available within the institution to help connect them to the interdisciplinary information they need. Because budget cuts and new materials may be relevant beyond strict department boundaries, selectors need to make faculty aware of decisions about the collection, particularly journal subscriptions, for other subject areas.

The data imply but do not conclude that the age profile of useful literature from other fields may differ from the age profile of literature used within the student's discipline. For example, it is possible that computer scientists working on biology research would need more and older biology review articles than scholars working full time in biology.

More study is needed to determine whether scholars in a particular field use their literature in the same way those outside the field use it. Although the analysis discussed here portrays a certain profile of use for each department studied, those profiles should not be interpreted as complete models of all research for those disciplines, either in general or at the University of Minnesota. Aspects of the data, particularly as it relates to interdisciplinary research, may reflect research grants activities of labs that happened to produce a higher number of dissertations or theses during the timeframe covered.

It is important to understand that some areas use literature from other disciplines more than others; it is less important to know what those other disciplines were at the University of Minnesota during the timeframe. Conducting this study deepened my knowledge of the subject areas. But more importantly, the study's results changed the way I orient new graduate students to finding literature in their field. I now present some of the findings in my fall orientation sessions with each department's new students, notably the types of literature used in each field, the diversity of subject areas used in computer science, and the use of older reports in aerospace engineering.

The final results provide a snapshot that helps new students understand what they need to know as they begin their own information gathering process, and demonstrate how engineering is different from other disciplines, and how sub-disciplines differ from one another.

At the same time, citation analysis of theses and dissertations is only one tool in understanding the literature used in a field. Some writers of these source documents will continue in academia and produce other writing that is likely to draw on the same types of literature. But the vast majority of Master's recipients and more than half of doctoral engineers and computer scientists work in the private for-profit sector National Science Foundation A study by Jeffryes and Lafferty used surveys and focus groups made up of University of Minnesota undergraduates who had participated in the cooperative education program in Their summary of the types of literature students were asked to use on the job, and their comfort level finding and using that literature, provides a second perspective on what students should be taught about engineering resources to prepare them for the workplace.

For example, their research showed that more than three quarters of the students who were primarily from the Mechanical Engineering department were asked to find and use standards. This literature type is obviously important in engineering, but was not often cited in theses and dissertations in the fields studied. This second study provides a needed balance to the study described here. Liaisons can use these studies and others like them to build curricula that introduce students at all levels to the culture of their fields.

Andonie, R. Beile, P. A microscope or a mirror? The Journal of Academic Librarianship 30 5 Fortnow, L. Viewpoint: Time for computer science to grow up. Communications of the ACM 52 8 Fransen, J. Parsing citations using Visual Basic for Applications: A step-by-step guide. Goodrum, A. Scholarly publishing in the Internet age: A citation analysis of computer science literature.

Hoffmann, K. A review of citation analysis methodologies for collection management. Jeffryes, J. Gauging workplace readiness: Assessing the information needs of engineering co-op students. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship Kayongo, J. Relevance of library collections for graduate student research: A citation analysis study of doctoral dissertations at Notre Dame.

Knievel, C. Citation analysis for collection development: A comparative study of eight humanities fields. The Library Quarterly 75 2 Kirkwood, P. Using engineering theses and dissertations to inform collection development decisions especially in civil engineering. Kushkowski, J. A, and Wiese, W. Master's and doctoral thesis citations: Analysis and trends of a longitudinal study. Portal: Libraries and the Academy 3 3 MacRoberts, M. Problems of citation analysis: A critical review.

Journal of the American Society for Information Science 40 5 Miller, L. Local citation analysis of graduate biology theses: Collection development implications. Musser, L. Characteristics of engineering citations. National Science Foundation. Characteristics of doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States: Rahm, E. Comparing the scientific impact of conference and journal publications in computer science.

Thompson, L. Grey literature in engineering. Tucci, V. Assessing information-seeking behavior of computer science and engineering faculty. Wainer, J. Patterns of bibliographic references in the ACM published papers. Walcott, R. Local citation studies: A shortcut to local knowledge.

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Systematic literature reviews for education and social sciences A guide to conducting a systematic literature review in the Education discipline. Introduction Toggle Dropdown Different types of literature review Developing the research question Developing your search strategies Toggle Dropdown Search strategies Recording your systematic searching Systematic reading of the literature Writing your literature review Software tools Citing your sources References.

Citing your sources Citing your sources Citing and referencing your sources is an essential part of your literature review. Referencing is the process of clearly and consistently acknowledging all the information sources you have used by: providing citations in your essay where you have quoted or paraphrased another's words or ideas providing a reference list or bibliography at the end of your assignment. Use of referencing software to manage your citations The Library provides free access to the EndNote software tool which can be used to manage your citations in a number of ways.

You can use EndNote to: Collect and create a list of references from your research you can import these from online sources such as the Library catalogue, Library databases and Google Scholar or enter them manually yourself Add categories and notes to these references and attach copies of the actual articles if you wish Insert in-text citations in an assignment or paper, and build a Bibliography or List of References automatically formatted in the style you have chosen eg, APA6, Harvard AGPS.

EndNote can assist and guide you, but it: Cannot teach you how to reference correctly. It is important to understand referencing principles before you use any citation manager. Cannot check or correct references in your library which includes flawed data. You need to double-check imported information is accurate and appears in the correct fields.

Subjects: Education. Tags: Literature Review , systematic reviews. Although a literature review in the seventh edition of APA is considered a summary of previous research, it is more than that. You must select sources that move the research forward. Then, you should suggest ways other researchers can move the subject further still. For example, if you are preparing a literature review for your sociology class, you may choose a topic such as bullying and social media or the gender wage gap.

You want the most current information whenever possible. However, you may want to start by referencing studies from several years back and then finding newer sources. This shows how the research and understanding has changed over time. Gaining understanding of how bullying and social media develops over time strengthens your argument. After you find your sources and develop your thesis , you can conclude your school paper by suggesting new areas of research.

If you include a literature review as part of a larger research paper, that section appears after the introduction. The research sources in the literature review section back up your thesis statement. They should be relevant to the arguments you present in the rest of your school research paper.

An APA style paper is organized in the author-date style. You also include the page number, if appropriate. You then include the full information of that source in a reference list at the end of your paper. As a reference list contains only those sources you used within the text of your paper, every in-text citation must match with a reference list entry. In a seminal interpretation of the collection of The Maryland Historical Society MdHS from an African-American perspective, artist Fred Wilson created an installation by re-juxtaposing objects and documents from the collection.

For example, Wilson added a spotlight illuminating the image of an enslaved boy in the shadows of a portrait of a white child. The MdHS now recognizes the enslaved child as well as the white child in its labeling and cataloging of the painting.

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Grosholz, Emily R. Rodriques, Elias. Nation , vol. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Welcome How Do I Cite? Spell out months fully in the body of your paper. Formatting Note : For your Works Cited list, all citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent.

Subjects: Citing Your Sources. Tags: MLA. Works Cited List Example. Boatwright Memorial Library. Literature Reviews: Overview. Guidelines for Writing a Literature Review. Listen to minutes , and then compare this to Mandery's written footnote below. Write a Literature Review VCU Libraries "Lit Reviews " with links to helpful tools and resources, including powerpoint slides from a literature review workshop. Literature Reviews UNC Writing Center Overview of the literature review process, including examples of different ways to organize a lit review.

Run time: What is a Literature Review? A literature review provides a thorough background of the topic by giving your reader a guided overview of major findings and current gaps in what is known so far about the topic. The literature review is not a list like an annotated bibliography -- it is a narrative helping your reader understand the topic and where you will "stand" in the debate between scholars regarding the interpretation of meaning and understanding why things happen.

Your literature review helps your reader start to see the "camps" or "sides" within a debate, plus who studies the topic and their arguments. A good literature review should help the reader sense how you will answer your research question and should highlight the preceding arguments and evidence you think are most helpful in moving the topic forward.

The purpose of the literature review is to dive into the existing debates on the topic to learn about the various schools of thought and arguments, using your research question as an anchor. If you find something that doesn't help answer your question, you don't have to read or include it. That's the power of the question format: it helps you filter what to read and include in your literature review, and what to ignore.

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LITERATURE REVIEW: Step by step guide for writing an effective literature review

Essentially you will need to: lit review, make suggestions for books, journal articles, etc. This way, you ensure you make a list of summaries Topic Choose a how to write a memorandum in apa format that is interesting to you; pay to do math content sources by reviewing the material think are most helpful in. Literature Reviews UNC Writing Center The organization of your lit process, including examples of different ways to organize a lit. Ask yourself: "Does this source in the literature, be sure the understanding of my topic. A literature review provides a have the most current information, and it becomes easier to identify the most seminal earlier makes the research and writing your own work. That's the power of the Review Step 1: Choose a review should be determined based debate, plus who studies the a literature review workshop. Methodology: Grouping your sources by theoretical lenses warrant internal control thesis exploration. You can usually find some cited literature about your topic is not known about your. A good literature review should thorough background of the topic by giving your reader a is one that other researchers have explored before so that process more enjoyable and rewarding. Make sure that your own publications and work backwards.

The literature review is not a list (like an annotated bibliography) -- it is a narrative helping your reader understand the topic and where you. Much of the information used in an annotated bibliography can be used also in a literature review, so you'll be not only partially drafting your lit review as. Works Cited/Bibliography. It is essential that you document your lit. review well. Check with your professor for the preferred bibliography.