Those issues gain more and more popularity nowadays. An outline is a table of contents which is made at the very beginning of your writing. It helps structurize your thoughts and create a plan for the whole piece in advance. It is singled out since there are quite a lot of differences in clinical pictures, reasons and ways of treatment of an obese adult and an obese child. Writing a child obesity research paper requires a more attentive approach to the analysis of its causes and examination of family issues.
Take one of those to complete your best research! As the question of childhood obesity is a specific one, it would differ from the outline on obesity we presented previously. The topic of obesity is a long-standing one. It has numerous aspects to discuss, sides to examine, and data to analyze. Follow the basic requirements, plan the content beforehand, and be genuinely interested in the topic. Option 2. Choose free time over struggle on the paper. Order your best paper within several seconds and enjoy your free time.
Jessica Nita. Updated on: 4. Table of Contents. Hire a Writer. Post author. Sedentary behaviors, notably television watching, car ownership also contributes to the risk of obesity. The role of passive over consumption [ 23 ], eating disorders, and preference for high carbohydrate diet also play an important role in increasing the risk of obesity.
Other food habits like smoking and alcohol consumption lowers body weight and results in higher BMI respectively. A number of individual characteristics may place individuals at increased risk of obesity. Restrained eating also plays a role in aetiology of obesity. Restrained eaters report more food carvings and binge eating [ 24 ].
One of the characteristic features of dietary restraints is the tendency towards disinhibited eating in particular circumstances. Restrained eaters may be more susceptible to the availability of highly palatable foods, which act as a stimulus for excess food consumption. Hyper tension is prevalent in obese adults at a rate of 2. There are a number of ways in which obesity affects lung function [ 26 ]. An increased amount of fat in the chest wall and abdomen limits respiratory excursion reducing lung volume.
As the obesity worsens, so do the apnoeic episodes resulting in frequent awakening and the resultant sleep deprivation produces daytime somnolence. Over 10 to 15 million Americans with type 2 diabetes are obese [ 28 ]. Obesity is associated with lipid disorders in which elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and low levels of HDL-cholesterol are observed. It has been observed that modest weight loss reduces lipid abnormalities [ 30 ] and diabetes mellitus [ 31 ].
Gall bladder disease is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in obese individuals. Obese women have a 2. The mortality rates of cancer of the stomach and pancreas were higher in obese individuals. Obese women have higher incidence of endometrial, ovarian, cervical and postmenopausal breast cancer, while obese men have incidents of prostrate cancer.
However, it remains to be confirmed whether these malignancies occur as a result of hormonal changes associated with obesity or due to specific dietary pattern. Stress is associated with the consumption of high fat foods and leads to weight gain. Obesity is also associated with osteoarthritis of hip and knee although in some cases, mechanical stress associated with obesity leads to osteoarthritis [ 32 ].
Obese women have a higher risk of obstetric complication and have increased risk of caesarean delivery due to variety of foetal size. Obesity is a serious, chronic medical condition, which is associated with a wide range of debilitating and life threatening conditions. The fact that obesity prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate in almost all regions of the world is of major concern. Hence, an effective control of obesity requires the development of coherent strategies that tackle the main issues related to preventing:.
The prevention of obesity involves action at several levels i Primary ii Secondary iii Tertiary [ 33 ]. Objective of primary prevention is to decrease the number of new cases, secondary prevention is to lower the rate of established cases in the community and tertiary prevention is to stabilize or reduce the amount of disability associated with the disorder. When the attention is focused on the multi-factorial condition such as coronary heart disease CHD , primary prevention of this involves national programmes to control blood cholesterol levels and secondary prevention deals with reducing CHD risk in those with existing elevated blood cholesterol levels while tertiary action would be associated with preventing re-infarction in those who had a previous heart attack.
However, this classification system for prevention of obesity results in a great deal of ambiguity and confusion. To avoid this, the US institute of medicine [ 34 ] has proposed alternative classification of system. The new system separates prevention efforts into 3 levels. Universal or public health measures directed at every one in the population , selective for a sub-group who may have an above average risk of developing obesity and indicated targeted at high risk individuals who may have a detectable amount of excess weight which fore-shadows obesity.
However, preventive measures for any disorder may not be helpful in all cases hence, proper management strategies can be integrated along with prevention programmes. Management include both weight control or reducing excess body weight and maintaining that weight loss, as well as, initiating other measures to control associated risk factors. Periodic evaluation for obesity should be done by the measurement of BMI, measurement of waist circumference etc.
Based on the evaluation, appropriate treatment can be suggested. Treatment may consist of modification of diet, increased physical activity, behavioral therapy, and in certain circumstances weight loss medication and surgery. Restrictions of calories represent the first line therapy in all cases except in cases with pregnancy, lactation, terminal illness, anorexia nervosa, cholelithiasis and osteoporosis.
Meal replacement programmes and formula diets can be used as an effective tool in weight management [ 36 ]. Optifast, Medifast are available through physians or hospitals as part of packaged weight-reduction programmes. These products appear to be safe, but maintenance of weight loss over the long term is difficult. The consumer is instructed to drink the formulations and use it to replace one or two meals.
Fat substitutes like Olestra Olean , which is a non-digestible, non-caloric fat, can be used in food preparations taken by obese patients. It has been observed that calorie restriction alone has remarkable effects compared to exercise alone [ 37 — 39 ]. All individuals can benefit from regular exercise [ 41 ]. Physical activity, which increases energy expenditure, has a positive role in reducing fat storage and adjusting energy balance in obese patients. Various exercises preceded and followed by short warm up and cool down sessions help to decrease abdominal fat, prevent loss of muscle mass.
Studies revealed that patients who exercise regularly had increased cardio vascular fitness [ 42 , 43 ] along with betterment in their mental and emotional status. Hence a minimum of 30 minutes exercise is recommended for people of all ages [ 44 ] as part of comprehensive weight loss therapy. Behaviour therapy is a useful adjunct when incorporated into treatment for weight loss and weight maintenance. Patients need to be trained in gaining self-control of their eating habits. Behaviour modification programmes which seek to eliminate improper eating behaviours eating while watching TV, eating too rapidly, eating when not hungry etc.
Self-help groups weight watchers, Nutri-System use a program of diet, education and self-monitoring like maintenance of logbook, keeping an account of food intake etc are beneficial. It should not be used for "cosmetic" weight loss. Weight loss medications should be used only as an adjunct to dietary and exercise regimes coupled with a program of behavioural treatment and nutritional counseling. Most available weight loss medications are "appetite—suppressant" medications.
The initial drugs used for appetite suppression were amphetamine [ 46 ], metamphetamine and phenmetrazine Preludin and are no longer used in treatment of obesity because of their high potential for abuse. Inhibitors of 5-hyroxytryptamine 5-HT reuptake, fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were licensed for obesity but proved to cause pulmonary hyper tension and increased valvular heart disease [ 47 ] and have been withdrawn from the market. Drugs like phendimetrazine Plegine , diethylpropion Tenuate , phentermine Lonamin etc.
The newest agents available for weight loss are sibutramine Meredia and orlistat Xenical. They are the only weight loss medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration FDA for long-term use [ 48 ] in significantly obese patients, although their safety and effectiveness have not been established for use beyond one year.
Sibutramine is the serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor, which induces decreased food intake and increased thermogensis [ 49 — 52 ]. In clinical trials, sibutramine showed a statistical improvement in amount of weight lost versus placebo [ 53 ]. It limits decline of metabolic rate that typically accompanies weight loss [ 54 ].
However, this agent is contraindicated in-patient with known seizure disorders, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure CHF a history of myocardial infraction and arrhythmias. Orlistat is a potent and irreversible inhibitor of gastric, pancreatic lipases.
The most commonly reported side effects include oily stools, soft stool [ 56 ], and increased defecation and decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Hence, patient may be recommended intake of fat-soluble vitamins [ 57 ] along with it. When used in conjugation with diet it was found to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular disorders [ 58 , 59 ]. In general, monotherapy in obese patients produced sub-optimal weight loss [ 60 ] but the use of more than one weight loss medication at a time combined drug therapy is not approved [ 61 ] and hence such an off-label use of combinations of drugs for weight loss is not recommended except as part of a research study.
There has been a wide search for effective drugs for the treatment of obesity. Some of the promising drug development research areas are mentioned below. Amylin is a peptide secreted with insulin in response to food intake that shares many other properties with established adiposity signals like insulin and leptin. Its circulating levels can be correlated with body fat. Preclinical studies have shown that amylin complements the effects of insulin in mealtime glucose regulation via several effects, which include a suppression of post meal glucagon secretion, a decrease in gastric emptying, and a decrease in food intake [ 62 ].
The drug pramlintide, a synthetic analogue of amylin is currently in phase III trials. The botanical P57 is an extract of steroidal glycosides derived from South African Cactus. The potent appetite suppression may occur via the melanocortin-4 MCR-4 saponins from the Platycodi radix and Salacia reticulata have been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase, producing weight loss and reduction of fatty liver in laboratory animals [ 65 ].
Currently, P57 is in Phase II testing and Table 2 summarizes some other important drugs union are under clinical trials for the treatment of obesity. The most popular surgical procedures used for treatment of severe obesities involve gastric portioning or gastroplasty and gastric by-pass. The gastroplasty procedures create a small gastric pouch, which is drained through a narrow calibrated stoma [ 67 , 68 ]. The intake of solids is therefore considerably limited.
Gastric by-pass surgery creates a larger pouch emptied by an anastomosis directly into the jejunum, bypassing the duodenum. It is considered now as the most effective and safe surgery for morbid obesity [ 69 , 70 ]. This technique induces weight loss by combining restricted intake and a moderate degree of malabsorbtion [ 71 ].
Initial loss of weight is greater after this procedure than following gastroplasty [ 72 ]. Gastric and nutritional complications [ 73 ] may be serious implications of the surgery. Nutritional deficiencies and intractable vomiting are frequently associated with surgery. Surgical treatments for obesity resolve most co-morbidities of severe obesity such as hypertension [ 74 , 75 ], serum lipid levels [ 76 ] and diabetes mellitus [ 77 , 78 ]. Obesity is not a social condition but is a rampant disease.
Obesity cannot be overviewed as just a matter of overeating and lack of will power but must be considered as a major genetic aetiology modified by environment and should be treated vigorously in the same manner that we now apply to other diseases. A better understanding of the aetiological determinants in individual subjects will provide a basis for more rational intervention to prevent this recalcitrant public health problem. With the increasing awareness and ongoing research in this area there is a considerable reason for optimism that the next coming years will bring better treatment for the obese.
Bjorntorp P: Obesity. Office of the Surgeon General: The surgeon General's call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity. Google Scholar. N Eng J Med. Blackburn GL: Effect of degree of weight loss on health benefits. Obes Res. Article PubMed Google Scholar. World Health Organization: Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic.
World Health Organisation Geneva. Goldstein DJ: Beneficial health effects of a modest weight loss. PubMed Google Scholar. Arch Intern Med. Am J Clin Nutr. Br Med Bull. Auwerx J, Stales B: Leptin. Article Google Scholar. Andersson LB: Genes and obesity. Ann Med. N Engl J Med. Eur J Clin Invest. Friedman JM: The alphabet of weight control.
Brain Res Bull. Brain Res.
What is your position? What do you think about the issue? What is that you want to prove in your essay? Since the problem of obesity is very multifaceted and has a lot of aspects to discover, you have to define a topic you want to cover in your essay. How about writing a fast food and obesity research paper or composing a topic in a sphere of fast food? Those issues gain more and more popularity nowadays. An outline is a table of contents which is made at the very beginning of your writing.
It helps structurize your thoughts and create a plan for the whole piece in advance. It is singled out since there are quite a lot of differences in clinical pictures, reasons and ways of treatment of an obese adult and an obese child.
Writing a child obesity research paper requires a more attentive approach to the analysis of its causes and examination of family issues. Take one of those to complete your best research! As the question of childhood obesity is a specific one, it would differ from the outline on obesity we presented previously. The topic of obesity is a long-standing one.
It has numerous aspects to discuss, sides to examine, and data to analyze. Follow the basic requirements, plan the content beforehand, and be genuinely interested in the topic. Option 2. Choose free time over struggle on the paper. Order your best paper within several seconds and enjoy your free time. Further, some populations have greater bone density on average or shorter leg bone length resulting in falsely high BMI scores Hruschka et al. Additionally, women have a higher percentage of body fat than men, and weight tends to increase in both genders as individuals age.
This culminated in the formal recognition of obesity as a disease by the American Medical Association in , even in the absence of other risk factors or clinical symptoms. The growing medicalization of obesity as a condition explains why highly invasive and often risky medical treatments for obesity, such as bariatric surgery, are on the rise. Levels of Analyses and Ultimate Causation.
At the individual level, obesity is the result of excess calorie intake over calories expended through physical activity, but individual-level factors such as income, education level, ethnicity, age, and gender also predict differential risks of being obese, as does use of certain medications or comorbidities such as depression. Institutional factors such as health care access also matter. At the community, neighborhood, or regional level, obesity risk accrues differently based solely on where people live.
This correlation is due, in part, to the low cost of high density foods, changes in activity with the move to urban settings and structural and economic barriers to healthier lifestyles Metzl and Hansen The built environment of a particular locale is one example of how the physical expression of social, spatial, and economic factors relates to obesity prevalence: walkability, public transportation, access to fresh foods, safety, parks, light and shade, access to healthcare, and density all help shape obesity risk.
Education and wealth, and most especially poverty, are also implicated in obesity risk. The relationship between income and obesity is complex and varies depending on the economic development of the resident country. Most nations, even the poorest, demonstrate some level of obesity, even in the presence of food shortages and undernutrition.
As poorer nations become increasingly urbanized and industrialized, these problems are exacerbated, particularly as low income countries have fewer healthcare resources to meet the challenges posed by chronic conditions associated with obesity. Evidence suggests that income and obesity also rise together as inexpensive food becomes easily accessible. However, this trend reverses at the point where the apparent social costs of obesity outweigh the advantages.
In middle to high-income countries, obesity tends to be inversely correlated with socioeconomic status, meaning that the highest obesity rates are found in those populations with the lowest incomes and with the lowest levels of educational achievement Brewis a. At a national level, BMI appears to rise in the early and accelerated phases of economic development due to a complex set of factors including urban migration, a shift from traditional occupations, and increased technology.
At the individual level, poverty is contextual, demonstrating a complex residential pattern, with both rural and urban poverty linked to lower education and higher obesity. While there have been some efforts to develop community-level interventions in line with increasing recognition of these upstream causes of obesity risk, medical and public health interventions continue to give the most attention to individual behavior change.
This is despite decades of evidence that most such behavioral change strategies eventually fail to result in weight lost, and often serve to promote weight regain Brewis a. Obesity and Social Justice Considerations. The role of proximate and ultimate factors discussed above means that obesity can be framed as a social justice issue, not solely a medical one.
This suggests a very different course, emphasis, and pathway for public health interventions. Policies that seek to restrict behavior passively or actively can disproportionately affect the poor, the rural, and the malnourished. Of critical importance is who designs, implements, and evaluates these efforts. How do these interventions ethically impact personal physical health while promoting equality and maintaining individual autonomy? These are some of the ethical issues that arise when the focus moves away from considering obesity fundamentally a medical problem to thinking about obesity at the aggregate level.
The challenge is to consider both the ultimate structural as well as the proximate factors nutrition, activity, and medical conditions that shape obesity risk when developing obesity policy and interventions. To date, there have been multiple framings in approaches to combat the rise of obesity. These ethical frames are not mutually exclusive and often coexist within a particular approach.
Understanding the ethical platform from which programs spring will enable better understanding of the consequences intentional or unintentional , successes, and failures. The increasing prevalence of obesity on a global scale is accompanied by concerns that society is harmed in some way. This sense of harm in turn is linked to the notion of blame. How responsibility and blame are assigned varies with different ethical frames.
Emphasis on Individual Responsibility. The notion of individual responsibility has dominated the discourse surrounding the obesity crisis and efforts to contain the problem. Individual responsibility is rooted in notions of individual autonomy based within a moralistic theory of personal determination. Morality frames emphasize the threat to social values and economic stability by focusing on personal choice and the impact these choices have on society Boero A morality frame advances notions of normal, ideal, virtue, right, and wrong.
In this frame, obesity is related to personal failings — a lack of self-discipline, restraint, rationality, and moral failings attributed to poor life choices gluttony, sloth, and a lack of adherence to personal improvement. Because the individual is responsible for their health and body, blame is personal and can take the form of value imperatives about who is obese or overweight and who is responsible. Interventions and public health campaigns using this frame focus on problem awareness, promote better individual health behaviors, and encourage personal responsibility.
Stigmatization, discrimination, and negative self-image are the result, which have their own negative health consequences Sagay ; Puhl and Heuer Biomedical and Public Health Frames. The biomedical frame uses the language of risk to intervene and regulate the body in order to promote health or, more usually, decrease illness or disease.
Obesity in this frame is seen as pathologic — a biological condition to be monitored, treated, and cured. The body is understood to be the recipient of treatment, a somewhat passive vessel that needs management by healthcare professionals Sagay De-emphasizing personal responsibility can be helpful in decreasing stigma, but medicalization also promotes stigmatization by labeling obese bodies as sick.
Framing obesity in terms of mortality and morbidity imparts urgency and authority to the issue. However, the biomedical frame informs larger policy issues resulting in industry and governmental regulations generally rooted in economic analyses, such as differential insurance rates for individuals based upon weight, corporate programs to incentivize weight reduction or dietary choice, bans or taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, and regulation of nutritional information on food products.
A public health frame assigns responsibility to the government local, state, and federal. Public health entities are most often located within governments and are charged with setting standards, regulating and protecting public safety and promoting health, and minimizing or preventing public harm while at the same time ensuring individual liberty, privacy, and public access to needed resources.
This equation differs internationally as notions of individual and public health are culturally constituted. In general, obesity is seen as a threat to public health and the approach taken is to reduce the threat, generally combining individual and systemic approaches to address the issue.
Ethical approaches in this frame deal with the differential distribution of obesity across groups and subpopulations as prevalence and risk manifest variably within cultural groups, gender, socioeconomic status, etc. Issues of justice and fairness can be particularly problematic in this framing as the dual focus of public health creates a tension between liberty and protection. Obesity at the individual level includes social and economic disparities as well as discrimination and psychological stress from weight bias.
Addressing these issues within the systemic frames of government, business, and infrastructure including larger social forces can contribute to stigmatization, discrimination, and differential opportunities and access. Thus, in practice, there is a smorgasbord of antiobesity efforts, structured within multiple framings — moralistic, biomedical, and public health — that tend to be disconnected from each other. At the heart of the ethics, debate is concerned over individual choice, autonomy, and the exacerbation of stigma and discrimination.
Secondly, what is the responsibility of the government in providing healthy, safe environments for its citizens? This tension between rights and responsibilities individual, societal, and governmental plays out differently globally. When seen as a lifestyle issue, obesity remains focused at the individual and local levels, to be dealt with through small-scale interventions in select populations to encourage individuals to control their weight and make healthier choices moralistic frame.
These types of interventions tend to ignore the complexity of factors and responsibilities underlying obesity and keep responsibility and blame with the individual. Much of the work on prevention and intervention at this level has had mixed results. Efforts range from health education to restrictive taxes on unhealthy foods and beverages, with a goal of shaping behavior by restricting or coercing individual choice. In the European Union EU , a concerted effort is being made to encourage voluntary action on the part of industry partners to alter nutrition and activity environments.
Gafane-Matemane Ruan Kruger. Article 22 Mar Risk factors mediating the effect of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio on cardiovascular outcomes: Mendelian randomization analysis Dipender Gill Verena Zuber Paul Elliott. Article Open Access 17 May View all issues. Thank you to our reviewers A sincere thank you to all of the reviewers listed here, who took the time to review for International Journal of Obesity in Follow us on Twitter!
Search International Journal of Obesity. Browse articles. Article 21 Jul Emma V. Article Open Access 20 Jul Article 19 Jul Association of increased abdominal adiposity at birth with altered ventral caudate microstructure Dawn X. Association of dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours with overweight and obesity among , adolescents in 89 low and middle income to high-income countries Rashidul Alam Mahumud Berhe W.
Sahle Andre M. Article 17 Jul Article 15 Jul Body fat, cardiovascular risk factors and brain structure in school-age children Carolina C. Silva Vincent W. Jaddoe Hanan El Marroun. A predictive regression model of the obesity-related inflammatory status based on gut microbiota composition Paula Aranaz Omar Ramos-Lopez Jose I. Article Open Access 15 Jul The association of obesity and COVID Research on the pandemic of Covid has demonstrated that there is a higher risk of contracting the disease, increased severity, and poorer outcomes in individuals who are obese.
Focus 24 Jun Trending - Altmetric. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. What is that you want to prove in your essay? Since the problem of obesity is very multifaceted and has a lot of aspects to discover, you have to define a topic you want to cover in your essay.
How about writing a fast food and obesity research paper or composing a topic in a sphere of fast food? Those issues gain more and more popularity nowadays. An outline is a table of contents which is made at the very beginning of your writing. It helps structurize your thoughts and create a plan for the whole piece in advance.
It is singled out since there are quite a lot of differences in clinical pictures, reasons and ways of treatment of an obese adult and an obese child. Writing a child obesity research paper requires a more attentive approach to the analysis of its causes and examination of family issues. Take one of those to complete your best research! As the question of childhood obesity is a specific one, it would differ from the outline on obesity we presented previously.
The topic of obesity is a long-standing one. It has numerous aspects to discuss, sides to examine, and data to analyze. Follow the basic requirements, plan the content beforehand, and be genuinely interested in the topic. Option 2. Choose free time over struggle on the paper. Order your best paper within several seconds and enjoy your free time.
Jessica Nita. Updated on: 4.