game addiction research paper

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Game addiction research paper persuasive essay on videogames and violence

Game addiction research paper

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This questionnaire is in forms of This questionnaire was used to assess health signs including physical complain, sleep disorder, disorder of social functioning and depression. The study population included students including girls These students were divided into two groups of students The mean age of participants was 13 years old.

Therefore, there was a direct relationship between addiction to computer games and physical disorders such as anxiety, sleep disorder and depression. But, there was a positive correlation between addiction to computer games and social dysfunction. Therefore, there was a direct relationship between addiction to computer games and physical disorder, anxiety, sleep disorder and depression. But, the relationship between addiction to computer games and social dysfunction is reverse.

Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions in male students. But, the relationship between addiction to computer games and disorder of social functioning is reverse. Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions of female students. The results in the table 4 show that all relationships between variables 2 x 2 are significant.

The effects of health with addiction to games is 0. Based on the results presented in table 5 , all indices show the suitability of the model. Figure 1 and figure 2 show standard coefficient of path analysis and t-chart of path analysis of relationship of health components and addiction to computer games respectively.

Standard coefficient of path analysis for relationship between health components and addiction to computer games. T-chart of path analysis of relationship between health components and addiction to computer games. The results of this study showed that there is a direct relationship between physical health, anxiety and depression with computer games addiction.

However, the relationship of addiction to computer games and social dysfunction was significance and inverse. In , Yuma et al conducted an intensive study in 9 cities of Japan about the computer games played by children and adolescents and its relationship with their physical health.

The results showed that obese students were more attracted to computer games. In other words, playing more computer games cause adolescents to stay home, which lead to their lack of activity and getting fat. This is considered as a biological problem. The effects of computer games on psychological health of people and severity and significance of that depends on factors such as level and intensity of violence in the game, the ability of player in differentiating virtual world and real world, player's ability to inhibit their desires and motivation, the values they are brought up with or living with and also values that are in the context and content of the games.

Studies showed that computer games increases players' heart beats to a level more than their body request. Payne et al studied the role of computer games on social isolation, low self-esteem and violence. The results showed no relationship between playing computer games and self-esteem in girls, but there was a negative relationship between the two in boys. Also, the scores of violence had a positive correlation with amount of exposure to computer games. Other results showed that in spite of children's attraction to games, there was no evidence that computer games cause social isolation.

Azad Fallah et al in their study investigated the relationship between games and social skills of male students of first grade of high school. The results showed a significant relationship between the game-type and presence of others in the game location with social skills of adolescents. Selecting home as the place of game had a significance negative relationship with social skills and those adolescents who were mostly playing at home, had less social skill cited from Doran.

It means that as the addiction to computer games increases, social dysfunction will decrease. Ahmadi studied the effects of computer games on adolescents of the city of Isfahan. The aim of his study was to find out if computer games have social effects. The results showed that violence and aggression in students who played these games was higher than those who did not play. Also, social participation of students who were playing computer games was low.

The first factor noticed in most studies as well as the present study is the disorder in general health of players. Various studies show that playing too much computer games causes physical damages and increases anxiety and depression in players. Many studies show that most adolescents who are addicted to computer games have high heart beat and blood pressure due to too much excitement and stress.

Most of those who involve in these games do not notice the time passing and even forget to eat. It seems that creating a cause and effect relationship between computer games and physical health or more generally speaking, cause and effect relationship between addiction to computer games and mental and physical health is simplification of the subject.

There are various causes for correlation between addiction to computer games and physical health, anxiety and depression. First, addiction to computer games can cause disorder in physical health, increase anxiety and depression.

Second, it is possible that disorder in physical and mental health cause people to get attracted to computer games. Third way is that both addiction to computer games and disorder in physical and mental health are created due to the effects of other factors. Considering associations between playing computer games and physical and mental disorders, the negative effects of these games are basically related to the games and their nature.

Therefore, some computer games can be constructive, while others can have damaging effects on children's body and mind. Therefore, we should accept anyway that computer games like many other phenomenon of technology age have found their way to our children's and our lives. If we want to ignore them and deprive our children playing them, we make them more eager to access them and if they cannot play games at home, they will go to their friends, if they cannot play there, they will go to Internet cafe and places they can find computer games.

On the other hand, if we want to leave our children on their own in this field, mental, psychological and physical risks threat them. So, parents and authorities in cultural and educational fields should have appropriate plans to provide proper involvement of children in these games and in this regards, we should produce games which are based on our culture. Moreover, it is important to prevent import of damaging and harmful games to the country, which is a responsibility of authorities.

Also, serious supervision on children's involvement with computer is needed at home; especially their involvement with computer games and parents should teach their children the proper culture of playing games. In fact, one of main worries about computer games, considering their wide usage among adolescents is that these games may create a more attractive environment compared to school works and interfere with school and educational performance of children.

It is obvious that if children spend all their time out of school to computer games and neglects other activities which may be useful from the social viewpoint or for their thinking, it will not be favorable. In addition, the newness of this phenomenon demands lots of curiosities and researches. Investigating the negative effects of computer games on educational achievement is recommended for further studies. In spite of more than 20 years studies on computer and video games and their outcomes and effects in the world, in Iran where a great portion of population is youth and adolescents and there is a significant prevalence of computer games, there are few studies on this topic, which suggest the need for further studies.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Addict Health v. Addict Health. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: ri. Received Aug 26; Accepted Nov 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to computer games on physical and mental health of students.

Methods: The study population includes all students in the second year of public guidance schools in the city of Isfahan in the educational year of Findings: There was a significant positive correlation between students' computer games addiction and their physical and mental health in dimensions of physical health, anxiety and sleeplessness There was a significant negative relationship between addictions to computer games and impaired social functioning.

Conclusion: The results of this study are in agreement with the findings of other studies around the world. Keywords: Addiction to computer games, Physical and mental health, Students of guidance school. Introduction Computer games are the most popular entertainments in modern societies and they target a variety of people in different ages.

Methods The aim of this descriptive correlation study was to determine the effects of computer games addiction on physical and mental health of male and female students of guidance schools in Isfahan city. Results The study population included students including girls Table 1 Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions.

Open in a separate window. Table 2 Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions in male students. Table 3 Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions of female students. Correlation coefficient addiction to computer games Variables R p N physical 0. Table 4 Relation between addiction to computer games and health dimensions. Relation between variables Standard coefficient Standard error T Test results Physical complains and health 0.

Table 5 Suitability indices of variables. Table 5. Figure 1. Figure 2. Discussion The results of this study showed that there is a direct relationship between physical health, anxiety and depression with computer games addiction. Conflict of interest: The Authors have no conflict of interest. References 1. Using Amos Several underlying statistical assumptions for multiple regression analysis were examined before running the structural modeling.

The assumption of homoscedasticity was checked using the Levene's Test for Equality of Variances Thus, the assumption of homoscedasticity was not violated Second, the skewness values for all variables ranged from 0. Thus, the violation of the normality assumption was not present in the sample data.

Lastly, multi-collinearity was evaluated through the assessment of zero-order correlations among selected measured constructs, as calculated in Table 1. Harris and Hagger 37 noted that multicolline arity is not a serious issue if none of the correlation coefficients between variables exceeds 0.

It is apparent that pair-wise bivariate associations between the study variables were not highly correlated with each other. Accordingly, multi-collinearity was dismissed from being a major concern in the present study To conclude, the sample data were judged to meet the criteria for further analysis. The model fit was considered acceptable when most abovementioned criteria were satisfied. The standardized beta coefficients are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The Structural Modeling on the relation between mobile game addiction and depression, social anxiety, and loneliness. Considering that gender was proposed as a variable that may moderate the relationship between mobile game addiction and mental health outcomes, the moderating effect of gender was tested. We created a multi-group model in AMOS to test the differences between males and females on the paths between mobile game addiction and its outcomes.

The results show that significant gender differences exist considering the relationship between mobile game addiction and social anxiety. Table 2. Multi-group male and female analysis on the relationship among mobile game addiction and depression, social anxiety, and loneliness. The goal of this study was to examine the associations between mobile game addiction and depression, loneliness, social anxiety, and the potential gender difference in these associations were also investigated.

The results revealed that adolescent with mobile game addiction had higher self-reported depression, social anxiety and loneliness, which have supported our three hypotheses regarding the association between mobile game addiction and depression, social anxiety, and loneliness.

Further, gender difference was observed in the path between mobile game addiction and social anxiety, with male adolescents having a stronger association between mobile game addiction and social anxiety. This indicates that male adolescents may experience more social anxieties if they use mobile game addictively, compared with female adolescents. As we expected, mobile game addiction was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness, which have supported all of our three hypotheses and are in line with prior findings.

Literature has consistently shown that video game addicts reported more anxiety, depression, lower positive affect and psychological well-being. Literature has also shown that Internet addictions are related to poorer emotional health, in particular depression and anxiety 40 , For instance, Whang et al. In a recent study, 4 reported that young adults addicted to video games showed increased depression and anxiety, and felt more socially isolated.

The link between mobile game addiction and mental health may be due to the social isolation resulting from spending too much time gaming, which in turn leads to undermined psychological well-being Our results regarding the association between mobile game addiction and loneliness are also in line with the displacement hypothesis in terms of Internet use, which argues that digital device users have spent most time in online settings, rather than offline, and their existing relationships have suffered as a result We also expected a gender difference considering the association between mobile game addiction and mental health outcomes.

We found that males who were addicted to mobile games tended to suffer more social anxiety, loneliness, and social anxiety, compared with females. This finding is line with prior research e. Gender difference on social anxiety and loneliness has been widely reported in literature. Compared with female adolescents, male adolescents tended to lack social skills, were more socially withdrawn and disclosed less about themselves in offline communication settings This is also a reason why males are more likely to be attracted to a virtual world like computer games since the online world is more comfortable and can offer more sense of security This would further lead them to be more social isolated and experience more social anxiety, loneliness, and depression due to the lack of social bond in offline settings.

The results of this study should be viewed in light of its limitations. First, this study is a cross-sectional design. Thus, we could not determine a causal link between study variables. Future investigations should adopt an experimental design to establish the causal relationship between variables, or a longitudinal design to examine the prospective relationship among the variables.

As prior studies indicated, the association between mobile game addiction and mental health problems might be reciprocal. Second, the sample is a homogeneous group of students from a middle school in China. Whether the results can be generalized to all adolescents is a question for future research.

Despite the limitations, our study has examined the association between mobile game addiction and depression, social anxiety, and loneliness, based on an adolescent sample. The results indicated that mobile game addiction was positively related to these mental health problems, and this is especially true for male adolescents as they are more likely to experience a higher level of social anxiety, depression, and loneliness after excessive use of mobile gaming.

Therefore, mental health educators and practicers should be aware of the negative effects caused by addictive mobile gaming, as this is such a common phenomenon today. Specifically, attention should be given to male adolescents who are addicted to mobile gaming, as they may suffer more social anxiety. The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author.

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Southwest University's Human Research Ethics Committee. J-LW drafted the initial version of the manuscript and responded to the reviewers' comments. J-RS analyzed the data. H-ZW collected the data and provided the comments. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The effect of flow experience on player loyalty in mobile game application. Comput Hum Behav. China Internet Network Information Center. Kandell JJ. Internet addiction on campus: the vulnerability of college student. Cyber Psychol Behav. Stockdale L, Coyne SM. Video game addiction in emerging adulthood :cross-sectional evidence of pathology in video game addicts as compared to matched healthy controls. J Affect Disord. Understanding the antecedents of mobile game addiction: the roles of perceived visibility, perceived enjoyment and flow.

Singapore: Marian Bay Sands Google Scholar. Linking Internet communication and smartphone use disorder by taking a closer look at the Facebook and WhatsApp applications. Addict Behav Rep. Lee C, Kim O. Predictors of online game addiction among Korean adolescents. Addict Res Theory. Loneliness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction as predictors of Internet addiction: a cross-sectional study among Turkish university students.

Scand J Psychol. Predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for Internet addiction in adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics. Taylor S. The theoretical underpinnings of Internet addiction and its association with psychopathology in adolescence. Int J Adolesc Med Health. Effect of pathological use of the Internet on adolescent mental health. Mccauley C. Video game play and anxiety during late adolescence: the moderating effects of gender and social context.

The comorbidity between internet gaming disorder and depression: interrelationship and neural mechanisms. Front Psychiatry. Prevalence and associated factors of Internet gaming disorder among community dwelling adults in Macao, China. J Behav Addict. The cognitive psychopathology of Internet gaming disorder in adolescence. J Abnormal Child Psychol. Blazer D. Loneliness: a source book of current theory, research and therapy.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. CrossRef Full Text. Predictors of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming in Czech teenagers. The co- occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents. Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents. Media Psychol. A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behav Res Ther. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

J Adolesc Health. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U. Fayazi M, Hasani J. Structural relations between brain-behavioral systems, social anxiety, depression and internet addiction: with regard to revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory r-RST. Computers Human Behav. Physical interpersonal relationship and social anxiety among online game players. The neuroscience of internet and computer game addiction—what do we know about what is going on inside our patients brains?

Eur Psychiatry.

As a new type of addictive behaviors and distinct from traditional internet game addiction on desktop computers, mobile game addiction has attracted researchers' attention due to its possible negative effects on mental health issues.

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Cheap rhetorical analysis essay writing services gb Well Being 1, 1—3. The helpline is open to all people, regardless of age. This interpretation would be in line with the motives for play in problematic gaming Demetrovics et al. People cope with their emotional distress by playing online games, but the excessive use of online games for a long time may separate individuals from real-life relationships, thus causing severer mental health problems, such as formal persuasive essay topics CAS — Suicide. Although the GAS is a validated tool, which has shown its usefulness in screening addict gamers, having complemented this measurement with thorough diagnostic-driven interviews run by specialists when choosing participants to form the AU and the NAU groups would have strengthened the selection how to write python module. Further, gender difference was observed in the path between mobile game addiction and social anxiety, with male adolescents having a stronger association between mobile game addiction and social anxiety.

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Azad Fallah et al in their study investigated the relationship between games and social skills of male students of first grade of high school. The results showed a significant relationship between the game-type and presence of others in the game location with social skills of adolescents. Selecting home as the place of game had a significance negative relationship with social skills and those adolescents who were mostly playing at home, had less social skill cited from Doran.

It means that as the addiction to computer games increases, social dysfunction will decrease. Ahmadi studied the effects of computer games on adolescents of the city of Isfahan. The aim of his study was to find out if computer games have social effects. The results showed that violence and aggression in students who played these games was higher than those who did not play.

Also, social participation of students who were playing computer games was low. The first factor noticed in most studies as well as the present study is the disorder in general health of players. Various studies show that playing too much computer games causes physical damages and increases anxiety and depression in players. Many studies show that most adolescents who are addicted to computer games have high heart beat and blood pressure due to too much excitement and stress.

Most of those who involve in these games do not notice the time passing and even forget to eat. It seems that creating a cause and effect relationship between computer games and physical health or more generally speaking, cause and effect relationship between addiction to computer games and mental and physical health is simplification of the subject. There are various causes for correlation between addiction to computer games and physical health, anxiety and depression.

First, addiction to computer games can cause disorder in physical health, increase anxiety and depression. Second, it is possible that disorder in physical and mental health cause people to get attracted to computer games. Third way is that both addiction to computer games and disorder in physical and mental health are created due to the effects of other factors.

Considering associations between playing computer games and physical and mental disorders, the negative effects of these games are basically related to the games and their nature. Therefore, some computer games can be constructive, while others can have damaging effects on children's body and mind.

Therefore, we should accept anyway that computer games like many other phenomenon of technology age have found their way to our children's and our lives. If we want to ignore them and deprive our children playing them, we make them more eager to access them and if they cannot play games at home, they will go to their friends, if they cannot play there, they will go to Internet cafe and places they can find computer games.

On the other hand, if we want to leave our children on their own in this field, mental, psychological and physical risks threat them. So, parents and authorities in cultural and educational fields should have appropriate plans to provide proper involvement of children in these games and in this regards, we should produce games which are based on our culture.

Moreover, it is important to prevent import of damaging and harmful games to the country, which is a responsibility of authorities. Also, serious supervision on children's involvement with computer is needed at home; especially their involvement with computer games and parents should teach their children the proper culture of playing games.

In fact, one of main worries about computer games, considering their wide usage among adolescents is that these games may create a more attractive environment compared to school works and interfere with school and educational performance of children. It is obvious that if children spend all their time out of school to computer games and neglects other activities which may be useful from the social viewpoint or for their thinking, it will not be favorable.

In addition, the newness of this phenomenon demands lots of curiosities and researches. Investigating the negative effects of computer games on educational achievement is recommended for further studies. In spite of more than 20 years studies on computer and video games and their outcomes and effects in the world, in Iran where a great portion of population is youth and adolescents and there is a significant prevalence of computer games, there are few studies on this topic, which suggest the need for further studies.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Addict Health v. Addict Health. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: ri. Received Aug 26; Accepted Nov 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to computer games on physical and mental health of students. Methods: The study population includes all students in the second year of public guidance schools in the city of Isfahan in the educational year of Findings: There was a significant positive correlation between students' computer games addiction and their physical and mental health in dimensions of physical health, anxiety and sleeplessness There was a significant negative relationship between addictions to computer games and impaired social functioning.

Conclusion: The results of this study are in agreement with the findings of other studies around the world. Keywords: Addiction to computer games, Physical and mental health, Students of guidance school. Introduction Computer games are the most popular entertainments in modern societies and they target a variety of people in different ages.

Methods The aim of this descriptive correlation study was to determine the effects of computer games addiction on physical and mental health of male and female students of guidance schools in Isfahan city. Results The study population included students including girls Table 1 Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions.

Open in a separate window. Table 2 Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions in male students. Table 3 Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions of female students. Correlation coefficient addiction to computer games Variables R p N physical 0. Table 4 Relation between addiction to computer games and health dimensions. Relation between variables Standard coefficient Standard error T Test results Physical complains and health 0.

Table 5 Suitability indices of variables. Table 5. Figure 1. Figure 2. Discussion The results of this study showed that there is a direct relationship between physical health, anxiety and depression with computer games addiction.

Conflict of interest: The Authors have no conflict of interest. References 1. Morrision M, Krugman DM. A look at mass and computer mediated technologies: Understanding the roles of television and computers in the home. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life.

J Pers Soc Psycho. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosaically behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

Psycho Sic. Manteqi M. A study of video and computer games outcomes. Tehran: Farhang and Danesh[Persian]; Media and young minds. Asadollahi SR. Computer games training next generation. Rahavard- e-Noor. Doran B. Relationship between computer games and social skills of male students in high schools of Tehran.

Sherry J, Lucas K. Klin JD, Freitag E. Enhancing motivation using an instructional game. Journal of Instructional Psychology. Ahmadi S. Social effects of computer games on male students in third year of guidance school in Isfahan city.

Zahrakar K. Tehran: Bonyad Shahid office of Tehran province; Relationship between religiousness and physical-mental health of students in Shahed high schools of Tehran province. Palahang H. Epidemiology of mental disorders in Kashan. Yaghubi N. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences; Epidemiology of mental disorders in urban and rural parts of Somesara.

In the present study, we investigated whether thought Results of path analysis indicated, across the three studies, the importance of both thought suppression and impulsiveness as mediators between metacognitions and the three behavioral addictions IGD, CSBD and PSNU being investigated. These findings provide an opportunity for therapists as well as educators to gain a better insight into the link between metacognitions, thought suppression, impulsiveness, and behavioral addictions as part of developmental behavior among adolescents.

Prevalence of depression among outpatients visiting an urban health center in Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. This study contributes to this Examining common information technology addictions and their relationships with non-technology-related addictions. Addiction treatment protocol. I designed it based on my personal problems and successfully tested it in a case study.

I believe this is the final solution to addictive I believe this is the final solution to addictive problems. Media and technology addiction, modern life, return to nature, reading culture, personal development, education, intercultural communication, world literature and many things for career development Technology Addiction Seminar, Part of the elements that allow the player to psychically transform the conception of his body that gives him existence both in the world and in the metaworld are reviewed.

This is possible thanks to the technological device that enables the video game cybertext to open a pseudo-time in which the body can be something else in its symbolic projection. An approximation of the phenomenon is proposed from the contributions of narrative theory and the perspective of the body as a semiurgic source.

The text presents a discussion onthe variety of concerns that are accompanying the continuous rise inpopularity of video games today. The discussion focuses onthe "medicalization" of the so-called video game addiction, the The discussion focuses onthe "medicalization" of the so-called video game addiction, the question of the reasons for the overexposure of violence in this novel cultural form, the dangers, inherent in some of the business practices, espoused in this largely unregulated industry, as well as theconditions for thereception of its products in Bulgaria.

Enyo Stoyanov. Loot boxes are virtual items in video games that offer the player randomised in-game rewards of uncertain in-game and real-world value. Paid loot boxes represent a lucrative and prevalent contemporary monetisation method that encourages Paid loot boxes represent a lucrative and prevalent contemporary monetisation method that encourages repeat purchase through randomisation.

The psychology literature has consistently reported a relationship between loot boxes and problem gambling. However, various implementations of loot boxes have not been sufficiently differentiated and separately examined. The literature and gambling regulators have generally argued that only loot boxes that cost real-world money to buy, and offer rewards that can be transferred to other players and are consequently worth real-world money, constitute 'gambling. This paper hypothesises that even loot boxes that neither cost real-world money to buy nor offer rewards that are worth real-world money may be potentially harmful as they may normalise gambling behaviours.

This paper highlights that, when the game's design and economy are exploited by players, a particular implementation of loot boxes may involve real-world money, potentially contrary to the game company's intentions, and thereby effectively constitute 'gambling. We studied the prevalences of video game use VGU and addiction VGA in gambling disorder GD patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use non-VGU in relation to their gambling behavior, We studied the prevalences of video game use VGU and addiction VGA in gambling disorder GD patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use non-VGU in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics.

Measures included the video game dependency test VDT , symptom checklistrevised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG use or addiction was Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology.

After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients' sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD.

Melania la Verde. Evren, C. Psychometric validation of the Turkish Gaming Disorder Test: a measure that evaluates disordered gaming according to the World Health Organization Framework. Sin, Disease, Betrayal. Discourses on the Danger of Video Games. This review of Oleg Sentsov's movie "Gamer" gives my personal impressions: I am completely foreign to both Russia and video games, yet I found this film remarkable.

Oleg Sentsov is a young Ukrainian filmmaker who was imprisoned during Group Goal. This is just a simple activity to add an extra dimension to an existing therapy group. King and Delfabbro b proposed the adoption of social responsibility measures to combat predatory monetisation in video games, such as loot boxes. This paper rectifies a game example mistakenly used by King and Delfabbro and provides

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Pearson's correlation coefficient and structural model were used for data analysis. There was a significant positive correlation between students' computer games addiction and their physical and mental health in dimensions of physical health, anxiety and sleeplessness There was a significant negative relationship between addictions to computer games and impaired social functioning.

The results of this study are in agreement with the findings of other studies around the world. As the results show, addiction to computer games affects various dimensions of health and increases physical problems, anxiety and depression, while decreases social functioning disorder.

Computer games are the most popular entertainments in modern societies and they target a variety of people in different ages. The addiction to the rivalry and excitements of the games make them the most common recreational programs for today's teenagers, so that they do anything to reach a higher level of the game, they immerse in the game so much that they completely separate from their surroundings. Challenging with the obstacles and reaching a higher level in the game, make the players excited and losing the game make them anxious.

Computer games started in with Pang, a computer tennis game, and then developed in hardware and software systems. Improvement of quality and variety of games increasingly spread it in the society especially adolescences. Especially because these games are more active compared to watching TV, they are considered more effective. Currently in Iran, a great part of students' leisure time out of school is spent on computer games. Playing computer games to some extent can be useful, but long-term playing leads to various physical and mental complications.

By sympathetic nervous system stimulation, this can gradually make this system sensitive and ready for response to limited stimulants, while causes anxiety symptoms in the player. The reasons for playing these games among boys were excitements and challenges and they insisted to win. Moreover, sport and violent games were more attractive for boys. Development of electronic and computer games are a great threat for youth and adolescents and can lead to psychological disorders and depression in these groups.

In previous times, kids were involved playing with other children, but children of today spend most of their time on computer games as soon as they understand and acquainted with them, while these games cannot create any emotional and human relationship. Children's and adolescents attractions to the computer games cause many mental, physical and social problems for them.

These effects are stimulating anger and violence, obesity, epilepsy due to games, social isolation, and other physical and mental damages. Many psychologists and mental health professionals have paid attention to the effects of these games. The increasing prevalence of computer games among children and adolescents have made many researchers to determine the effects of these games on players.

In Iran, there are few and limited studies on the effects of addiction to computer games on players. Considering the increasing rate of addiction to computer games among Iranian adolescents and youth, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of addiction to computer games on physical and mental health including physical health, anxiety, and depression and impaired social functioning. The aim of this descriptive correlation study was to determine the effects of computer games addiction on physical and mental health of male and female students of guidance schools in Isfahan city.

The study population includes all students in the second year of public guidance schools in Isfahan city in the educational year of The sample size includes students selected by multiple steps stratified sampling method. Data were collected by using General Health Questionnaire GHQ scale and a questionnaire on addiction to computer games.

To do this research, at first 3 districts were selected randomly among five districts of Isfahan Board of Education. From each district, one boy and one girl guidance school was chosen randomly. In total, students were chosen for filling the questionnaires, after obtaining the permission from Isfahan Board of Education.

The questionnaires distributed among sample. The data collection instrument was included the form of GHQ inventory of physical and psychological health measurement. Another tool was Antwan's questionnaire for addiction to computer. The Cranbach's alpha was reported 0.

This questionnaire was based on Lickert scale and scored from 1 to 5. The GHQ 28 inventory is created by Goldberg for diagnosing psychological disorders in various centers and environments. The questions are about the psychological condition in past month, including signs such as thought, abnormal emotions and dimensions of behavior that are observable.

Therefore, questions emphasize on the situation here and now. This questionnaire is the most known instrument for screening in psychiatry, and has a significant effect on developing researches. This questionnaire is in forms of This questionnaire was used to assess health signs including physical complain, sleep disorder, disorder of social functioning and depression.

The study population included students including girls These students were divided into two groups of students The mean age of participants was 13 years old. Therefore, there was a direct relationship between addiction to computer games and physical disorders such as anxiety, sleep disorder and depression. But, there was a positive correlation between addiction to computer games and social dysfunction.

Therefore, there was a direct relationship between addiction to computer games and physical disorder, anxiety, sleep disorder and depression. But, the relationship between addiction to computer games and social dysfunction is reverse. Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions in male students. But, the relationship between addiction to computer games and disorder of social functioning is reverse.

Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions of female students. The results in the table 4 show that all relationships between variables 2 x 2 are significant. The effects of health with addiction to games is 0. Based on the results presented in table 5 , all indices show the suitability of the model. Figure 1 and figure 2 show standard coefficient of path analysis and t-chart of path analysis of relationship of health components and addiction to computer games respectively.

Standard coefficient of path analysis for relationship between health components and addiction to computer games. T-chart of path analysis of relationship between health components and addiction to computer games. The results of this study showed that there is a direct relationship between physical health, anxiety and depression with computer games addiction.

However, the relationship of addiction to computer games and social dysfunction was significance and inverse. In , Yuma et al conducted an intensive study in 9 cities of Japan about the computer games played by children and adolescents and its relationship with their physical health. The results showed that obese students were more attracted to computer games.

In other words, playing more computer games cause adolescents to stay home, which lead to their lack of activity and getting fat. This is considered as a biological problem. The effects of computer games on psychological health of people and severity and significance of that depends on factors such as level and intensity of violence in the game, the ability of player in differentiating virtual world and real world, player's ability to inhibit their desires and motivation, the values they are brought up with or living with and also values that are in the context and content of the games.

Studies showed that computer games increases players' heart beats to a level more than their body request. Payne et al studied the role of computer games on social isolation, low self-esteem and violence. The results showed no relationship between playing computer games and self-esteem in girls, but there was a negative relationship between the two in boys. Also, the scores of violence had a positive correlation with amount of exposure to computer games.

Other results showed that in spite of children's attraction to games, there was no evidence that computer games cause social isolation. Azad Fallah et al in their study investigated the relationship between games and social skills of male students of first grade of high school.

The results showed a significant relationship between the game-type and presence of others in the game location with social skills of adolescents. Selecting home as the place of game had a significance negative relationship with social skills and those adolescents who were mostly playing at home, had less social skill cited from Doran.

It means that as the addiction to computer games increases, social dysfunction will decrease. Ahmadi studied the effects of computer games on adolescents of the city of Isfahan. The aim of his study was to find out if computer games have social effects. The results showed that violence and aggression in students who played these games was higher than those who did not play.

Also, social participation of students who were playing computer games was low. The first factor noticed in most studies as well as the present study is the disorder in general health of players. Various studies show that playing too much computer games causes physical damages and increases anxiety and depression in players.

Many studies show that most adolescents who are addicted to computer games have high heart beat and blood pressure due to too much excitement and stress. Most of those who involve in these games do not notice the time passing and even forget to eat. It seems that creating a cause and effect relationship between computer games and physical health or more generally speaking, cause and effect relationship between addiction to computer games and mental and physical health is simplification of the subject.

There are various causes for correlation between addiction to computer games and physical health, anxiety and depression. First, addiction to computer games can cause disorder in physical health, increase anxiety and depression. Second, it is possible that disorder in physical and mental health cause people to get attracted to computer games. Third way is that both addiction to computer games and disorder in physical and mental health are created due to the effects of other factors.

Considering associations between playing computer games and physical and mental disorders, the negative effects of these games are basically related to the games and their nature. Therefore, some computer games can be constructive, while others can have damaging effects on children's body and mind. Therefore, we should accept anyway that computer games like many other phenomenon of technology age have found their way to our children's and our lives. In the second phase Neutral video clip , two physiological signals related to Pleasure and Happiness were recorded.

Based on the correlates found between HR and craving, this physiological signal is used as an indicator of arousal Kennedy et al. Despite the difficulty in defining and in measuring happiness , the brain electrical activity is recorded Electroencephalogram, EEG mainly to detect the relaxation state. In the fourth phase VG clip , the same physiological signals as in the second phase were measured.

In the fifth phase, the same procedure to assess craving for gaming as in the third phase was employed. In the sixth phase, three other self-report questionnaires were submitted to participants and used to evaluate the association between the mentioned emotional states and VG:. That said, the scale has an uneven number of options five between the two extremes, the central option representing the equal association of Pleasure and Happiness with VG play.

Thus, the overall possible results are identical as in phase 1. Participants were asked to choose three words out of ten that they associate most with their VG activities. These 10 key words come from the semantic mapping elaborated in this research of the terms used in the formal statements defining pleasure and happiness in this study. For example, some words from the happiness sphere are contentment and well being , whereas desire and joy relate to pleasure.

Only the ten words French version were shown to participants. This approach aims at exploring the coherence between the self-reported answers and the physiological signals, as a means to objectivize the perceived emotional states associated with VG play by the two mentioned groups of participants addict gamers and non-addict gamers. The previously mentioned theoretical framework indicates that the notion of craving relates to an arousal state that could lead to an addictive pattern and consequently stands out of the realm of happiness.

Based on the analysis made on this issue previously as well as on the hypothesis of this study, the expected results could be synthesized as shown in Table 1. Participants used standard mouse and keyboard as input devices. EEG measurement includes detecting the fluctuation of voltage potential generated by large group of neurons in the brain.

The relaxation state was measured by one of the composite metrics of the Emotiv software. HR was measured by using Schimer 3 Photoplethysmography. The I. Motions software version 7. However, the internal coherence between these four items was too weak due to one item alpha 0. The exclusion of this item raised the alpha significantly 0. The constitution of the group of frequent gamers and that of non-frequent gamers was determined by calculated median 18 h per week.

The Kolmogorov—Smirnov outcome indicates the need for using a non-parametric test to compare the two groups. Table 3. In contrast, there is a significant statistical difference in the three items where AU associate VG play with happiness item 2.

Figure 2. The relaxation level decreases in both groups during the VG clip. Furthermore, there is a significant statistical gender difference in both conditions Neutral clip: Male Figure 3. It is important noting that due to corrupted data the number of valid subjects taken into account was 17 8 AU and 9 NAU. Figure 4. The descriptive statistics of this three-bipolar items questionnaire Table 7 , indicate that the AU group linked VG activities more with happiness than the NAU group.

Table 7. Table 8. Both groups have clearly associated VG play with pleasure Table 9. Table 9. The following scheme summarizes the outcomes of the self-report tools used to evaluate the association between the emotional states Pleasure and Happiness with VG play Table Table Synthetic view of self-report results Emotional states associated with VG play.

The following table indicates the mean, standard deviation and Skewness and Kurtosis values of the self-report craving, the HR and the relaxation level for both groups in the two conditions Table Descriptive statistics for self-report Craving, Relaxation, Heart Rate.

Overall, the results of this study show that AU associate happiness to VG while reporting craving for VG play and having a low relaxation level. These outcomes observed in this experiment constitute a bundle of arguments that argue in favor of the hypothesis of this study Lustig, Consistent with previous findings in this area, these four measurements highlight the coexistence of the perception of happiness linked with VG play combined with elements related to pleasure such as craving strong desire, wanting Pollard, ; Griffiths, ; Waterman et al.

Since craving and low Relaxation are rather incompatible with the mentioned notion of happiness Pollard, ; Waterman et al. In the literature, VG addiction would be linked with impairment in the self-regulation process, this finding may be linked with the difficulties AU have to observe and evaluate their own behavior Seay and Kraut, Besides, the mentioned results suggest that VG clip effect on self-report craving would depend on the addiction level.

Considering that sensing happiness and craving are probably experienced as positive emotions by AU, and that usually negative and positive emotional events are reported to last longer and shorter respectively Gil and Droit-Volet, ; Tian et al. In other words, the level of excitement produced by VG play could make AU underestimate the time spent at this activity, which may be perceived as an alleviating evasion free from stressors and possibly assimilated with the notion of happiness.

This hypothetic mechanism would match one of the possible motives for online gaming Demetrovics et al. In this sort of precognitive process, several studies mentioned the involvement of the amygdala in interaction with the thalamus together with the dopaminergic system and a poor inhibitory control Gil and Droit-Volet, ; Petry et al. It is noteworthy underlining that the bipolar structure of the three-items questionnaire increases the relevance of this outcome.

In effect, although participants were incited to choose between the two emotional states opposing each other VG and pleasure vs. VG and happiness , like in the six-items questionnaire, AU again did choose happiness as the main emotional state linked with VG play. This outcome would further state the difference between these two groups when it comes to associating the two emotional states to VG play.

Besides, this would reveal to an important extent that the possibility whereby pleasure and happiness were regarded as synonyms could be overcome. In other words, this outcome shows that the similarity of meanings of these two concepts did not prevent these groups to make a clear choice.

The absence of interaction between the two independent variables on HR may be explained by the fact that a higher arousal would take place in AU when playing VG rather than when watching at VG clips. Moreover, the reduced number of valid subjects when measuring this physiological parameter due to technical recording problems could have contributed to this outcome too. The fact that the independent variables did not produce the expected different HR effects on AU and NAU could also be linked with one of the limitations of this study: the difficulty in integrating in this research the interaction between HR and depression as mentioned, VG addiction is positively correlated with depression Griffiths et al.

In sum, this issue illustrates that the difficulty to circumscribe the notion of happiness is also reflected in the complexity to establish physiological correlates so as to objectify this emotional state Cipresso et al. Associating the clusters of key words with VG did not produce the expected results.

It could also suggest the inadequacy of this self-report tool. Caution is required in the analysis of these results because the validity of this questionnaire remains to be demonstrated. Within the framework of this careful approach, it could be hypothesized that explicit definitions of the two emotional states induced AU to adopting an introspection mode through a more pronounced involvement of cortical brain structures, akin to a therapeutic process in which the appropriate verbalization of pleasure and happiness facilitates the clarification of one own feeling as a prerequisite to elaborate more adaptive behavior in spite of the constraining psychological characteristics usually associated with VG addicts Kim et al.

This may be regarded as an example of emotions reappraisal which would increase accuracy of insights into one-self, reduce distorted perception of emotions and assess the adequacy of the behavioral response to a given stimulus Compare et al. In other words, it could be posited that the mentioned explicit definitions have somewhat constrained AU to use a cognitive approach to examine their emotional states related to VG play rather than merely relying on the sensory information as it tends to occur when sensing craving for video gaming Wang et al.

Moreover, the result of this one-item binary questionnaire would further support the hypothesis. In effect, the studied interrelation between hedonia and eudaimonia suggests that a highly rated hedonic activity VG play in this case is usually related with low rating in eudaimonia Waterman et al. This interpretation would fit with the resounding association between depression and gaming disorders Lemmens et al.

Overall, the more explicit the definition of pleasure and happiness and the narrower the choice offered by the self-report questionnaires, the less confusion of emotional states associated with VG occurred in AU group members whereas NAU invariably associated pleasure to VG as illustrated in Figure 5. Figure 5. Shift of AU perception of their emotional states associated with VG according to the self-report tools. Based on these results, it could be postulated that the tendency of AU to perceive happiness when feeling craving and pleasure linked to VG play, might be moderated by a clarifying cognitive process on the meaning of these studied emotional sates, which would interfere with the behavioral habits linked to the urge of gaming Ko et al.

Unlike NAU, the significantly higher association between VG play and happiness expressed by AU matches the perceived level of well being reported by individuals with Internet gaming disorders Griffiths, On the other hand, apart from well-being , the same author cites euphoria as the other main emotional state that addict gamers may report when playing VG.

Whilst happiness and well-being rely on each other to define themselves, euphoria would convey the notion of intense excitement, which would rather stand in the pleasure sphere. Moreover, in medical terms, euphoria refers to a feeling of great elation, not necessarily founded especially when resulting from substances consumption.

Since AU also associated VG with pleasure although they did it to a lesser extent than with happiness, it could hypothesized that the feeling of intense excitement derives, at least partially, from satisfying the craving for VG play, which in turn could engender relieve experienced as a sense of well-being Loonen and Ivanova, The impact of VG clips on AU craving and relaxation scores underlines relevant aspects of this study, which support the hypothesis of this research.

Thus, this finding constitutes a relevant component of the confusion that consists in placing a short-term pleasure VG play within the sphere of happiness. Besides, the low relaxation state of AU would correspond with their self-reported craving and, therefore, further highlights the contrast between the perceived happiness associated with VG play and the indicators measured during the VG clip visioning high craving level and low relaxation state level.

Finally, it is noteworthy mentioning that relaxation was the only measure in this study where gender differences were observed. Indeed, since female gamers are a minority in these sorts of VG Shen et al. The social dimension of popular VG has been identified as one of the factors that may explain the addiction pattern Hull et al. In this kind of competitive games, improving the required abilities and obtaining better results would be part of the key motives for VG play Demetrovics et al.

Getting this sort of feedback from others can be motivating indeed, especially when taking into account the correlation between IGD and social isolation, low self-esteem, traumatic experiences, depression and low life satisfaction Petry et al. In turn, these psychosocial characteristics are probably related also with the high impulsivity level in VG addicts Billieux et al. Thus, it would seem that VG activities are, at least partially, sating the mentioned social and psychological deficiencies.

Loonen and Ivanova, As described in the mentioned study, experiencing flow implies not only losing the notion of time but also merging oneself with the VG actions. In this line, the motivation to experience immersion has been associated with problematic gaming Billieux et al.

Considering the fact that loneliness and depression have been identified as predictors of VG addiction and of Internet Gaming Disorders Hull et al. This sense of alleviation could match the notion of happiness as free from distress Kringelbach and Berridge, ; Loonen and Ivanova, if it resulted from the quality of real life being lived. Instead, in AU, this relieving and enjoyable emotional state would be engendered by a virtual activity VG , possibly used as a means to escape from stress and to forget tensions Demetrovics et al.

In the literature, the escaping strategy is a way to find relieve from stressors through the engagement in a pleasant activity, which may end up representing a space of happiness Seay and Kraut, In sum, the incongruence lies in the coexistence of regarding VG as a space of happiness while using VG to get quick pleasures and relief. Individuals suffering from this disorder tend to pursuit short-term pleasures rather than long-term gains Dong and Potenza, Being driven by short-term gratifications rather belongs to the reward-seeking realm Waterman et al.

Thus, this pleasant emotional state could be associated with the arousal linked to a reward seeking behavior through which quick and positive results are obtained, which in turn reinforce the mentioned behavior. Probably, this intense arousal situates itself within the sphere of pleasure as a dysfunction in the rewarding system Pollard, ; Berridge and Kringelbach, ; Lustig, and not in that of happiness in spite of the relieving benefits it provides.

Another possible reading on why the emotional states generated by these cyber activities are linked with happiness may be related to the way in interpreting the experienced sensations. This representation is probably shaped by the individual background, experiences, culture, etc.

From a brain mechanism stand point, conscious liking does not limit it self to a sensory outcome, it is also translated into a subjective liking through the recruitment of cognitive processes Berridge and Kringelbach, Indeed, these authors state that conscious pleasure rating is sometimes detached from affective reactions as people can elaborate reasons to themselves for how they should feel.

Therefore, associating VG with happiness may be the result of a rationalization process to reduce the cognitive dissonance. In other words, the unwished consequences of the VG addiction pattern increased stress, problems at working, studying, socializing, etc. Griffiths et al. Consequently, if the affected individuals are unable to master the yearning for VG, perceiving VG activities as a source of well being may reduce the mentioned pressures insofar as the notion of happiness usually suggests a socially acceptable mood, a legitimate aim and a safe emotional state.

In this perspective, equating happiness with satisfying craving and with short-term pleasure might contribute to feed the addictive pattern Lustig, In a broader perspective, the rationalization process described in the previous paragraph may be also related with coping strategies to deal with adversity. For instance, it has been observed that problematic gamers may use VG play as a means to cope with stressors and to enhance mood Demetrovics et al.

An association has been found between stressful life events and addiction to Internet activities Schimmenti et al. Several theories and studies support this approach that strives for a more holistic understanding of this issue. The self-determination theory postulates that humans share three universal psychological needs Deci and Ryan, ; in Dongping et al.

Besides, individuals can adopt different strategies to cope with adversity Lazarus and Folkman, ; in Dongping et al. According to Zheng et al. On the other hand, according to the same authors, the negative coping consists in strategies such as blaming, social withdrawing, denial and disengagement so as to avoid the stressful situations.

Now, a parallel can be established between these two coping styles and the brain activities involved in the goal-directed learning and the habit learning. The goal-directed learning would correspond to the positive coping style insofar as it focuses on the relationship between an action and the motivational value of the outcome, and is associated with the activation of the prefrontal cortex, the dorsomedial striatum and the dorsomedial thalamus Ballaine and Dickinson, ; in Schwabe et al.

On the other hand, habit learning, would be linked with the avoidant coping style. This learning process encodes the relationship between a response and preceding stimuli without taking into account the outcome caused by the response and is related to the activation of the dorsolateral striatum Yin et al. According to Schwabe et al. In line with these findings, it has been observed that, like cocaine cues, psychological stress induction can generate the same craving response in a cocaine abusers population Bradley et al.

The relevance of these observations lies in the fact that both SUD and behavioral addictions including gaming disorders, Han et al. Considering the association between unhappiness and VG disorders mentioned earlier, it could be posited that the gamers concerned could not overcome the causes of their unhappiness. Indeed, studies suggest that subjects with Internet gaming disorders embark in VG play more to deal with negative affect than to achieve a good performance in the game Schimmenti and Caretti, ; Billieux et al.

In this scenario, based on the mentioned studies, a low level of happiness would imply that psychological needs are somewhat unmet and associated with the avoidant coping style together with the habit learning. Furthermore, this pattern is supported by compensatory Internet use theory, which postulates that adversity can operate as a stimulus to seek psychological comfort i.

In other words, the psychological comfort engendered by the VG activities in this population of gamers, combined with the characteristics of the avoidant coping style denial, social withdrawal, avoiding stressful situation, etc. This assumption suggests that online gaming might not be the cause of VG addiction, but rather that VG excessive use could be a compensatory strategy to deal with pre-existing psychological characteristics and deleterious social context Kowert et al.

For instance, some studies suggest that traumatic experiences, poor emotions regulation, elements of impulsivity and the motivation to experience immersion in a virtual world would increase the likelihood of IGD and Internet addiction Billieux et al. In sum, it would seem as if for AU the mentioned behavioral pattern is a manner to mitigate the difficulties to deal with stressors.

This interpretation would be in line with the motives for play in problematic gaming Demetrovics et al. This study suggests that there would be positive and beneficial motives for playing entertaining gaming as well as harmful ones problematic gaming. The correlations between these factors appear to shed light on the positive and negative aspects of gaming.

Whilst the weakest correlation is between escape and recreation also low correlation was found between escape and both, skills development and competition , the strongest correlations were observed between escape and cope and fantasy. These results would indicate that escape and coping are motives associated with problematic gaming, however, the authors argue that escapism would facilitate the coping efforts to deal with stressors and negative moods. Moreover, it is noteworthy underlining that escapism had the lowest mean score in this study among the seven dimensions, which would match with the prevalence level of problematic gaming mentioned previously Griffiths et al.

Probably, regarding AU, the accuracy in perceiving emotional states, the ability to deal with stressors and the quality of insights into oneself are dimensions that deserve much attention in the therapeutic processes. A cognitive-behavioral approach may contribute to the recovery process by enabling problematic gamers to explore the motives that lead them to abuse of VG play Orzack et al.

Developing strategies to tackle stressors appears to be a therapeutic priority for treating this disorder. Consequently, this axis of work includes the understanding of the environmental demands that are perceived as exceeding the individual abilities to handle them.

In particular, deciphering the conditioned desires unconscious wanting and the hedonic dimension unconscious liking Kringelbach and Berridge, ; Berridge and Kringelbach, linked to VG play may produce added value information for understanding and overcoming the problematic gaming pattern. Within this frame, it could be hypothesized that distinguishing between happiness and feeling alleviated could be beneficial to the therapeutic process, although it remains to be demonstrated.

Overall, this sort of therapeutic approach may contribute to reduce the alexithymia, usually associated with this kind of disorders Kandri et al. For instance, it has been shown that alexithymic individuals are more associated with Internet addiction than non-alexthymic ones Baysan-Arslan et al.

In this research, the authors consider that the difficulty in identifying and differentiating emotions that characterizes alexithymia may lead individuals with this affliction to regulate their emotional states via their addictive activities. Another study showed that IGD would be related with alexithymia, anxiety and depression Bonnaire and Baptista, Schimmenti et al. Besides, Internet addiction including online role-playing would be correlated with alexithymia, dissociation protecting one-self in a more pleasant created reality as a means to deal with traumatic experiences and insecure attachment Craparo, However, the causal link in the association between alexithymia and Internet addiction would still need to be verified, as indicated by Mahapatra and Sharma Moreover, discerning the nature of alexithymia remains an uneasy task: this emotional identification and differentiation disorder might be regarded as a stable personality trait that could increase risks of mental disorder development, and also may be seen as a defense mechanism to cope with psychological stressors Mikolajczak and Luminet, ; in Mahapatra and Sharma, Apart from alexithymia and traumatic memories, high urgency a dimension of impulsivity defined by the proneness to have strong reactions usually tied with negative affect and being motivated to experience immersion in a virtual world would be psychological predictors of problematic multiplayer online games Billieux et al.

These findings led the authors to posit that individuals with the two mentioned traits are more likely to use the immersion in the virtual world as a means to avoiding facing real life adverse issues. According to the authors, this behavior will lead to a deleterious outcome culpability and embarrassment as a result of feeling unable to deal with problems , which in turn is experienced as a pernicious condition likely to activate behaviors related to high urgency and immersion.

Like the previously mentioned clinical issues, this vicious loop reinforcing escapism also appears to be a therapeutic target. Considering the possible association between alexithymia and problematic gaming as a manner to regulate emotions Baysan-Arslan et al. The aim being that the observed difficulties in Internet including VG addicts to identifying emotions and regulating affects Caretti et al. In effect, Compare et al. Reappraising emotions is associated with the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex, which attenuates the amygdala activation and, thus, reduces the intensity of negative affect; these two areas being coordinated by the orbitofrontal cortex Compare et al.

Within this approach, it may be postulated that enabling problematic gamers to familiarize with and to see the self-transcendent notion of happiness could favor the distinction between pleasure and happiness and would render them less vulnerable from impulses and from environmental circumstances Dambrun et al. The idea is to facilitate the shift from wanting more than liking or even without liking toward liking with little or without wanting Berridge and Kringelbach, In this line, based on the previously mentioned studies in this section, it might be useful exploring the possible link that the excessive time spent in cyber activity could have with past traumatic experiences, insecure attachment, impulsivity, anxiety and depression.

In conclusion, this study suggests that the mentioned confusion of emotional states pleasure and happiness associated with addiction Lustig, , could take place in subjects with VG addiction, and potentially in the entire spectrum of addictions. Moreover, from a cognitive therapeutic perspective, it shows the potential benefits of reappraising emotions as a means to contribute to the emotional distortion reduction.

The small sample of this study demands cautiousness when making generalizations from its results. Besides, watching VG clips rather than actually playing VG might be less stimulating for chronic gamers and could have influenced the physiological values recorded during the clip visioning phases. That said, many gamers do attend to public competitions to watch other gamers playing VG.

Although, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information available to affirm that there are VG addicts in these audiences. We also faced the usual paradox when assessing craving via self-report tools. Indeed, participants were asked to judge their craving intensity for VG play whereas sensing craving often may imply a compromised self-awareness level and thus a self-assessment whose value needs to be interpreted carefully. Although the GAS is a validated tool, which has shown its usefulness in screening addict gamers, having complemented this measurement with thorough diagnostic-driven interviews run by specialists when choosing participants to form the AU and the NAU groups would have strengthened the selection process.

Future researches could complete this approach by assessing the possible cultural and educational bias in perceiving the studied emotional states. Moreover, including more physiological parameters related to pleasure and happiness could further complete the self-reported information and may enable reaching more robust results.

Further research is required to better understand the relationship between the studied emotional states and this addiction. For instance, since VG addiction decreases with age Wittek et al. Moreover, VG addiction is only one area of the spectrum of addictions. Undertaking similar researches on other addictions and with larger samples could also contribute to deepening the comprehension of this issue. Finally, keep enhancing the scales that measure pleasure and happiness may provide with more accurate information about the range of nuances intrinsic to these two emotional states.

LG developed the proposal and the conception of the original project research, searched and articulated the theoretical background, participated in the study and protocol design, elaborated the results interpretation, assembled all the chapters of the study, and in charge of the manuscript writing.

ND was involved in the scientific and publication management, participated — as the Research Center Manager — in the study and protocol design, and in charge of the configuration and writing of the physiological measures. JL, as a member of the Research Center, was involved in the study and protocol design, also involved in the configuration of physiological measures, managed the experimental phases in the laboratory, and elaborated the data analysis.

CL, as a full Professor at the Faculty of Psychology and Director of the Research Center for Work and Consumer Psychology, assured the scientific and publication management, participated in the study and protocol design, in charge of making the critical reviews of the manuscript along the process, and involved in the manuscript writing.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. This work was performed as a partial fulfillment toward the International Master in Affective Neuroscience of Maastricht University and the University of Florence. Andreassen, C.

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