This article tells you, with examples, what you should include in the Introduction and what you should leave out, and what reviewers and journal editors look for in this section. What is the function of the Introduction section? You can also think of the Introduction as the section that points out the gap in knowledge that the rest of the paper will fill, or the section in which you define and claim your territory within the broad area of research. The other job the Introduction should do is to give some background information and set the context.
You can do this by describing the research problem you considered or the research question you asked in the main body of the paper, you will offer the solution to the problem or the answer to the question and by briefly reviewing any other solutions or approaches that have been tried in the past.
Now that you have given the background and set the context, the last part of the Introduction should specify the objectives of the experiment or analysis of the study described in the paper. This concluding part of the Introduction should include specific details or the exact question s to be answered later in the paper. Write a strong introduction section — Make a great first impression. Make a great first impression with your manuscript. Try this course for free with R Upskill Membership.
The 4-step approach to writing the Introduction section. Provide background information and set the context. This initial part of the Introduction prepares the readers for more detailed and specific information that is given later. The first couple of sentences are typically broad. Below are some examples:. At the same time, the introductory statement should not be too broad: note that in the examples above, the Introduction did not begin by talking about agriculture, cancer, or batteries in general, but by mentioning organic matter in soil, the role of bacteria, and lithium ion batteries.
Once the first sentence has introduced the broad field, the next sentence can point to the specific area within that broad field. As you may have noticed, the papers in the examples mentioned above introduced the subfield by mentioning 1 remission of some types cancer following accidental infection by Streptococcus pyogenes , 2 organic matter in soil as a source of nutrients for plants and of energy for microorganisms, and 3 imaging techniques to visualize the 3-dimensional structure of the materials and components of batteries on nanoscale.
Does your publication goal seem near yet too far? Introduce the specific topic of your research and explain why it is important. As you can see from the above examples, the authors are moving toward presenting the specific topic of their research. So now in the following part, you can bring in some statistics to show the importance of the topic or the seriousness of the problem. Here are some examples:.
Another way to emphasize the importance of the research topic is to highlight the possible benefits from solving the problem or from finding an answer to the question: possible savings, greater production, longer-lasting devices, and so on.
This approach emphasizes the positive. For example, instead of saying that X dollars are lost because of malaria every year, say that X dollars can be saved annually if malaria is prevented, or X millions litres of water can be saved by dispensing with irrigation, or X person-hours can be saved in the form of avoided illnesses because of improved air quality or reduced pollution. Mention past attempts to solve the research problem or to answer the research question.
As mentioned earlier, a formal review of literature is out of place in the Introduction section of a research paper; however, it is appropriate to indicate any earlier relevant research and clarify how your research differs from those attempts. The differences can be simple: you may have repeated the same set of experiments but with a different organism, or elaborated involving perhaps more sophisticated or advanced analytical instruments the study with a much larger and diverse sample, or a widely different geographical setting.
Here are two examples:. Conclude the Introduction by mentioning the specific objectives of your research. The earlier paragraphs should lead logically to specific objectives of your study. Note that this part of the Introduction gives specific details: for instance, the earlier part of the Introduction may mention the importance of controlling malaria whereas the concluding part will specify what methods of control were used and how they were evaluated.
At the same time, avoid too much detail because those belong to the Materials and Methods section of the paper. If, for example, your research was about finding the right proportions of two metals in an alloy and you tested ten different proportions, you do not have to list all the ten proportions: it is enough to say that the proportions varied from to Here are two more examples:.
There are different ways of constructing the objectives. Using questions 2 , hypotheses, and infinitives are the more common constructions both examples in the previous paragraph use infinitives , each of which is illustrated below with some fictitious text:. H1: Career stages influence work values. H2: Career stages influence the level of job satisfaction. H3: Career stages do not influence organizational commitment.
Using infinitives. Compared to two other sections of a typical research paper, namely Methods and Results, Introduction and Discussion are more difficult to write. However, the 4-step approach described in this article should ease the task. You can write it, or at least revise it, after you have written the rest of the paper: this will make the Introduction not only easier to write but also more compelling. To learn in more detail the guidelines to write a great Introduction section, check out this course: How to write a strong introduction for your research paper.
Detailing the writing of scientific manuscripts: paragraphs. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 2 : e21—e Boxman R and Boxman E. Communicating Science: a practical guide for engineers and physical scientists , pp. Singapore: World Scientific. Related reading:. Create a free account and access this bonus resource. Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. University of North Carolina; Introductions. Writing Center. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University. Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction. Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific words or phrases with which readers may be unfamiliar. However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source.
It doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, try to find one that is from subject specific dictionaries or encyclopedias [e. These can be found by searching the Credo Reference database.
Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "where should I begin? It is, therefore, important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem. However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that best informs the reader of study's overall importance. For example, a study about coffee cultivation and export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important.
You do not need to give a long historical explanation about coffee exportation in Africa. If a research problem demands a substantial exploration of historical context, do this in the literature review section; note in the introduction as part of your "roadmap" [see below] that you covering this in the literature review. Always End with a Roadmap. The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a description of the rest of the paper [a "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect.
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Organizing Academic Research Papers: 4. The Introduction. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition The introduction serves the purpose of leading the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research. Importance of a Good Introduction Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for the reader these four questions: What was I studying? Why was this topic important to investigate?
What did we know about this topic before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Structure and Writing Style I. Structure and Approach The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader: What is this? Why am I reading it? Place your research within the research niche by: Stating the intent of your study, Outlining the key characteristics of your study, Describing important results, and Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper.
Delimitations of the Study Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your study. Examples of delimitating choices would be: The key aims and objectives of your study, The research questions that you address, The variables of interest [i.
The Narrative Flow Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction : Your introduction should clearly identify the subject area of interest. A simple strategy to follow is to use key words from your title in the first few sentences of the introduction.
This will help focus the introduction on the topic at the appropriate level and ensures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general.
Whatever term is used, this is essentially your response to the essay question, which is based on the research you have undertaken. An essay is not like a mystery novel which keeps the reader in suspense; it should not slowly reveal the argument to the reader. Instead, the contention and supporting arguments are usually stated in the introduction. That is, introduce the particular problem or topic the essay will address in a general sense to provide context, before narrowing down to your particular position and line of argument.
The introduction usually starts by providing some background information to your particular topic, so the reader understands the key problem being addressed and why it is an issue worth writing about. However, it is important that this is brief and that you only include information that is directly relevant to the topic. This might also be an appropriate place to introduce the reader to key terms and provide definitions, if required.
Instead, make sure that your initial sentence relates directly to the problem, question or issue highlighted by the essay topic. Setting the parameters of the essay is important. State your position on the topic also referred to as your main argument , or contention , or thesis statement.
Make sure that you are directly answering the question and the whole essay question if there is more than one part! Provide an overview of how you are approaching the essay. Whether this ability is something a person is born with, or whether it is something that a person can learn, has been the subject of considerable debate.
University of North Carolina. The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader:. Think of the structure of the introduction as an inverted triangle of information. Organize the information so as to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale and, whenever possible, the potential outcomes your study can reveal.
These are general phases associated with writing an introduction:. NOTE: Even though the introduction is the first main section of a research paper, it is often useful to finish the introduction very late in the writing process because the structure of the paper, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion will have been completed and it ensures that your introduction matches the overall structure of your paper. Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your study.
This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions you make about how to investigate the research problem. In other words, not only should you tell the reader what it is you are studying and why, but you must also acknowledge why you rejected alternative approaches that could have been used to examine the research problem.
Obviously, the first limiting step was the choice of research problem itself. However, implicit are other, related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected. These should be noted in the conclusion of your introduction. Examples of delimitating choices would be:.
Review each of these decisions. You need to not only clearly establish what you intend to accomplish, but to also include a declaration of what the study does not intend to cover. Make this reasoning explicit!
NOTE: Delimitations refer to the initial choices made about the broader, overall design of your study and should not be confused with documenting the limitations of your study discovered after the research has been completed. Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction :. The overarching goal of your introduction is to make your readers want to read your paper. The introduction should grab your reader's attention. Strategies for doing this can be to:.
NOTE: Only choose one strategy for engaging your readers; avoid giving an impression that your paper is more flash than substance. Freedman, Leora and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction. Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. University of North Carolina; Introductions. Writing Center. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction.
Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University. Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction. Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific words or phrases with which readers may be unfamiliar.
However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source. It doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary.
If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, try to find one that is from subject specific dictionaries or encyclopedias [e. These can be found by searching the Credo Reference database. Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "where should I begin? It is, therefore, important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem.
However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that best informs the reader of study's overall importance.
This will give you an idea of your points and paragraphs. Once you have this clearly laid out, you can write a draft of your introduction. By this stage, you have something definite to introduce. Then present the points you intend to deal with. Do this in a brief concise way. You do not need to elaborate. Take care not to exaggerate either. You do not want to raise expectations you cannot meet. Finally, clearly set out your thesis statement.
All the rest of the paper is written to support your thesis statement. If you have left it too late, or you are out of your depth regarding your writing skills, you can always ask for assistance from our writing service. Our professional writers are all graduates who have the experience to assist you with how to write a good introduction for a term paper for a reasonable price.
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Knowing how to write a term paper introduction is critical in enhancing your academic performance. This is because, you will need the skills in order to write assignments for various subjects. Besides, knowing how to write an introduction for a term paper can also be another way of improving your communication skills.
All these imply that it is very important for you to know how to create a compelling introduction for different kinds of academic papers. In order for you to easily master the art of how to write a term paper introduction, there are certain aspects that you have to consider in your work. Here are some of the guidelines to help you in writing an outstanding introduction for a term paper. An introduction plays an important role in a paper and it is important that you understand its importance before beginning to write.
One of the purposes of an introduction is to give the readers a theoretical context to the paper. A well written introduction should set the tone of the paper, grab the attention of readers and communicate the thesis statement. These are key in enabling your readers to easily get the reasoning behind your article.
Just as hinted above, a term paper introduction does not have to be too long but just a paragraph or two based on the subject being discussed. Although there is always no strict word limit, it should be very concise. However, there are components that must be included in an introduction like topic or subject of the paper, research problem and thesis statement or hypothesis.
The introduction should simply give an overall view of the subject of discussion without trying to explain everything. The final statements expressed in the introduction should vividly outline the research question and hypothesis. The problem is the basis of the paper or the issue that you intend to discuss in the assignment. By highlighting the problem, the reader will easily find out what you are exactly trying to achieve with the paper.
Clearly stating the research problem in the introduction will also ensure easy reference to it when writing the body paragraphs and conclusion of the paper. Many often prefer to write the introduction of term papers last because in the process of writing, it may turn out that the entire discussion is taking another twist that was unexpected.
If this happens to you, it is normal and you can always write the intro last. However, it has to be relevant to and in the same tone as the rest of the paper. In the same way that knowing how to write a term paper introduction is a process that requires some time, there are also stages that you have to go through in writing one. Below are the basic steps on how to write a good introduction for a term paper. One of the tasks of an introduction is to set the background for the discussion or paper and put it into a context so that it can be compared to other studies or articles in the particular field.
In creating a scene, you can start by giving a historical narrative like an anecdote that is related to the subject or topic. However, you have to be keen not to deviate from the subject. Other ways of creating a compelling background for the paper include the use of quotes, recent debates, and news stories among others.
Besides, comparison and contrast can also work quite well. In the opening paragraph, you should also clearly outline the reason why the paper is important. By including some of the outstanding information about the topic in the introduction, you will be able to attract readers. For instance, if you are writing an introduction for a scientific paper, the discussion should start by outlining the significance of your study, the rationale behind the method of experiment used and how they met your objectives.
In order to give your paper a unique touch, it is advisable that you consider some of the aspects of the subject that have been overlooked or developing a previous study. In highlighting the importance of the paper, you should also clearly state your goals and the methodology to use in attaining them. In case there are any weaknesses or challenges regarding the topic, it is also important that you state them instead of waiting until the readers get to the body.
In the same vein, you should also outline any assumptions. The thesis statement is the argument that you will be looking forward to proving in the paper. Therefore, it has to also be vividly stated in the opening paragraph so that readers are well informed on what to expect.
The thesis statement should be carefully crafted at the end of the first paragraph of the introduction. It is advisable that you exercise the use connectors in order to give a smooth transition from the introduction to the rest of the paper. In writing the introduction of a term paper, you should also tell the readers the aspects that you will look at therein and possibly, the sequence in which they will be discussed.
This will not only enhance the clarity of the introduction but the entire paper. Reading samples of previously written term papers is also another way through which you can easily know how to write a term paper introduction. This is because the samples are typical term papers that are crafted by experts and can clearly show you how to go about writing an introduction even without the need for assistance.
The corporation was founded in by Ed McNally, who played a critical role in uplifting the lives of barley farmers, after the discovery that barley was a mainly used as livestock feed in Alberta McClearn Since then, the company has been able to develop to a point of producing about 45 million liters of beer annually. The brewery currently has three branches with the main one having the capability of producing hectolitres, under the leadership of the new CEO Bob Sartor McClearn.
Read the rest of this sample term paper on this link. At times, the women manifest better leadership styles than the men. In fact, they have been noted to deliver efficient performance. However, many people today prefer male bosses to females. As a result of this, women have found it quite difficult to acquire leadership roles.
Find the rest of this term paper excerpt here. This concepts was proposed by Icek Ajzen with the aim of improving the reasoned action theory predictive power. He performed this through the inclusion of the perceived behavioral control. This theory is among the key concepts of predictive persuasion. Theory of planned behavior has been applied in the study of relations between attitudes, beliefs, behaviors and behavioral intentions in various areas like advertising, public relations, healthcare among others..
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