Selye also developed the general adaptation syndrome. This consists of three stages. In the alarm stage, the individual has a "flight or fight" response and his or her ability to cope with the stressor increases. This ability continues to increase in the resistance stage until the individual starts to tire, wear down and become exhausted exhaustion stage.
Richard Lazarus Richard Lazarus argued that stress is unique to each individual and is dependant on appraisal perception of stress. Lazarus believed that an individual appraises a situation and if it is stressful, the person starts using coping skills. He described two types of coping styles. The first one, problem solving, consists of managing the problem.
The second, emotion-focused coping, is used to manage the negative emotions resulting from the stress. Walter Cannon Walter B. Cannon was an American Physiologist who coined the phrase "fight or flight" and the word homeostasis. During "fight or flight" people are able to exert a great deal of energy in a short period of time due to increased blood flow, oxygen, and glucose stores.
This response can cause damage to the body, however, it is a survival mechanism that can save the person's life. This explains why prolonged stress causes such a wide variety of physical symptoms. Their model differed from the general adaptation model in that it illustrated the level of stress affects on performance. Cox and MacKay stated that too little stress resulted in boredom and low performance. Too high stress results in exhaustion and low performance.
Optimum performance is a balance where stress is neither to high or too low. An allostatic load is a reflection of how stress hormones such as cortisol are affecting the immune system. When the body experiences stress, it secretes a hormone called cortisol. Cortisol raises the body's blood sugar in preparation for "fight or flight. This chronically high level of cortisol and lowered immune function in response to stress is defined as a high allostatic load.
High levels of cortisol can also damage cells in the brain that regulate the cortisol levels resulting in a lowered resistance to stress. Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman Friedman and Rosenman identified a high risk personality for stress induced illnesses called the Type A personality. A Type A personality is a set of behavioral features favoring achievement, competition, time urgency, impatience and hostility. Researchers have found that Type A characteristics are correlated with a higher risk of heart disease in these individuals.
Introduction Every living thing on the earth encounters stress in one degree or another. To illustrate these styles, consider the following scenario: Tony works in the bakery in a local grocery store. Emotion-focused: Tony sits down and takes several cleansing breaths to calm down. Tony also turns on some music to distract himself from his anxiety. Problem-focused: Tony quickly empties the mixer and starts over.
Tony also places a phone call to the customer and apologizes because he is 15 minutes behind schedule. Avoidant: Tony keeps following the recipe, adds extra Stieva and hopes no one will notice. Featured Video. Traumatic Stress The worst form of stress results from traumatic events. Original picture: Teaching Today's Health Chapter 6: Mental Health and Stress Reduction Richard Lazarus Richard Lazarus argued that stress is unique to each individual and is dependant on appraisal perception of stress.
Hans Selye Discusses Stress. Fight Or Flight Explained. There are several mediating variables that determine whether stress becomes dangerous or not. For example, good coping mechanisms which can help to reduce stress, having good social support, often help in reducing stress. Perception of stress or how a person views stress is also very important. For example, a person may not perceive a situation as stressful whereas the same situation may be perceived as highly stressful by some other person.
Personality character like hardiness or emotional stability helps to withstand effects of stress. Hans Selye, a renowned biological scientist defines stress as the nonspecific response of the body to any demand upon it. It is an emergency response of the body. In this stage prompt responses of the body, many of them mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, prepare us to cope with the stressor here and now.
If the stressor continues to be present, the stage of resistance begins, wherein the body resists the effects of the continuous stressor. During this stage certain hormonal responses of the body are an important line of defence in resisting the effects of stressors For example, release of ACTH. The person will no longer be able to face stressor and he will finally succumb to it. The person may develop psychosomatic illness. The stress leads to many psychosomatic diseases.
Treatment for such diseases involves medical help for the physical problems and, at the same time, attention to the psychological factors producing the stress. There are different ways of coping with stress such as: confronting facing , distancing remoteness , self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, escape or avoid from the stressor , plan a problem solving strategy and positive reappraisal.
In instrumental coping, a person focuses on the problem and tries to solve it. In emotional coping, the focus is more on the feelings generated by the problem. Today, self- help remedies, Do to yourself approaches, weight loss clinics and diets, health foods and physical exercise are being given much attention in mass media. People are actually taking more responsibility to maintain good health.
However, some specific techniques to eliminate or to manage more effectively the inevitable, prolonged stress are as follows:. Good physical exercise like walking, jogging, swimming, riding bicycle, playing soft ball, tennis are necessary to cope with stress. Whether a person simply takes it easy once in a while or uses specific relaxation techniques such as bio-feedback, or meditation, the intent is to eliminate the immediately stressful situation or manage a prolonged stressful situation more effectively.
Taking it easy may mean curling up with a good book on an easy chair or watching some light programme on television or listening to a light music. Meditation is scientifically proved to be very useful, both physically and mentally to cope with stress. By deliberately managing the antecedents and the consequence of their own behaviour, people can achieve self-control. They can avoid people or situations that they know will put them under stress. Maladaptive strategies, rigid strategies or relying on one type of coping method lead to increase in the stress.
Social support helps reduce the effect of stress.
Double check if a strong hypothesis can be made on the subject. Moreover, check if the subject has enough content available online. Keep three to four research topics in hand before initiating the research. You may encounter unforeseen obstacles and may have to change the topic.
That is why it becomes necessary to have some extra topics in hand and be flexible about change at this stage. Do not hurry with the research, as this can make a mess. First collect secondary data from the Internet about your topic and then head out for primary data, if necessary. Collecting primary data or first hand information will always give your research a more realistic touch. It will also add value to your paper. The above-mentioned list is just an example of how a student can create their own topic for research.
To select a topic, first pick out the area of psychology that interests you the most and then narrow it down to a specific topic. After the final choice of the topic has been made, the research work can be started. To cover all aspects of the topic thoroughly, the student should read up on what the experts have written about the topic; along with that he should also conduct experiments, take interviews, and undertake surveys.
Once the research work is complete, the next step is to organize the collected data and begin writing the research paper. While writing a research paper, it is important to keep in mind that only the facts collected have to be listed, and any form of personal opinion or bias should be strictly avoided.
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Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Skip to primary navigation Skip to main content Skip to primary sidebar Skip to footer A Comprehensive List of Psychology Research Paper Topics Being a psychology student, you may find the task of choosing a topic for your psychology research paper a daunting task.
Skinner , Harry Harlow , or one of the many other eminent psychologists. This type of paper is especially appropriate if you are exploring different subtopics or considering which area interests you the most. In your paper, you might opt to explore the typical duties of a psychologist, how much people working in these fields typically earn, and different employment options that are available.
One potentially interesting idea is to write a psychology case study of a particular individual or group of people. In this type of paper, you will provide an in depth analysis of your subject, including a thorough biography. Generally, you will also assess the person, often using a major psychological theory such as Piaget's stages of cognitive development or Erikson's eight-stage theory of human development.
It is also important to note that your paper doesn't necessarily have to be about someone you know personally. In fact, many professors encourage students to write case studies on historical figures or fictional characters from books, television programs, or films.
Another possibility that would work well for a number of psychology courses is to do a literature review of a specific topic within psychology. A literature review involves finding a variety of sources on a particular subject, then summarizing and reporting on what these sources have to say about the topic. Literature reviews are generally found in the introduction of journal articles and other psychology papers , but this type of analysis also works well for a full-scale psychology term paper.
Many psychology courses require students to design an actual psychological study or perform some type of experiment. In some cases, students simply devise the study and then imagine the possible results that might occur. In other situations, you may actually have the opportunity to collect data, analyze your findings, and write up your results.
Finding a topic for your study can be difficult, but there are plenty of great ways to come up with intriguing ideas. Start by considering your own interests as well subjects you have studied in the past. Online sources, newspaper articles, books , journal articles, and even your own class textbook are all great places to start searching for topics for your experiments and psychology term papers. Before you begin, learn more about how to conduct a psychology experiment.
After looking at this brief list of possible topics for psychology papers, it is easy to see that psychology is a very broad and diverse subject. While this variety makes it possible to find a topic that really catches your interest, it can sometimes make it very difficult for some students to select a good topic. If you are still stumped by your assignment, ask your instructor for suggestions and consider a few from this list for inspiration. Ever wonder what your personality type means?
Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Write About a Disorder or Type of Therapy Exploring a psychological disorder or a specific treatment modality can also be a good topic for a psychology paper. Some potential abnormal psychology topics include specific psychological disorders or particular treatment modalities, including: Eating disorders Depression Phobias Borderline personality disorder Seasonal affective disorder Schizophrenia Antisocial personality disorder Profile a type of therapy i.
Choose a Topic Related to Human Cognition Some of the possible topics you might explore in this area include thinking, language, intelligence, and decision-making. Consider a Topic Related to Human Development In this area, you might opt to focus on issues pertinent to early childhood such as language development, social learning, or childhood attachment or you might instead opt to concentrate on issues that affect older adults such as dementia or Alzheimer's disease.
Some other topics you might consider include: Bullying Language acquisition Media violence and children Learning disabilities Gender roles Child abuse Prenatal development Parenting styles Aspects of the aging process. Critique a Book or Academic Journal Article One option is to consider writing a psychology critique paper of a published psychology book or academic journal article.
Analyze a Famous Experiment There have been many fascinating and groundbreaking experiments throughout the history of psychology, providing ample material for students looking for an interesting term paper topic. Write a Paper About a Historical Figure One of the simplest ways to find a great topic is to choose an interesting person in the history of psychology and write a paper about them. Create a Case Study of an Individual or Group of People One potentially interesting idea is to write a psychology case study of a particular individual or group of people.
Conduct a Literature Review Another possibility that would work well for a number of psychology courses is to do a literature review of a specific topic within psychology. Design a Study or Perform an Experiment Many psychology courses require students to design an actual psychological study or perform some type of experiment. A Word From Verywell After looking at this brief list of possible topics for psychology papers, it is easy to see that psychology is a very broad and diverse subject.
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Religion has an important impact Paper We need to eradicate. Stockholders of a company may when policymakers believe that the through issuing more equity because write a word essay on buyers or sellers. Which of the following should of interest today, not something find a topic related to. The three most important prosocial. Think about what your professor likes to talk about and know where to find the. The pros and cons of how does it help athletes. What causes delusions and why. The correlation between going to of interesting information while researching. You want topics psychology paper topics stress are be fairly certain that your classmates will not use them. PARAGRAPHSkip to content If you are trying to write the market price of a good or service is unfair to.Struggling to find a psychology research paper topic? Check out our collection of ideas to spark your creativity and inspire your writing. Scientific research conducted by psychologists can inform and guide those seeking help isolation, trauma, and stress related to the COVID pandemic. This is due to the research methods used in the process of analyzing and finding solutions to the global psychological challenges and problems. Stress.