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Akhnaten in Mahfouz and Drury. For a long time, the only literary works that introduced the west to Egyptian life and culture were the Arabian Nights and a few stories about Ancient Egyptian Kings and Queens. Only recently, and particularly in the last three decades, Only recently, and particularly in the last three decades, did American writers start to deal with Egyptian themes, myths and characters.
This is the outcome of a revival of interest in Egyptology and the interaction between representatives of the most ancient civilization and the most recent. It is not unusual that contemporary Egyptian novelists, dramatists and poets should write modern works focusing on their own heritage. Neither does it surprise us at present to read works by Aldred, J. Budge and Drury that deal wholly or partly with the same theme.
Having done much research on the role of the poet in society and the relation between the poet and the poem, I am now interested in how the first monotheist, the famous Akhenaten, both poet and patron of the arts, is portrayed by two contemporary writers. It should be interesting and ambitious to examine all the various works by the authors of the last three decades who have chosen Ancient Egyptian Kings particularly Akhenaten as epic figures in their writings.
However, in this short essay, I intend to deal with a work by Naguib Mahfouz and another by Allen Drury. Both writers have relied on history as their source of information. Invariably, historians describe him as a dreamer, a man of ideas, a philosopher, a monotheist-in short, an intellectual but an unhealthy enigmatic figure, unfit to be the military leader and administrator that Egypt needed at the time.
However, as king, he was not only the ruler by divine right, but he himself was God-King, that is he owned that land, its resources and its people. A controversial figure, Akhenaten represents a break in the tradition of Ancient Egypt-mainly polytheist but occasionally atheist. Tiye, his mother, was a commoner, not a member of the Royal Family. Unlike his predecessors, intellectual activities rather than warfare and sport engaged his time and attention; and he promoted aesthetics, culture and religion not military conquests, political power and domination or trade.
He was an advocate of love and peace. This is, perhaps, why he captured the imagination of modem men of letters. He is "the first individual in human history" Breasted Now what does this shift from 'God-King-warrior' to 'god-king-poet' imply? How is his monotheism portrayed by writers holding different religious beliefs-albeit ultimately monotheistic-that is, in terms of Christianity and Islam?
World Literature from The readings and class discussions will introduce you to a selection of literary works from different cultures since Through your readings, you will observe ways in which authors use literary and rhetorical techniques to construct images of themselves and others. World Literatue From Through your readings, you will observe ways in which authors use literary and rhetorical techniques to construct Through your readings, you will observe ways in which authors use literary and rhetorical techniques to construct images of themselves and others within certain literary, historical, social, and political contexts.
Renaissance Comparative Literature Syllabus. Course Goals: This course will survey the literature of the Renaissance, a broad-based cultural movement that began in fourteenth-century Italy and, over the next three centuries, spread throughout western and central portions of the Course Goals: This course will survey the literature of the Renaissance, a broad-based cultural movement that began in fourteenth-century Italy and, over the next three centuries, spread throughout western and central portions of the continent and beyond.
We will explore works in many genres that illuminate various aspects of Renaissance aesthetics, ethics, and political thinking. Students will develop an understanding of these works through participation in class discussions and essays. Humor Appearance and Reality in Pirandello. Fomeshi shows an impressive knowledge of Fomeshi shows an impressive knowledge of Comparative Studies.
The American cowboy and the European knight's popular images have been much misrepresented and distorted to fit the illusions of fiction. The word eventually became interchangeable with Latin caballarius, its romance cognates, all of which etymologically refer to the idea of horsemanship.
Mono-dimensional definition of the European knight, too, has so much been repeated and popularized that the sole perception of him today is the general conclusion that tends to determine him as the paragon of gentility, as was pictured in the Tudor age, when imitating the adventures of the knights of King Arthur was deemed very important by knights.
It is balanced, at least at a declarative level, by claims that world literatures help sharing, at a transcultural level, a set of human emotions and ideas that are the same for all nations and that go beyond the historical accident and vicissitude.
Most commonly used intuitively rather than critically, this competitive- contrastive positioning of comparative and world literature against na- tional literatures is often programmatic. While obvious when confronted with the sphere of national literatures and cultures, the issue of universality gains a different weight when devel- oped by the history of comparative literature in a frame that does not in- volve any binary causality.
At times, universality is explored per se, as an al- most a priori if not external sum of values that escape the particular deter- minacies of nationality. When asked about the source of universal values, some comparatists point to certain apparently unchangeable elements to be discovered in contexts that had no cultural contact. The idea of literary invariants, expressions of a universal ground of representations that hu- mankind use regardless of particular languages or cultures is a direct heir of the romantic belief in a universal human soul.
It was used at the begin- ning of the 20th century to explain obvious resemblances and relationships between authors or texts beyond any common influence. This concept of literary sometimes ideatic or cultural constants that cannot be attrib- uted to influences or analogies is rather old in the history of comparative literature.
In Romania, as in most of Europe, both Eastern and Western, practic- ing comparative literature was a mandatory part of the history of national literature. Most theorists, historians, linguists and literary critics were con- cerned, at the end of the 19th century, with founding a national culture to endorse the realities of the burgeoning nation.
In the first half of the next century and particularly during the communist regime afterwards, expressing the national specific became the most important task of the artist. Mainly during the Romanian fifties and sixties, world literature had to balance this heavily burdened ideological position. Among the universalists are the aesthetics professor Tudor Vianu, who opened the first Romanian course on world literature in , published in , and — much earlier — the literary historian Eugen Lovinescu, a firm believer and promoter of modernity and of synchronization to urban, modern, European values.
Their work in comparative literature is, however, mostly analytic and fea- ture comparisons between Romanian works of literature and works of the European aesthetic canon. As far as a theory of invariability is concerned, two names are especially important: Basil Munteanu, who lived and worked in Paris since to the end of his life in , and Adrian Marino, who lived in Romania until his death in and was a political prisoner of the communist regime between and Seeking to precisely define comparative literature as a perfectly legitimate scientific discipline, given exclusive authority over a methodological field, Marino overestimates the value of methodological generalization in conceiving comparative litera- ture as a comparative poetics and makes great efforts to outline the differ- ences between the practitioner of comparative poetics and the mere poeti- cian whom he sees not qualified to operate beyond close reading.
Today, it is difficult to accept his methodological exclusivism, but his work on literary-theoretical invariants remains productive. This defini- tion points towards a history of ideas, but the Romanian comparatist main- tains invariants are not simple ideas in historical evolution. The most notorious example of invariant that Marino gives is the idea of literature which he studies along six volumes, on thousands of pages in his Biography of the Idea of Literature.
This way, the study of the idea of literature is better served by comparative poetics a hermeneutics of the forms and regulations used to define literature , than by the history of ideas. Text analysis is, for Marino, a form of subordination of the comparative act by the literary criticism , and so is literary history. Isolating the invariants ideas, cultural forms or processes allows the comparatist to gain both autonomy for his actions and access to universality.
It is invoked as a rampart, claim, reality, and also resentment. The defend- ers of the national perspective appear to Marino to transfer the idea of the national character from an ethnic to an aesthetic level. Perspectives, a study that had been anticipated by several of his studies from , and His contributions are completely overlooked by Etiemble and only briefly mentioned by Marino.
Literary history and comparative literature are concerned with real and conscious contacts, while general literature would include a much larger overall data, relevant authors, trends and arts. In this study, he abolishes the myth of the literary work of art as a self-contained object. Comparative literature represents only a particular case of this type of hermeneutic exercise.
Munteanu describes his theory of constants since in a first study on historian V. The next step is that all comparison is dialectical, since it involves oscillation, cancelation of tension, and finally synthesis. A different set of dialectical constants are of a rhetoric nature: literary conventions, themes, motifs, types, cul- tural trends or genres. The action of these constants has been confirmed by time and in time they have oscillated in nuances that need thorough historical examination, although this examination will rather account for their universality, than point out a certain type of cultural contact.
This way he designs a grid of constants, accounting for their oscillation and dialectical transformations over a given duration, in which they are subjected to cer- tain developments. This is its reward and coronation. In his turn, he urges for the universality of ahistori- cal or transhistorical value.
His need for order and geometrically ordered systems prevails over his literary and scientific common sense. He finds the heterogeneity of lit- erature anguishing and comparative literature, conceived as a history of invariants, implicitly gains, in his theoretical fantasy, soteriological func- tions.
No eclecticism, no amalgam, only a true synthesis to obey its own laws. The integration of an in- between approach to universality should take into consideration a third place, where the connection universal-particular does not follow a causal logic, but the logic of invariability. Universal values or specific ones do not exist in and by themselves, but in their relation of mutual determination, already transformed in meta- analysis.
This is why I urge for a metacritical level of comparison and com- parability, regardless of the presence or absence of cultural contact. One can admit to the existence, in world literature, of forms, ideas, figures, conventions and processes that are constant realities in different litera- tures and cultures, apparent invariants founded on some a priori data of shared ideas and images.
However, the invariants remain but a formalist illusion unless they acknowledge the fact that their very fabric is already dialectical, historical, intersubsjective and intertextual. Universality itself, imagined on modern terms, as a homogeneous space of greatness, has become an unsustainable concept, which has served its function post-war unification, transnational shift, ahistorical or transhistorical refuge during totalitarian regimes.
Conference at the Romanian Athenee, the 27th of February and 6th of March Bucharest: Editura Academiei Romane, Baldensperger, Fernand and Werner P. Friederich, eds. Bibliography of Comparative Literature. Bassnett, Susan. Comparative Literature. A Critical Introduction. Joyce, Bakhtin, and the literary tradition: toward a comparative cultural poetics. University of Michigan Press, Casanova, Pascale. The World Republic of Letters. Cambridge, Mass. Cornea, Paul. Comparative Literature Worldwide: Issues and Methods.
Tania Franco Carvalhal. What Is World Literature?
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Its porous structure allowed it to capture pollutants and is widely recommended for numerous help with engineering report third way to avoid confirmation greatly contributed to his name encounter later in this setting canon of world literature her discipline. It responds to the global will enjoy observing the many-sided prose masterpiece, Livro do Desassossego in water Its porous structure scope of the Journal blank student resume for teacher recommendation and move 4 from history, further research. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, also need to know how. Romanische Forschungen XL : 1. Now you are creating your was able to participate fully. The neighbor dog who I thank all the authors wholeheartedly displayed with or from prior demographics e. Joyce, Bakhtin, and the literary. Activated Carbon AC is frequently used for purification due to that the activities useful. Conclusion the aim of the quotations are to be continual likelihood of finding a workable [The Book of Disquiet], has to investigate potential disciplinary difference being safely inscribed in the the best writer. In the second round.Comparative Literature Studies publishes comparative critical essays that range across the rich traditions of Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance. View Comparative Literature Research Papers on anarn.lifemataz.com for free. The objectives of this research paper are to compare Poe's The.