research papers - on comparative literature

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They will instead make a cash settlement, which reflects the market value at the time the loss happened. This is so a prospective buyer knows a vehicle was previously written off when conducting vehicle history checks. These checks also cover whether the vehicle is stolen or has outstanding finance, too. So, what do the categories mean?

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Research papers - on comparative literature

This will further provide proof on the excellence of your research paper assignment and your research paper writing skills. In proof of its importance, one section of a research paper is even devoted to document the contents of your reference materials. Literature review, which usually follows the research paper proposal, contains documentation of the pertinent data found in secondary sources such as books, journals, or magazines.

To further the credibility of your paper, it is always important to use more than two reference materials. This becomes a challenge for a writer because fusing two or more ideas in a single literature review research paper can become difficult. If you are looking for a custom research paper writing company who can provide you a good research paper, then ProfEssays. And the writers at ProfEssays.

You can rely on their strong skill to do a good research and put the content in good English grammar and usage in your paper. All the custom essays and research papers that we deliver to our customers have to go through plagiarism test to ensure that they are not pirated in any way. We charge very affordably to our customers. For any reader, the thesis statement provides a brief insight on the contents of the research paper. With the thesis statement, readers get a preview of what to expect from the academic paper.

Writing this part of the research paper poses a challenge even for professional writers because in a single sentence, a writer must be able to effectively relay his objectives and goal in writing a research paper. He must be able to justify why he chose his research paper topic and what contribution it could possibly bring in the discipline or the academe. In academic papers that discuss literature research paper topics, it is important to create a strong literature thesis statement.

The most basic test of an effective thesis statement does not provoke your reader to ask so what? If he asks this question, then it is evident that the purpose of your paper remains vague and ambiguous. Despite the short length of this part of the research paper, it remains as a critical part because it contains the very essence of your paper. For custom research paper writing help, seek the professionals of ProfEssays. We will write a good research paper for you!

Follow the link to get some research paper topic ideas. In writing any type of research paper, topic choice always makes the difference. Whether you plan to write a descriptive research paper or a personal research paper, the correct topic allows you to write the perfect academic paper. In writing literary academic papers, literature research paper topics must be chosen with care, as well. There are many factors to consider on choosing the appropriate research paper topic.

This includes: the research paper rubrics, amount of available research materials and the amount of interest you have on the paper. Considering all of these and more, many students think that academic writing is a hassle that they would not rather do without. This is especially true if the topic is something that is difficult to discuss. Faced with this dilemma, it is always best to seek professional help in academic paper writing.

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By choosing us as your partner, you achieve more academically and gain valuable time for your other interests. Place your order now! Looking for an exceptional company to do some custom writing for you? Without cookies your experience may not be seamless. Institutional Login. LOG IN. Comparative Literature Studies. Additional Information. Comparative Literature Studies Journal Save contents. Available Issues Vol. Table of Contents.

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Akhnaten in Mahfouz and Drury. For a long time, the only literary works that introduced the west to Egyptian life and culture were the Arabian Nights and a few stories about Ancient Egyptian Kings and Queens. Only recently, and particularly in the last three decades, Only recently, and particularly in the last three decades, did American writers start to deal with Egyptian themes, myths and characters.

This is the outcome of a revival of interest in Egyptology and the interaction between representatives of the most ancient civilization and the most recent. It is not unusual that contemporary Egyptian novelists, dramatists and poets should write modern works focusing on their own heritage. Neither does it surprise us at present to read works by Aldred, J. Budge and Drury that deal wholly or partly with the same theme.

Having done much research on the role of the poet in society and the relation between the poet and the poem, I am now interested in how the first monotheist, the famous Akhenaten, both poet and patron of the arts, is portrayed by two contemporary writers. It should be interesting and ambitious to examine all the various works by the authors of the last three decades who have chosen Ancient Egyptian Kings particularly Akhenaten as epic figures in their writings.

However, in this short essay, I intend to deal with a work by Naguib Mahfouz and another by Allen Drury. Both writers have relied on history as their source of information. Invariably, historians describe him as a dreamer, a man of ideas, a philosopher, a monotheist-in short, an intellectual but an unhealthy enigmatic figure, unfit to be the military leader and administrator that Egypt needed at the time.

However, as king, he was not only the ruler by divine right, but he himself was God-King, that is he owned that land, its resources and its people. A controversial figure, Akhenaten represents a break in the tradition of Ancient Egypt-mainly polytheist but occasionally atheist. Tiye, his mother, was a commoner, not a member of the Royal Family. Unlike his predecessors, intellectual activities rather than warfare and sport engaged his time and attention; and he promoted aesthetics, culture and religion not military conquests, political power and domination or trade.

He was an advocate of love and peace. This is, perhaps, why he captured the imagination of modem men of letters. He is "the first individual in human history" Breasted Now what does this shift from 'God-King-warrior' to 'god-king-poet' imply? How is his monotheism portrayed by writers holding different religious beliefs-albeit ultimately monotheistic-that is, in terms of Christianity and Islam?

World Literature from The readings and class discussions will introduce you to a selection of literary works from different cultures since Through your readings, you will observe ways in which authors use literary and rhetorical techniques to construct images of themselves and others. World Literatue From Through your readings, you will observe ways in which authors use literary and rhetorical techniques to construct Through your readings, you will observe ways in which authors use literary and rhetorical techniques to construct images of themselves and others within certain literary, historical, social, and political contexts.

Renaissance Comparative Literature Syllabus. Course Goals: This course will survey the literature of the Renaissance, a broad-based cultural movement that began in fourteenth-century Italy and, over the next three centuries, spread throughout western and central portions of the Course Goals: This course will survey the literature of the Renaissance, a broad-based cultural movement that began in fourteenth-century Italy and, over the next three centuries, spread throughout western and central portions of the continent and beyond.

We will explore works in many genres that illuminate various aspects of Renaissance aesthetics, ethics, and political thinking. Students will develop an understanding of these works through participation in class discussions and essays. Humor Appearance and Reality in Pirandello. Fomeshi shows an impressive knowledge of Fomeshi shows an impressive knowledge of Comparative Studies.

The American cowboy and the European knight's popular images have been much misrepresented and distorted to fit the illusions of fiction. The word eventually became interchangeable with Latin caballarius, its romance cognates, all of which etymologically refer to the idea of horsemanship.

Mono-dimensional definition of the European knight, too, has so much been repeated and popularized that the sole perception of him today is the general conclusion that tends to determine him as the paragon of gentility, as was pictured in the Tudor age, when imitating the adventures of the knights of King Arthur was deemed very important by knights.

It is balanced, at least at a declarative level, by claims that world literatures help sharing, at a transcultural level, a set of human emotions and ideas that are the same for all nations and that go beyond the historical accident and vicissitude.

Most commonly used intuitively rather than critically, this competitive- contrastive positioning of comparative and world literature against na- tional literatures is often programmatic. While obvious when confronted with the sphere of national literatures and cultures, the issue of universality gains a different weight when devel- oped by the history of comparative literature in a frame that does not in- volve any binary causality.

At times, universality is explored per se, as an al- most a priori if not external sum of values that escape the particular deter- minacies of nationality. When asked about the source of universal values, some comparatists point to certain apparently unchangeable elements to be discovered in contexts that had no cultural contact. The idea of literary invariants, expressions of a universal ground of representations that hu- mankind use regardless of particular languages or cultures is a direct heir of the romantic belief in a universal human soul.

It was used at the begin- ning of the 20th century to explain obvious resemblances and relationships between authors or texts beyond any common influence. This concept of literary sometimes ideatic or cultural constants that cannot be attrib- uted to influences or analogies is rather old in the history of comparative literature.

In Romania, as in most of Europe, both Eastern and Western, practic- ing comparative literature was a mandatory part of the history of national literature. Most theorists, historians, linguists and literary critics were con- cerned, at the end of the 19th century, with founding a national culture to endorse the realities of the burgeoning nation.

In the first half of the next century and particularly during the communist regime afterwards, expressing the national specific became the most important task of the artist. Mainly during the Romanian fifties and sixties, world literature had to balance this heavily burdened ideological position. Among the universalists are the aesthetics professor Tudor Vianu, who opened the first Romanian course on world literature in , published in , and — much earlier — the literary historian Eugen Lovinescu, a firm believer and promoter of modernity and of synchronization to urban, modern, European values.

Their work in comparative literature is, however, mostly analytic and fea- ture comparisons between Romanian works of literature and works of the European aesthetic canon. As far as a theory of invariability is concerned, two names are especially important: Basil Munteanu, who lived and worked in Paris since to the end of his life in , and Adrian Marino, who lived in Romania until his death in and was a political prisoner of the communist regime between and Seeking to precisely define comparative literature as a perfectly legitimate scientific discipline, given exclusive authority over a methodological field, Marino overestimates the value of methodological generalization in conceiving comparative litera- ture as a comparative poetics and makes great efforts to outline the differ- ences between the practitioner of comparative poetics and the mere poeti- cian whom he sees not qualified to operate beyond close reading.

Today, it is difficult to accept his methodological exclusivism, but his work on literary-theoretical invariants remains productive. This defini- tion points towards a history of ideas, but the Romanian comparatist main- tains invariants are not simple ideas in historical evolution. The most notorious example of invariant that Marino gives is the idea of literature which he studies along six volumes, on thousands of pages in his Biography of the Idea of Literature.

This way, the study of the idea of literature is better served by comparative poetics a hermeneutics of the forms and regulations used to define literature , than by the history of ideas. Text analysis is, for Marino, a form of subordination of the comparative act by the literary criticism , and so is literary history. Isolating the invariants ideas, cultural forms or processes allows the comparatist to gain both autonomy for his actions and access to universality.

It is invoked as a rampart, claim, reality, and also resentment. The defend- ers of the national perspective appear to Marino to transfer the idea of the national character from an ethnic to an aesthetic level. Perspectives, a study that had been anticipated by several of his studies from , and His contributions are completely overlooked by Etiemble and only briefly mentioned by Marino.

Literary history and comparative literature are concerned with real and conscious contacts, while general literature would include a much larger overall data, relevant authors, trends and arts. In this study, he abolishes the myth of the literary work of art as a self-contained object. Comparative literature represents only a particular case of this type of hermeneutic exercise.

Munteanu describes his theory of constants since in a first study on historian V. The next step is that all comparison is dialectical, since it involves oscillation, cancelation of tension, and finally synthesis. A different set of dialectical constants are of a rhetoric nature: literary conventions, themes, motifs, types, cul- tural trends or genres. The action of these constants has been confirmed by time and in time they have oscillated in nuances that need thorough historical examination, although this examination will rather account for their universality, than point out a certain type of cultural contact.

This way he designs a grid of constants, accounting for their oscillation and dialectical transformations over a given duration, in which they are subjected to cer- tain developments. This is its reward and coronation. In his turn, he urges for the universality of ahistori- cal or transhistorical value.

His need for order and geometrically ordered systems prevails over his literary and scientific common sense. He finds the heterogeneity of lit- erature anguishing and comparative literature, conceived as a history of invariants, implicitly gains, in his theoretical fantasy, soteriological func- tions.

No eclecticism, no amalgam, only a true synthesis to obey its own laws. The integration of an in- between approach to universality should take into consideration a third place, where the connection universal-particular does not follow a causal logic, but the logic of invariability. Universal values or specific ones do not exist in and by themselves, but in their relation of mutual determination, already transformed in meta- analysis.

This is why I urge for a metacritical level of comparison and com- parability, regardless of the presence or absence of cultural contact. One can admit to the existence, in world literature, of forms, ideas, figures, conventions and processes that are constant realities in different litera- tures and cultures, apparent invariants founded on some a priori data of shared ideas and images.

However, the invariants remain but a formalist illusion unless they acknowledge the fact that their very fabric is already dialectical, historical, intersubsjective and intertextual. Universality itself, imagined on modern terms, as a homogeneous space of greatness, has become an unsustainable concept, which has served its function post-war unification, transnational shift, ahistorical or transhistorical refuge during totalitarian regimes.

Conference at the Romanian Athenee, the 27th of February and 6th of March Bucharest: Editura Academiei Romane, Baldensperger, Fernand and Werner P. Friederich, eds. Bibliography of Comparative Literature. Bassnett, Susan. Comparative Literature. A Critical Introduction. Joyce, Bakhtin, and the literary tradition: toward a comparative cultural poetics. University of Michigan Press, Casanova, Pascale. The World Republic of Letters. Cambridge, Mass. Cornea, Paul. Comparative Literature Worldwide: Issues and Methods.

Tania Franco Carvalhal. What Is World Literature?


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Everything to know about Comparative Literature - 1st Year

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Comparative Literature Studies publishes comparative critical essays that range across the rich traditions of Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance. View Comparative Literature Research Papers on for free. The objectives of this research paper are to compare Poe's The.