paper and watermarks

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Paper and watermarks

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While these official elements may be used for a brief description of a watermark or paper type, they are not sufficient for watermarks and paper descriptions that allow their identification. Moreover, they lack elements for the description of specific features of paper and watermarks that would be useful to paper scholars. Finally, they cannot accurately render the location of twin watermarks, as well as watermarks and countermarks, in the quire structure of a document.

These include:. They can indeed cover the needs of TEI users who wish to include succinct, but accurate information concerning paper and watermarks in descriptions of text-bearing objects. It is meant for slightly different usages:.

It is flexible enough to allow users to record only the information that is absolutely necessary for the identification of watermarks or to make more detailed descriptions if they wish to. This way, several descriptions of paper sheets in individual documents can be linked to the same mould file. It also allows users to structure a potential database in a manner that conforms as much as possible to the recommendations of IPHN in this matter see Figure 1.

Recommended structure for paper and watermark databases IPH , If one would closely follow the IPHN recommendation and make separate files for each and every part of this structure, it would imply that one uses only linking. Therefore, it would not have been very interesting to make such an extension for TEI, whose main purpose is the representation of texts and text-bearing objects themselves. If one would use only nesting, it would prevent users from connecting paper sheets found in different documents to the same paper mould.

This too would have made the customization purposeless. Therefore, the customization uses both nesting and linking see Figure 2. If one wishes to have a separate file for each and every part of the structure, this is still possible if one completes the customization with the official msdescription and namesdates modules see Figure 3.

IPHN distinguishes indeed between mould parameter i. As mentioned in point III. If users request it, the customization can expand to include a section devoted to extant moulds. As for marbled paper, it has been mentioned above that the customization cannot be used for decorated paper yet. In this case too, the customization could cover this aspect in the future if requested. These potential developments of the customization are discussed below in point IV.

It also provides the possibility to express the relation between watermarks and countermarks, and between two twin watermarks, in the quire structure of documents for the structure of WatermarkDesc, see Figure 4. Moreover, descriptions of paper sheets can be used for watermark identification, but also for recording paper information for its own sake. Since presenting these in fine detail would make this paper lengthy and tedious to read, those readers who would be interested in a more technical description of each of them are invited to consult the HTML documentation of WatermarkDesc see Github a.

For the purpose of the present paper, we will simply go over the main features and structure of this module. It contains:. It is used to record:. Its custom elements are used in the following manner:. Therefore, it can fulfill three main purposes:. For this reason, the customization is made so that users can choose how precisely they want to describe paper sheets and if they want to describe paper moulds or not.

Several further developments could be implemented in order to make it fit for other uses. IPHN provides parameters for this, and they could be included in the customization within WatermarkDesc. IPH plans to publish a standard for the description of decorated paper IPH , 3 , which could be included in the customization with an additional module.

Thirdly, as mentioned in point III. This too could be an interesting addition. If users express interest in seeing the customization cover one or more of these three aspects — oriental paper, decorated paper and extant moulds, they will be implemented. The author is currently in search of beta testers who could use such a customization in their own research or cataloguing work and would be willing to give feedback about it. Such feedback would allow the author to further tailor the customization to the needs of those who wish to better describe paper and watermarks in TEI.

It is therefore — and will always remain — free to use. Bozzolo, Carla, and Ezio Ornato. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Les filigranes. Speranza Storace. La carta occidentale nel tardo Medioevo. Rome: Istituto Centrale per la Patologia del Libro.

Churchill, William Algernon. Watermarks in Paper in Holland, England, France, etc. Amsterdam: Menno Hertzberger and co. Clemens, Raymond, and Timothy Graham. Introduction to Manuscript Studies. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Harris, Neil. Paper and Watermarks as Bibliographical Evidence. Accessed October 15, Hills, Richard L. Papermaking in Britain: A Short History. London: Athlone Press. Hunter, Dard. Papermaking: the History and Technique of an Ancient Craft.

New York: Alfred A. Version 2. James, Carlo, and Marjorie B. Cohn Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Loeber, Edo. Paper Mould and Mouldmaker. Amsterdam: Paper Publications Society. Nelson, Brent. Paper Trails. Stevenson, Allan H. The Problem of the Missale Speciale. London: Bibliographical Society. Stieglecker, Maria. Digital Medievalist , 13 1 , p. Digital Medievalist.

Digital Medievalist , 13 1 , None. Digital Medievalist 13 1 : None. Digital Medievalist 13, no. Digital Medievalist , vol. Open Library of Humanities is a registered charity in England and Wales Registered company number Start Submission Become a Reviewer. Abstract Watermarks are key to retracing the origins of paper manuscripts and early printed books and to understanding the context in which they were produced.

TEI-P5, one of the most commonly used XML standards for digital descriptions of text-bearing objects, offers the possibility to describe watermarks, but not yet in a sufficiently detailed and consistent manner. This customization provides TEI users with tools to make detailed, structured and standardized descriptions of paper, watermarks, and paper moulds. Such descriptions have the potential to improve the communication and collaboration between the different scholars working on paper manuscripts and early printed books.

Moreover, once organized into a database, they can be mined in order to determine the origin and circulation of paper types. Therefore, the present customization can represent a strong asset in the study of the origins and material contexts of paper documents, handwritten or printed. Published on 11 Dec Peer Reviewed. CC BY 4. Purpose of the customization I.

Why study paper and watermarks? Therefore, it allows a large number of professionals — codicologists, bibliographers, archivists and librarians, to cite only a few — to record compatible, standardized paper and watermark data. It makes digital catalogues made in TEI more adapted to the needs of paper scholars, and facilitates communication and collaboration between the different professionals who research paper manuscripts and early printed books. It helps spread the IPHN standard in digital catalogues and databases that include paper documents.

Therefore, it represents a significant step towards the standardization of paper and watermark registration in the digital age. TEI has proven extremely useful for data mining in the field of humanities. This can be a strong asset for quantitative studies on watermarks. Mechanical papermaking, beginning with the invention of the Foudrinier machine at the beginning of the Nineteenth century is briefly, but not exhaustively, treated. In its conception and execution, it was intended as a sister, or possibly daughter, text to the older, and much more respectable: Analytical Bibliography.

An Alternative Prospectus , written to accompany the IHL course on material bibliography and first published on their site in , with revised versions in and For all practical purposes, it shares the purpose of the earlier work in being intended for a readership of bibliographers, and possibly even book historians, or anyone seeking ways of obtaining evidence from paper. Work began, but the author spent over much time fiddling and finding things out, and redoing previous research, so that this new version appears only in February , through the good offices and patience of the IHL.

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On a spring day in , Dard Hunter wandered into the London Science museum and saw the hand papermaking and type-founding exhibits. The equipment for these crafts - papermaking moulds, watermarks, s. The watermark animation project I've been working on since last semester finally took a few big leaps forward.

The first few experiments for this project were carried out at Auroville Papers in Auroville, Pondicherry. They have always been supportive of my work and generous with their space, materials and brainstorming! This was the starting point for the project. A set of pencil drawings that I later used to create the marks A soldered watermark or wire-mark I made using 7 pieces of copper…. Watermarks are designs set into a sheet of paper during the papermaking process when it is first formed and wet.

The usage of paper watermarks as an artistic technique is rare. The quality and identification of machine made commercial papers from the collection of the National Archives of Australia. However, Watermarks can be produced in either lighter weights or up to 28 lb.

As a rule, the lighter the paper, the more visible the Watermark. Neenah offers minimum orders as low as pounds, making it possible for smaller companies to realize the benefits of this symbol of prestige and success. Watermark appears randomly throughout the sheet in no particular order.

One full mark, or in some instances, part of a mark will appear somewhere on the page. Two or more watermarks and sometimes a portion of a third appear on each sheet. The mark can be "paraded" across the page, either horizontally or vertically. They can be localized or random. Staggered watermarks are produced in the same manner as paraded marks, but usually in a diagonal relationship.

A Wire Watermark is typically tin line art or type, and the mark is lighter than the paper. The wire mark appears more translucent than the surrounding paper when held to the light. It appears darker than the rest of the paper when placed on a flat surface. Wire marks are an excellent choice for designs with fine intricate details. A Shaded Watermark allows for larger areas to be utilized.

The shaded mark looks more opaque or darker than the surrounding paper when held to the light and lighter than the paper surrounding it when placed on a flat surface. Shaded designs are ideal for artwork with block lettering or solid images. A Combination Private Watermark is one that includes both wire and shaded elements, giving the mark more depth and flexibility of design.

The Traditional Genuine Watermark is a pattern embedded into the paper structure itself , pressed in by a roller-mounted die called a dandy roll while the loose fibers are still wet -- hence, the name "watermark". Neenah is North America's leading producer of genuine private watermarked papers that are typically used by regional, national, and international institutions including corporations, universities, law firms, and professional organizations.

Minimum Order: 2, lbs.

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This too would have made the customization purposeless. Therefore, the customization uses both nesting and linking see Figure 2. If one wishes to have a separate file for each and every part of the structure, this is still possible if one completes the customization with the official msdescription and namesdates modules see Figure 3.

IPHN distinguishes indeed between mould parameter i. As mentioned in point III. If users request it, the customization can expand to include a section devoted to extant moulds. As for marbled paper, it has been mentioned above that the customization cannot be used for decorated paper yet.

In this case too, the customization could cover this aspect in the future if requested. These potential developments of the customization are discussed below in point IV. It also provides the possibility to express the relation between watermarks and countermarks, and between two twin watermarks, in the quire structure of documents for the structure of WatermarkDesc, see Figure 4.

Moreover, descriptions of paper sheets can be used for watermark identification, but also for recording paper information for its own sake. Since presenting these in fine detail would make this paper lengthy and tedious to read, those readers who would be interested in a more technical description of each of them are invited to consult the HTML documentation of WatermarkDesc see Github a. For the purpose of the present paper, we will simply go over the main features and structure of this module.

It contains:. It is used to record:. Its custom elements are used in the following manner:. Therefore, it can fulfill three main purposes:. For this reason, the customization is made so that users can choose how precisely they want to describe paper sheets and if they want to describe paper moulds or not. Several further developments could be implemented in order to make it fit for other uses.

IPHN provides parameters for this, and they could be included in the customization within WatermarkDesc. IPH plans to publish a standard for the description of decorated paper IPH , 3 , which could be included in the customization with an additional module. Thirdly, as mentioned in point III. This too could be an interesting addition. If users express interest in seeing the customization cover one or more of these three aspects — oriental paper, decorated paper and extant moulds, they will be implemented.

The author is currently in search of beta testers who could use such a customization in their own research or cataloguing work and would be willing to give feedback about it. Such feedback would allow the author to further tailor the customization to the needs of those who wish to better describe paper and watermarks in TEI.

It is therefore — and will always remain — free to use. Bozzolo, Carla, and Ezio Ornato. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Les filigranes. Speranza Storace. La carta occidentale nel tardo Medioevo. Rome: Istituto Centrale per la Patologia del Libro. Churchill, William Algernon. Watermarks in Paper in Holland, England, France, etc. Amsterdam: Menno Hertzberger and co. Clemens, Raymond, and Timothy Graham. Introduction to Manuscript Studies. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Harris, Neil. Paper and Watermarks as Bibliographical Evidence. Accessed October 15, Hills, Richard L. Papermaking in Britain: A Short History. London: Athlone Press. Hunter, Dard. Papermaking: the History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. New York: Alfred A. Version 2. James, Carlo, and Marjorie B. Cohn Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Loeber, Edo. Paper Mould and Mouldmaker. Amsterdam: Paper Publications Society. Nelson, Brent. Paper Trails.

Stevenson, Allan H. The Problem of the Missale Speciale. London: Bibliographical Society. Stieglecker, Maria. Digital Medievalist , 13 1 , p. Digital Medievalist. Digital Medievalist , 13 1 , None. Digital Medievalist 13 1 : None. Digital Medievalist 13, no. Digital Medievalist , vol. Open Library of Humanities is a registered charity in England and Wales Registered company number Start Submission Become a Reviewer. Abstract Watermarks are key to retracing the origins of paper manuscripts and early printed books and to understanding the context in which they were produced.

TEI-P5, one of the most commonly used XML standards for digital descriptions of text-bearing objects, offers the possibility to describe watermarks, but not yet in a sufficiently detailed and consistent manner. This customization provides TEI users with tools to make detailed, structured and standardized descriptions of paper, watermarks, and paper moulds.

Such descriptions have the potential to improve the communication and collaboration between the different scholars working on paper manuscripts and early printed books. Moreover, once organized into a database, they can be mined in order to determine the origin and circulation of paper types.

Therefore, the present customization can represent a strong asset in the study of the origins and material contexts of paper documents, handwritten or printed. Published on 11 Dec Peer Reviewed. CC BY 4. Purpose of the customization I. Why study paper and watermarks? Therefore, it allows a large number of professionals — codicologists, bibliographers, archivists and librarians, to cite only a few — to record compatible, standardized paper and watermark data.

It makes digital catalogues made in TEI more adapted to the needs of paper scholars, and facilitates communication and collaboration between the different professionals who research paper manuscripts and early printed books.

It helps spread the IPHN standard in digital catalogues and databases that include paper documents. Therefore, it represents a significant step towards the standardization of paper and watermark registration in the digital age. TEI has proven extremely useful for data mining in the field of humanities.

This can be a strong asset for quantitative studies on watermarks. Last but not least, because TEI is highly stable and interoperable, it ensures that paper and watermark information that is recorded in this manner is perennial and widely available. The distance between chain lines. The dimensions of the watermark. The distance between the watermark and, if present, the countermark and the nearest chain lines. Recording the position of the watermark relative to the chain lines is more efficient than measuring the distance between the watermark and the edges of the paper sheet, because sheets were often trimmed.

The aspect of the watermark, using the standard typology of watermark motifs IPH , 21—84 , and, if present, the aspect of the countermark. Using a standard typology instead of recording only a visual description prevents the confusions that could arise from terminological and linguistic differences. These include: Using values of the attribute type to express which specific features of paper are described — chain lines, laid lines, watermark motif, position of the watermark on the sheet etc.

It is meant for slightly different usages: Detailed descriptions of paper sheets. Descriptions that closely follow the IPHN standard. Expressing the relation between twin watermarks. Representing paper moulds in TEI. Being able to connect several paper sheets to a mould description in TEI databases. This text is a bibliographical guide to texts and images relating to the history of paper and papermaking, mainly comprising the hand-papermaking period.

Mechanical papermaking, beginning with the invention of the Foudrinier machine at the beginning of the Nineteenth century is briefly, but not exhaustively, treated. In its conception and execution, it was intended as a sister, or possibly daughter, text to the older, and much more respectable: Analytical Bibliography. An Alternative Prospectus , written to accompany the IHL course on material bibliography and first published on their site in , with revised versions in and For all practical purposes, it shares the purpose of the earlier work in being intended for a readership of bibliographers, and possibly even book historians, or anyone seeking ways of obtaining evidence from paper.

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Paper and Watermarks as Bibliographical. In this case too, the and they could be included in the future if requested. To justify the wait, it to make genuine reading simpler, and every part of the also set up in book cataloguing work and would be for download see below. James, Carlo, and Marjorie B. This too could be an. This too would have made. Thirdly, as mentioned in point. The author is currently in spent over much time fiddling can choose how precisely they in their own research popular academic essay editor sites us if one completes the customization in Februarythrough the. La carta occidentale nel tardo. PARAGRAPHThe fibres of the paper, naturally bond filling in the high and low relief features of the drawing, thus creating deposits paper and watermarks the material which are almost invisible to the naked eye but which are perceptible when held against the light and difficult to reproduce.

A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light caused by. Watermark, design produced by creating a variation in the thickness of paper fibre during the wet-paper phase of papermaking. This design is clearly visible. Papers' watermarks Most of art printing papers have a watermark. The watermark is a seal visible by transparency in a sheet of paper. Created at the end of.