research paper hypothesis examples

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Research paper hypothesis examples

A good research hypothesis involves more efforts than just a guess. In particular, your hypothesis may begin with a question which could be further explored through background research. To help you formulate a promising research hypothesis, you should ask yourself the following questions:. The questions listed above can be used as a checklist to make sure your hypothesis is based on a solid foundation.

Furthermore, it can help you identify weaknesses in your hypothesis and revise it if necessary. It predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable. It specifies the expected direction to be followed to determine the relationship between variables, and is derived from theory.

It does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables. Non-directional hypothesis is used when there is no theory involved or when findings contradict previous research. Associative hypothesis defines interdependency between variables.

A change in one variable results in the change of the other variable. On the other hand, causal hypothesis proposes an effect on the dependent due to manipulation of the independent variable. It states that there is a relationship between the two variables of the study and that the results are significant to the research topic.

A testable hypothesis is not a simple statement. It is rather an intricate statement that needs to offer a clear introduction to a scientific experiment, its intentions, and the possible outcomes. However, there are some important things to consider when building a compelling hypothesis.

Independent variables are the ones which are manipulated, controlled, or changed. Independent variables are isolated from other factors of the study. Dependent variables , as name suggests are dependent on other factors of the study.

They are influenced by the change in independent variable. Example 1 The greater number of coal plants in a region independent variable increases water pollution dependent variable. If you change the independent variable building more coal factories , it will change the dependent variable amount of water pollution.

Example 2 What is the effect of diet or regular soda independent variable on blood sugar levels dependent variable? If you change the independent variable the type of soda you consume , it will change the dependent variable blood sugar levels. You should not ignore the importance of the above steps. Though the other one is perfectly acceptable, an ideal research hypothesis should contain a prediction, which is why the more formal ones are favored.

A scientist who becomes fixated on proving a research hypothesis loses their impartiality and credibility. Statistical tests often uncover trends, but rarely give a clear-cut answer, with other factors often affecting the outcome and influencing the results.

Whilst gut instinct and logic tells us that fish stocks are affected by over fishing, it is not necessarily true and the researcher must consider that outcome. Perhaps environmental factors or pollution are causal effects influencing fish stocks. A hypothesis must be testable , taking into account current knowledge and techniques, and be realistic.

If the researcher does not have a multi-million dollar budget then there is no point in generating complicated hypotheses. A hypothesis must be verifiable by statistical and analytical means, to allow a verification or falsification. This means that the research showed that the evidence supported the hypothesis and further research is built upon that. Your hypothesis should Be written in clear, concise language.

Have both an independent and dependent variable. Be falsifiable — is it possible to prove or disprove the statement? Make a prediction or speculate on an outcome. Be practicable — can you measure the variables in question? Hypothesize about a proposed relationship between two variables, or an intervention into this relationship.

The research hypothesis is often also callen H 1 and opposes the current view, called the null hypothesis H 0. Mini quiz:. Consider the following hypotheses. Are they likely to lead to sound research and conclusions, and if not, how could they be improved? Adding mica to a plastic compound will decrease its viscosity. Those who drink a cup of green tea daily experience enhanced wellness.

Prolonged staring into solar eclipses confers extrasensory powers. A decline in family values is lowering the marriage rate. Children with insecure attachment style are more likely to engage in political dissent as adults. This is an ideal hypothesis statement. It is well-phrased, clear, falsifiable and merely by reading it, one gets an idea of the kind of research design it would inspire. This hypothesis is less clear, and the problem is with the dependent variable. A better hypothesis might be: those who drink a cup of green tea daily display lower levels of inflammatory markers in the blood.

Though this hypothesis looks a little ridiculous, it is actually quite simple, falsifiable and easy to operationalize. The obvious problem is that scientific research seldom occupies itself with supernatural phenomenon and worse, putting this research into action will likely cause damage to its participants.

When it comes to hypotheses, not all questions need to be answered! However, scientists should always be alert for their own possible biases creeping into research, and this can occur right from the start. Normative topics with moral elements are seldom neutral. A better hypothesis will remove any contentious, subjective elements. A better hypothesis: decrease in total discretionary income corresponds to lower marriage rate in people 20 — 30 years of age.

This hypothesis may yield very interesting and useful results, but practically, how will the researchers gather the data? Even if research is logically sound, it may not be feasible in the real world. A researcher might instead choose to make a more manageable hypothesis: high scores on an insecure attachment style questionnaire will correlate with high scores on a political dissention questionnaire.

Though complex, this is a good hypothesis. It is falsifiable, has clearly identified variables and can be supported or rejected using the right statistical methods. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Research Hypothesis. Retrieved Jul 06, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. That is it. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution.

A research hypothesis H 1 is the statement created by researchers when they speculate upon the outcome of a research or experiment.

Research paper hypothesis examples Hence, forming a hypothesis would be of great value to the research. We have tested thousands of candidates to present you with the best writers available. Research Question Hypothesis Null Hypothesis How does stress affect the academic performance of undergraduate students? As a research hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study, you may consider drawing hypothesis from previously published research based on the theory. There is no research paper hypothesis examples between the time spent on social media and the attention span of users under 16 years of age. Like Explorable? There are two basic types of research methods: descriptive research and experimental research.
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Persuasive ghostwriting website uk Increasing levels of stress among undergraduate students will have no effect on academic performance. Nursing Essay Writing. A minor flaw in the construction of your hypothesis could have an adverse effect on your experiment. We promise to protect your privacy and never spam you. Get all these articles in 1 guide Want the full version to study at home, take to school or just scribble on? It also helps us develop new hypotheses that can then be tested in the future.
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A research hypothesis H 1 is the statement created by researchers when they speculate upon the outcome of a research or experiment. Every true experimental design must have this statement at the core of its structure, as the ultimate aim of any experiment. The hypothesis is generated via a number of means, but is usually the result of a process of inductive reasoning where observations lead to the formation of a theory.

Scientists then use a large battery of deductive methods to arrive at a hypothesis that is testable , falsifiable and realistic. The precursor to a hypothesis is a research problem , usually framed as a question. It might ask what, or why, something is happening. For example, we might wonder why the stocks of cod in the North Atlantic are declining.

This is too broad as a statement and is not testable by any reasonable scientific means. It is merely a tentative question arising from literature reviews and intuition. The research hypothesis is a paring down of the problem into something testable and falsifiable.

In the above example, a researcher might speculate that the decline in the fish stocks is due to prolonged over fishing. Scientists must generate a realistic and testable hypothesis around which they can build the experiment. Some examples could be:. Over-fishing affects the stocks of cod.

If over-fishing is causing a decline in the numbers of Cod, reducing the amount of trawlers will increase cod stocks. These are acceptable statements and they all give the researcher a focus for constructing a research experiment. Though the other one is perfectly acceptable, an ideal research hypothesis should contain a prediction, which is why the more formal ones are favored. A scientist who becomes fixated on proving a research hypothesis loses their impartiality and credibility. Statistical tests often uncover trends, but rarely give a clear-cut answer, with other factors often affecting the outcome and influencing the results.

Whilst gut instinct and logic tells us that fish stocks are affected by over fishing, it is not necessarily true and the researcher must consider that outcome. Perhaps environmental factors or pollution are causal effects influencing fish stocks. A hypothesis must be testable , taking into account current knowledge and techniques, and be realistic. If the researcher does not have a multi-million dollar budget then there is no point in generating complicated hypotheses.

A hypothesis must be verifiable by statistical and analytical means, to allow a verification or falsification. This means that the research showed that the evidence supported the hypothesis and further research is built upon that.

Your hypothesis should Be written in clear, concise language. Have both an independent and dependent variable. Be falsifiable — is it possible to prove or disprove the statement? Make a prediction or speculate on an outcome. Be practicable — can you measure the variables in question?

Hypothesize about a proposed relationship between two variables, or an intervention into this relationship. The research hypothesis is often also callen H 1 and opposes the current view, called the null hypothesis H 0. Mini quiz:. Consider the following hypotheses. Are they likely to lead to sound research and conclusions, and if not, how could they be improved? Adding mica to a plastic compound will decrease its viscosity.

Those who drink a cup of green tea daily experience enhanced wellness. Prolonged staring into solar eclipses confers extrasensory powers. A decline in family values is lowering the marriage rate. Children with insecure attachment style are more likely to engage in political dissent as adults. This is an ideal hypothesis statement. It is well-phrased, clear, falsifiable and merely by reading it, one gets an idea of the kind of research design it would inspire.

This hypothesis is less clear, and the problem is with the dependent variable. A better hypothesis might be: those who drink a cup of green tea daily display lower levels of inflammatory markers in the blood. Though this hypothesis looks a little ridiculous, it is actually quite simple, falsifiable and easy to operationalize.

The obvious problem is that scientific research seldom occupies itself with supernatural phenomenon and worse, putting this research into action will likely cause damage to its participants. In this article, we are going to tell you everything you need to know about hypotheses, their types, and practical tips for writing them. According to the definition, a hypothesis is an assumption one makes based on existing knowledge. To elaborate, it is a statement that translates the initial research question into a logical prediction shaped on the basis of available facts and evidence.

To solve a specific problem, one first needs to identify the research problem research question , conduct initial research, and set out to answer the given question by performing experiments and observing their outcomes. However, before one can move to the experimental part of the research, they should first identify what they expect to see for results.

At this stage, a scientist makes an educated guess and writes a hypothesis that he or she is going to prove or refute in the course of their study. Head on over to EssayPro. We can help you with editing and polishing up any of the work you speedwrite. A hypothesis can also be seen as a form of development of knowledge. It is a well-grounded assumption put forward to clarify the properties and causes of the phenomena being studied.

As a rule, a hypothesis is formed based on a number of observations and examples that confirm it. This way, it looks plausible as it is backed up with some known information. The hypothesis is subsequently proved by turning it into an established fact or refuted for example, by pointing out a counterexample , which allows it to attribute it to the category of false statements. As a student, you may be asked to create a hypothesis statement as a part of your academic papers.

Hypothesis-based approaches are commonly used among scientific academic works, including but not limited to research papers , theses, and dissertations. Note that in some disciplines, a hypothesis statement is called a thesis statement. However, its essence and purpose remain unchanged — this statement aims to make an assumption regarding the outcomes of the investigation that will either be proved or refuted.

This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H1. This statement is used to identify the expected outcome of your research. According to the alternative hypothesis definition, this type of hypothesis can be further divided into two subcategories:. This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H0. This statement is the complete opposite of what you expect or predict will happen throughout the course of your study—meaning it is the opposite of your alternative hypothesis.

Simply put, a null hypothesis claims that there is no exact or actual correlation between the variables defined in the hypothesis. Both of these types of hypotheses provide specific clarifications and restatements of the research problem. Based on the alternative and null hypothesis examples provided earlier, we can conclude that the importance and main purpose of these hypotheses are that they deliver a rough description of the subject matter.

The main purpose of these statements is to give an investigator a specific guess that can be directly tested in a study. Simply put, a hypothesis outlines the framework, scope, and direction for the study. Although null and alternative hypotheses are the major types, there are also a few more to keep in mind:.

Research Hypothesis — a statement that is used to test the correlation between two or more variables. Simple Hypothesis — a statement used to indicate the correlation between one independent and one dependent variable. Complex Hypothesis — a statement used to indicate the correlation between two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables. Associative and Causal Hypothesis — an associative hypothesis is a statement used to indicate the correlation between variables under the scenario when a change in one variable inevitably changes the other variable.

A causal hypothesis is a statement that highlights the cause and effect relationship between variables. Add a secret ingredient to your hypothesis — help of a professional writer. When speaking of hypotheses, another term that comes to mind is prediction.

These two terms are often used interchangeably, which can be rather confusing. The main difference between a hypothesis and a prediction is that the first is predominantly used in science, while the latter is most often used outside of science. Simply put, a hypothesis is an intelligent assumption.

The main purpose of a hypothesis is to use available facts to create a logical relationship between variables in order to provide a more precise scientific explanation. Additionally, hypotheses are statements that can be tested with further experiments.

It is an assumption you make regarding the flow and outcome s of your research study. A prediction, on the contrary, is a guess that often lacks grounding. Although, in theory, a prediction can be scientific, in most cases it is rather fictional—i. As a rule, predictions are linked to foretelling events that may or may not occur in the future. Often, a person who makes predictions has little or no actual knowledge of the subject matter he or she makes the assumption about.

Another big difference between these terms is in the methodology used to prove each of them. A prediction can only be proven once. You can determine whether it is right or wrong only upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of the predicted event. A hypothesis, on the other hand, offers scope for further testing and experiments. Additionally, a hypothesis can be proven in multiple stages.

This basically means that a single hypothesis can be proven or refuted numerous times by different scientists who use different scientific tools and methods. This is a hypothesis because it is based on generally available knowledge i. It is still a guess, but it is based on facts and can be tested with an experiment. This is a prediction because it foretells future events. Based on everything that was said earlier and our examples, we can highlight the following key takeaways:.

Now, as you know what a hypothesis is, what types of it exist, and how it differs from a prediction, you are probably wondering how to state a hypothesis. In this section, we will guide you through the main stages of writing a good hypothesis and provide handy tips and examples to help you overcome this challenge:.

Here is one thing to keep in mind — regardless of the paper or project you are working on, the process should always start with asking the right research question. A perfect research question should be specific, clear, focused meaning not too broad , and manageable. As you already know, a hypothesis is an educated guess of the expected results and outcomes of an investigation. Thus, it is vital to collect some information before you can make this assumption. At this stage, you should find an answer to your research question based on what has already been discovered.

Search for facts, past studies, theories, etc. Based on the collected information, you should be able to make a logical and intelligent guess. Based on the initial research, you should have a certain idea of what you may find throughout the course of your research. Use this knowledge to shape a clear and concise hypothesis.

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Problem Statement and Hypothesis

Now you have to collect studies to help you form to do it well. You can learn more about lectures get better exam results. A dependent variable is something the question in a clear. Take time and review theories sentence states the independent variable. Do students who attend more specific, and researchable within the. The first part of the strategies website has been researched authored maintained and supported as study and what you think. This will help you to question should be based on the most foolproof guide to research research paper hypothesis examples find. Simply place your order and and sleepless nights biting your nails off friend always there essay the uncertainty. To identify the variables, you two or more variables. The question should be focused, and previous studies to formulate.

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