In their review of recent test anxiety interventions, Von der Embse et al. With regard to procrastination interventions, recent meta-analyses Rozental et al. From the perspective of control-value theory Pekrun, and TMT Steel, , a cognitive modification of low self-efficacy expectancies seems promising in order to reduce both test anxiety and procrastination.
Accordingly, some interventions for test anxiety and procrastination focus on the change of irrational beliefs and thought patterns Pekrun and Stephens, For example, in rational-emotive behavioral therapy Ellis, , students are encouraged to question their own thinking patterns with techniques such as direct cognitive debate and logical persuasion in order to replace dysfunctional and irrational beliefs with more realistic ones.
However, a permanent modification of cognitive appraisals such as low self-efficacy expectancies should not be restricted to rational i. Rather, dual-process models such as cognitive-experiential self-theory CEST; Epstein, assume that rational information processing is always — mostly preconsciously and automatically — influenced by implicit schemas learned from past experiences. Thus, cognitive appraisals are never completely based on rational considerations but always biased by experience-based information processing.
In accordance with these assumptions of CEST, self-efficacy theory Bandura, posits that self-efficacy beliefs stem not only from verbal persuasion, but also from experiential knowledge such as vicarious mastery experiences and the current experience of physical arousal. Consequently, the successful modification of cognitive appraisals such as low self-efficacy beliefs needs to include rational debate as much as new self-efficacy enhancing experiences.
A standardized method that combines an experiential and a rational approach to modify cognitive appraisals is inquiry-based stress reduction IBSR; Mitchell and Mitchell, The IBSR method uses a specific set of questions to allow for the identification and exploration of stressful cognitions e.
In a first step, participants reflect on the emotions e. In a second step, participants are encouraged to imagine reality without the distortions caused by the stressful cognition, this way allowing for a new and potentially more positive experience e. In a last step of the IBSR method, participants are guided to find concrete evidence for the validity of the opposite of their stressful cognitions e.
This is done in order to help them overcome the tendency to seek or interpret evidence in ways that are biased by already existing beliefs i. In sum, IBSR should allow for a debate of stressful cognitions through experiential self-exploration and rational persuasion. First empirical evidence points to the potential of IBSR to reduce anxiety.
In a single-group study Leufke et al. Similarly, Smernoff et al. However, in both studies a control group and randomization were missing. Thus, it remains unclear if the anxiety-reducing effects were caused by the IBSR intervention or if they were due to other factors. Further, in all the reported studies participants received a 9-day IBSR intervention, making participation very time-consuming.
This could be a possible obstacle preventing individuals from attendance. Using a short-term longitudinal randomized control trial, the treatment group received a min IBSR intervention in which they investigated one individual worry thought regarding an upcoming exam. Results showed that individuals who had received the IBSR short intervention demonstrated significantly lower thought-related test anxiety than participants from the pooled control groups who had either reflected on their worry thought or were distracted from it.
However, the study did not allow to test if the effects hold longer than 2 days. The present research overcomes the impediments of previous studies. In an experimental control trial with a longitudinal design, for the first time, we investigate the effects of a short IBSR intervention on test anxiety and procrastination over the last part of an academic term in a sample of university students suffering from both phenomena.
While all study participants learned to identify their worry thoughts regarding their most frightening exam, intervention participants were additionally taught to use the IBSR method to explore and investigate their worry thoughts. For participants of the intervention group who did receive an IBSR intervention , we firstly expected an increase in self-efficacy H 1 as compared to the control group.
This increase in self-efficacy in the intervention group was expected to emerge immediately after the IBSR intervention and to last until the end of the semester for the following reasons: Self-efficacy theory Bandura, assumes that a permanent modification of low self-efficacy beliefs may follow from rational debate i.
Self-efficacy should thus increase for IBSR participants but not for control participants due to the IBSR intervention as IBSR allows for a debate of cognitive appraisals such as low self-efficacy beliefs through experiential self-exploration e. In contrast, for participants of the control group who did not receive any real intervention , we had the following predictions: Regarding the last part of the academic term, we expected an increase in test anxiety and a corresponding decrease in procrastination H 4.
These predictions were based on the theoretical rationales of TMT Steel, According to TMT, students should use more active coping strategies than procrastination at the late stages of an academic term to deal with their test anxiety. This notion is further supported by empirical results which show students to experience higher levels of anxiety before exams when they had delayed studying earlier in the semester Lay et al.
To sum up, we expected a reduction in procrastination for both groups, but through different underlying mechanisms: For the intervention group, the reduced procrastination was assumed to be caused by a decrease in test anxiety, while for the control group the reduced procrastination was expected be a consequence of an increase in test anxiety. Therefore, participants were recruited via posters, flyers, lecture announcements, and mass-emails at different German universities either in or close to Mannheim Germany.
In total, 84 students were interested in participating. These individuals were pre-screened via telephone in order to provide them with all the necessary information e. Regarding this sample, most participants studied economic sciences Measures of self-efficacy, test anxiety, and procrastination were taken pre-intervention time 1 , post-intervention time 2 1 , and immediately before exams time 3, follow-up.
We thus had no reasons to assume that our study would induce any negative states in the participants exceeding the normal risks of studying at a university and preparing for exams. The human research ethics committee of the respective Swiss university approved this new study. This can be considered as a clear sign that there are no ethical concerns with regard to the procedure of the present study.
The data was matched for the analyses using codenames only. Written informed consent was obtained according to the guidelines of the German Psychological Society. Informed consent included information about a research object, b study and intervention procedure, c duration and allowance, d possible benefits of participation, e anonymity of data collection, and f possible risks of participation.
Also, participants were explicitly informed that participation was voluntary and could be terminated at any time without any reason or negative consequences for the participant. Participants had to declare that they were at least 18 years old, had read the informed consent, and agreed to the rules of participation.
Participants were pre-screened via telephone interview to ensure they had time to participate on one of the four pre-determined intervention dates. For the first two dates, the control group treatment was scheduled. For the second two dates, the IBSR intervention treatment was scheduled. Participants were assigned to the conditions IBSR vs.
Therefore, participants assignment to experimental groups was quasi-randomized. Baseline measures were taken in the middle of the academic term time 1 and lasted about 45 min. All measures and instructions were paper-pencil based. Then, participants were asked to think of the upcoming academic exams and to consider which of these exams frightened them the most. Next, participants were asked to describe their most frightening exam in detail.
Then, initial levels of self-efficacy, test anxiety, and procrastination regarding the most frightening exam were assessed. One to 2 weeks after baseline-measures were taken, participants of both groups attended a first 3-h group seminar held by the first author and another certified IBSR coach. This way, all study participants were given personal attention by the IBSR coaches and participated in social interactions with other participants. In this first 3-h seminar, participants focused on a specific frightening testing situation and in a systematic way wrote down their individual beliefs e.
Additionally, participants of the intervention group attended another 3-h IBSR seminar i. In a first sub-step, the validity of the stressful cognitions was questioned Questions 1 and 2. Guided by Question 3 and the respective sub-questions, participants reported the mental pictures they associate with the stressful cognitions, their emotions, and bodily sensations. Guided by Question 4, participants were then enabled to perceive reality without the distortions caused by the stressful cognitions and to experience, how they would feel without them.
In the third step, participants learned to explore the opposite of their initial beliefs by turning them around to possible opposites. Then, participants were asked to find genuine proof of how the opposite could also be true for them. After the respective seminars, participants of both groups received a diary. While participants of the control group were asked to further identify stressful situations and respective cognitions on a daily basis for 7 days, intervention participants were asked to explore their worry thoughts with the IBSR method for the same time interval.
After the 7 days i. After the exams, participants of the control group also received the IBSR intervention. All participants were debriefed and received additional information and materials regarding IBSR. Ratings were made using a points scale ranging from 1 not at all important to 10 extremely important. Academic self-efficacy was assessed with a slightly modified version of the German Scale for the Assessment of Study Specific Self-Efficacy Jerusalem and Schwarzer, using seven items e.
According to Bandura , self-efficacy should be measured with a scale indicative of the academic behaviors necessary to accomplish the specific task at hand i. All statements were rated using a 4-point scale from 1 absolutely not correct to 4 absolutely correct. A mean self-efficacy score was calculated with high scores indicating high levels of self-efficacy.
Ratings were made using four-point scales from 1 not at all to 4 very much. We used a mean score including all five items, with high scores indicating a high level of test anxiety. With its 23 items, the APSI-d asks how often certain procrastination thoughts and behaviors occurred during the previous week e. Participants rated these statements using a five-point scale from 0 never to 4 always. A mean procrastination score was calculated with high scores indicating a high level of academic procrastination.
Overall, there was an attrition rate of These results indicate that the dropout was non-systematic. Allover, Missing data ranged from a low of 1. First, the FIML procedure is preferable to listwise or pairwise deletion of missing data, which generally create biased parameter estimates as well as biased significance testing Schlomer et al.
Second, using the FIML procedure allows to retain the maximum amount of possible statistical power despite missing data. Based on the theoretical assumptions of control-value theory Pekrun, and TMT Steel, , we expected participants of the intervention group to report less test anxiety H 2 and less procrastination H 3 due to specific causal mechanisms i.
However, instead of investigating separate mediation models, we chose to use a path analysis including all variables and mediation paths see Figure 1 due to the following reasons. Firstly, there is evidence that structural equation models perform better than simple regression models when it comes to investigate causal mechanisms via mediation analyses Iacobucci et al.
Secondly, the path analysis used in the present study allowed us to embed the focal mediation models into a longitudinal and nomological perspective. For the analysis, we applied the ML-estimator. When investigating the model fit, we relied on the guidelines given by Schermelleh-Engel et al. Figure 1. Path model of academic self-efficacy, test anxiety, and academic procrastination for all times of measurement. Depicted in gray color are first- and second-order autoregressive paths.
For increased readability, correlations between residuals of dependent variables were omitted in the graphical presentation of the model. All continuous variables were z -standardized. All reported parameter estimates are unstandardized. Reported are significance levels based one-tailed p -values. To account for the longitudinal design, we first included respective first order autoregressive paths for all three dependent variables and additionally second order autoregressive paths for the dependent variables between measures at time 1 and time 3 as suggested by Geiser and Newson Regarding time 1 and in accordance with previous empirical studies e.
To test for the experimental effects of the IBSR intervention, we coded a dummy variable d for which the control group was selected as the reference group coded 0 , while the IBSR group coded 1 was contrasted with this reference group. In a first step, to investigate the immediate direct effects of IBSR on self-efficacy, test anxiety, and procrastination, we allowed for paths from the dummy variable d on all dependent variables measured at time 2.
Secondly, to test the predicted causal interplay of self-efficacy, test anxiety, and procrastination between time 2 and time 3, we used a half longitudinal mediation design Kline, To account for the direct effects of IBSR on all dependent variables immediately before the exams, we allowed for paths from the dummy variable d on all dependent variables measured at time 3.
To investigate the expected indirect effects of IBSR on test anxiety H 2 before the exams via an increase in self-efficacy H 1 , we included a path between self-efficacy measured at time 2 and test anxiety measured at time 3. To avoid the problems associated with multicollinearity between the predictor variable i. The respective frequency distribution was negatively skewed —1. Corresponding to the quasi-randomization, a multivariate analysis of variance with the factor Group IBSR vs.
Zero-order correlations for the variables used in the path analyses are depicted in Table 2. As expected and in line with previous studies Van Eerde, ; Steel, , at all three times of measurement, these correlations suggest negative associations between self-efficacy and test anxiety, positive associations between procrastination and test anxiety, as well as negative relationships between self-efficacy and procrastination.
Descriptive statistics for the dependent variables are reported separately for conditions and all points of measurement in Table 3. Table 3. Means and standard deviations for academic self-efficacy, test anxiety, and academic procrastination for IBSR intervention and control group.
Thus, as preliminary analyses, we conducted three separate analyses of covariance with Group IBSR vs. As recommended by Van Breukelen , we also included the baseline values of each respective dependent variable as a covariate. These results provide first preliminary evidence for the expected effects of the IBSR intervention. As structural equation modeling procedures are susceptible to abnormalities in the data Kline, , we examined if the data met the necessary requirements.
To identify potential outliers, we first inspected the frequency distribution of the z -scores for all variables used in the statistical analyses. Second, we relied on the variance inflation factor VIF to test for extreme collinearity. VIF values for all variables were lower than the threshold of Therefore, extreme collinearity did not occur in the data. Third, to ensure the requirement of multivariate normality, we inspected the univariate frequency distributions for all variables for all results see Table 4.
Shapiro—Wilk tests were statistically non-significant for all variables except for test anxiety measured at time 2. However, visual inspection of the respective frequency distribution showed that it was close to normality. Based on the suggestion by Kline we proceeded to analyze that data using structural equation modeling without transformation of the respective variable.
Table 4. Univariate statistics for academic self-efficacy, test anxiety, and academic procrastination. Following the suggestion of Hayes , we only report unstandardized coefficients for all paths as standardized coefficients are not meaningful due to the dichotomous character of the group variable d IBSR vs. In the following, we report one-tailed p -values. Results provide evidence for the stability of all three dependent variables over time.
This indicates the IBSR intervention indirectly enhanced self-efficacy and that this effect lasted until the end of the term. However, we found an indirect effect of the IBSR intervention. Thus, the IBSR intervention reduced test anxiety at the end of the academic term indirectly via an immediate increase in self-efficacy and an immediate decrease in test anxiety.
Thirdly, we predicted IBSR to indirectly reduce procrastination via an immediate reduction of test anxiety for participants of the intervention. Also, we had predicted that participants of the control group should demonstrate an increase of test anxiety and this increase in test anxiety to reduce procrastination H 4.
Thus, the IBSR intervention reduced procrastination at the end of the academic term indirectly, mainly via an immediate reduction of procrastination. For all results of the mediation analyses see Table 5. Figure 2. Table 5. Regression coefficients, standard errors, and model summary information for the conditional parallel multiple mediation models for academic procrastination measured at time 3. In the present research, we investigated the effects of an IBSR short intervention on test anxiety, procrastination, and self-efficacy as well as their causal interplay in the last part of an academic term in a sample of university students suffering from test anxiety and procrastination.
We had predicted the IBSR intervention to enhance self-efficacy H 1 and this increase in self-efficacy — subsequently — to reduce test anxiety H 2 and procrastination H 3 for participants of the IBSR intervention. In contrast, we had also expected a decrease in procrastination for participants of the control group, but this decrease rather to be a consequence of an increase in test anxiety due to the approaching exams and deadlines H 4.
Results of the data analyses mostly support our hypotheses. We interpret these results in accordance with the theoretical assumptions of CEST Epstein, and self-efficacy theory Bandura, Based on the rationale of both theories, we assume that information processing leading to cognitive appraisals such as self-efficacy beliefs is not only informed by conscious and rational reasons i. Following from this, a permanent modification of cognitive appraisals such as low self-efficacy beliefs is assumed to follow from rational debate as well as from new — efficacy-enhancing — experiences.
As IBSR allows for a debate of cognitive appraisals such as low self-efficacy beliefs through experiential self-exploration e. Secondly, we found a stable decrease in test anxiety for participants of the IBSR intervention, which was partly due to increased self-efficacy. Thirdly, and for all participants, we found a lasting decrease in academic procrastination.
However, in line with our assumptions, data analyses revealed this decrease in procrastination to be caused by different mechanisms for the respective groups. We interpret this effect in line with studies which found students to experience higher levels of anxiety Lay et al. For intervention participants, results also revealed a long-term decrease in procrastination.
However, this effect was — contrary to our third hypothesis — neither caused by an increase in self-efficacy nor by a subsequent decrease in test anxiety. Rather, the decrease in procrastination was caused by an immediate effect of the IBSR intervention on procrastination. From this, we conclude that the IBSR method might have provided participants of the IBSR intervention with new means for emotional coping: As test anxiety is accompanied by states of unpleasant physical arousal and worry thoughts Pekrun, , students often feel the desire to withdraw from the anxiety-causing situation Geen, ; Matthews et al.
However, during the IBSR intervention seminars, test anxious students were taught to investigate their worry thoughts and to explore any accompanying unpleasant feelings and sensations with the IBSR method Question 3; see Table 1. Additionally, students were enabled to mentally experience the anxiety-causing situation without the distortions caused by their worry thoughts Question 4; see Table 1 , which should allow them a new and potentially more positive experience e. Therefore, when confronted with the unpleasant state of test anxiety after the IBSR intervention, IBSR participants might have no longer felt the need to withdraw from the situation through procrastination.
Rather, they might have applied the IBSR method as an alternative coping strategy to deal with unpleasant physical arousal and worry thoughts. Nevertheless, additional data is needed to confirm this assumption. The results of our study significantly contribute to the literature on IBSR.
Our research also demonstrates that these effects last longer than 2 days and remain stable especially in the last stage of an academic term. The Cronbach alpha was alpha of. Therefore, In this study, those students who scored below 30 were considered as having no test anxiety and those score 30 and above were classified as having test anxiety [ 18 ].
Study skills referred to as t he ability to effectively use the specific skills learning and planning study, library use, note-taking, course participation, preparation for exams, motivation, preparation for courses, effective reading, writing, health and nutrition, and listening skills. The inventory consists of 51 items 5-point Liker scale. It measures the scores on six subscales regarding study habits and skills. The domain of Time Management TM includes six items of the inventory.
The convergent validity of the tool is high and consistency reliability is 0. Rosenberg Self-esteem scale RSES was used to measure levels of self-esteem among the study participants [ 20 ]. The sums of the scores for all ten items and keep them on a continuous scale. Higher scores indicate higher self-esteem. The scale ranges from 0 to Scores between 15 and 25 are within normal range; scores below 15 suggest low self-esteem.
Internal Validity is 0. It is a simple measure of psychological distress, the K10 scale involves 10 questions about emotional states each with a five-level response scale. According to the scale, a score 10—19 Likely to be well, 20—24 Likely to have a mild disorder, 25—29 Likely to have a moderate disorder, 30—50 Likely to have severed distress.
We also measured social support of the students and individual who were scored 3—8 poor, 9—11 moderate and 12—14 strong social support on Oslo 3-item social support scale OSSS-3 [ 22 ]. Although OSSS-3 is not validated in Ethiopia, it is extensively used in previous studies to assess social support in different population groups [ 24 , 25 , 26 ].
We collected self-reported data on sociodemographic and other characteristics of the participants using self-reported and structured questioners. In this study to maintain the quality of the data high, before they engage in the actual data collection activities the data collectors received adequate training on data collection procedure and protocol.
Data was collected by using an English version of self-administrated questionnaire. The 1st part assessed a socio-demographic characteristic of participants. The 2nd part assessed the level of test anxiety by using the WTAI scale. The 3rd part was on psychosocial factors psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support which affect the level of test anxiety and measured by K scale, RSES and oslo3-social support scale respectively.
The 4rth part was on questions assessing behavioral factors using SSI scale to assess time management. The fifth part assessed the academic-related factors that affect test anxiety using yes or no questions. This questionnaire disseminated to eligible medical students. The questionnaire was designed and modified appropriately. The self-administrated English version was disseminated. The training was given for data collectors and supervisor.
Based on the finding from the pre-test, the questioner revised and helped to estimate the time needed for data collection. The data collectors were supervised daily and assist the students to fill the questionnaire and checked daily by the supervisors and principal investigator. The solution to problems during data collection was given immediately by discussing with the supervisors and the data collectors. First, the data were checked for completeness and consistency and then coded and entered in the computer using EPI DATA software for cleaning, storing and recording and then imported to SPSS version 25 for analysis.
Descriptive statistic was used to explain the study participants in relation to study variables. A p -value of less than 0. Informed consent from each participant was obtained after clearly explaining the objectives as well as the significance of the study for each study participant. We advised the study participants about the right to participate as well as refuse or discontinue participation at any time they want and the chance to ask anything about the study.
The participants were also advised that all data collected would remain confidential. Of the total participants reached by random sampling, participants were involved in this study with a response rate of The population was More than half of the participants Table 1.
Out of students, Table 2. In this study, Regarding social support Table 3. The results of this study found that about 10 2. Regarding time management, Table 4. In this study, more than half The prevalence of test anxiety in females In this study, female sex, having a poor average grade, being the first year, excessive course load, oral examination, lack of study plan, poor social support, moderate social support, and psychological distress were significantly associated with test anxiety in our final multivariable logistic regression.
The final model has the Cox and Snell R-square of 0. The odds of having positive test anxiety for a female is 3. Regarding grade of students, when the average grade point increase in a unit, the odds of developing severe test anxiety decreased by Furthermore, the odds of having positive test anxiety for an oral examination is 2 times higher than that of written examination. The odds of having severe test anxiety for students who did not have a systemic study plan is 2.
The odds of having severe test anxiety for those who have poor social support is 3. Additionally, the odds of having positive test anxiety for those who have moderate social support is 3. The odds of having severe test anxiety for those psychologically distressed students is 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that assessed the prevalence of problematic test anxiety and determinants among medical students in Ethiopia.
Findings from the present study demonstrated that more than half of the medical students had problematic test anxiety However, the result of the current study was higher than the study conducted at Iran This discrepancy might be due to the sampling size difference, the methodological differences including the instrument used to measure test anxiety and differences in the study in the characteristics of the population in each country.
This difference may be due to the variations in several factors that have an impact on anxiety, such as different course contents, educational environment, test conditions, types of test questions and other factors. In this study, the prevalence of test anxiety was found to be more than two-fold higher in female students as compared to male students. This result is supported by a study carried out in Sudan and Pakistan [ 34 , 35 ].
The possible reason for this strong association can be due to the reason that all night studying before exams is significantly higher among female students, as compared to male, this can create fatigue and overall exertion among students which may lead to a lower performance in examinations or due to females over-report their problems than males [ 36 ].
On the other hand, the present finding does not agree with the results the study conducted in Iran [ 10 ] where no significant association between test anxiety and gender was reported and a study in India [ 37 ] where test anxiety is higher in males compared to female students. The discrepancy might be due to variation in the study area and the characteristics and type of the study participants because in the above study the study participants were high school students and the study involved greater number of male than female participants.
Biological including defense mechanisms [ 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 ] and environmental factors such as parental pressure [ 42 ], previous poor performance, fear of failure and procrastination, expectations, and preparations [ 37 , 43 ] as well as the nature and the characteristics of the test [ 43 , 44 ] are the possible explanations for the higher magnitude of test anxiety among the medical students.
Additionally, as described by Yerkes-Dodson law, the higher level of test anxiety could be due to an excessive level of arousal which potentially leaving them nervous and unable to concentrate on the test [ 45 ]. Regarding the associated factors, this study showed that the score of the students was found to be a significant predictor for test anxiety among medical students.
Higher-grade scores was associated with increased odds of developing test anxiety among medical students. This result is supported by studies conducted in Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka and Nigeria [ 14 , 46 , 47 ] where higher-grade scores were associated with greater risks of test anxiety. On the other hand, a study conducted in Iran showed no significant association between GPA and test anxiety [ 48 ].
The discrepancy could be due to differences between universities educational environment, teaching and evaluation methods, and systems of rewards and punishments resulting from test results play a role in this regard. Furthermore, the year of students was also found to be a significant predictor of test anxiety among medical students. The odds of developing test anxiety was 7. This might be due to substantial stress at the beginning of the course with more concern and uncertainty about their academic performance at the early stages of the study.
The finding of this study is in agreement with studies done in India [ 31 ]. Conversely, a study conducted in Saudi Arabia among female medical students showed a greeter odds of test anxiety for higher year students as compared with first-year students [ 11 ] test. The variation could be due to the study was conducted on female medical students only or due to curriculum difference. In the present study, test anxiety for an oral examination was 5. This finding is in line with the results from studies conducted in Germany and India [ 49 , 50 ].
The possible reason might be due to oral exams require additional skills such as language, social interaction, and communication skills as compared to written exams, which possibly increase the anxiety. In the current study, the level of test anxiety for students who faced extensive course, the load is four times higher than those who did not face excessive course load. This is in line with studies conducted in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia [ 32 , 51 ] where extensive course load contributes Moreover, in this study, test anxiety for students who did not have a systemic study plan was two times higher than those who had a study plan.
This results is in line with the reported result from a study conducted in Pakistan [ 52 ]. The possible reason can be due to Ineffective study habits leads to poor preparation and students encode and store the material inadequately, as a result, they are unable to recall poorly learned material during the examination. The odds of having high-test anxiety for those who had poor social support is three times higher than those who had strong social support.
This finding is in agreement with the findings from studies conducted in Turkey and Iran [ 13 , 53 ]. Finally, the odds of developing test anxiety was three times higher among students who had psychological distress as compared to those students who had no psychological distress. This result is in line with the reported results from studies conducted in Saudi Arabia [ 11 , 54 ] where a significant and positive association between psychological distress and test anxiety was identified.
This study showed that the average prevalence of test anxiety was high among undergraduate medical students Female sex, being the first year, lower grade point average, oral exam, excessive course load, lack of systemic study plan, lower social support and psychological distress were significantly associated with the level of test anxiety. Early screening and interventions of test anxiety among medical students were warranted.
The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are not publically available due to ethical restriction and personal data protections but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Test anxiety and its consequences on academic performance among university students.
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This paper will also look at research done on test anxiety. The first theory to look at is the trait theory. Traits are a main part of personality. There are many different trait theorists, and all have differing views of trait theories, so with that in mind most trait theorists try to come up with a set of common traits that can be used universally. This common set of traits is refered to as the Big Five.
The Big Five was designed to use the personality traits that are most important to most people. An easy way to remember t Continue reading this essay Continue reading. Toggle navigation MegaEssays. Saved Essays. Topics in Paper.
Example Essays. Test anxiety. Establishing such boundary effects may help to identify best practices when using retrieval practice. In Turkey, university education is highly valued, and is considered a key to success and happiness in life. The gatekeeper for a university education is a central entrance exam. The entire process is lengthy, hard, and The entire process is lengthy, hard, and anxiety-provoking. Our study aimed to investigate the factors associated with test anxiety related to the university entrance exam.
The effects of the perceived attitudes of the student's mother and father on his or her test anxiety are examined separately, and beyond the effect of other risk factors. The participants were high school students and recent graduates between the ages of 14 and Data was collected just before a test anxiety workshop, which was designed as part of an open day activity in a private, non-profit university.
The workshop featured an interactive presentation about general anxiety, test anxiety, and coping strategies, which was followed by a progressive relaxation exercise. It was found that having a lower GPA score, being female, and having an increased level of neuroticism, as well as an increased level of perceived paternal acceptance and paternal control, were associated with higher levels of test anxiety.
The university entrance exam preparation period in Turkey is quite stressful for the students and creates an economic strain for their families. Considering that fathers are usually the financial authority figure within the households, paternal attitudes might predominantly affect the test anxiety level experienced by the student. In addition to paternal control, paternal acceptance might also be a source of stress since it, like control, includes "expectations" for the student's success.
Miray Akyunus. Test anxiety and self esteem in senior high school students a cross sectional study. Purpose: In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of test anxiety and self-esteem in the high school students preparing for the university exam in Bitlis, Turkey, and to investigate the effect of test anxiety on self-esteem Purpose: In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of test anxiety and self-esteem in the high school students preparing for the university exam in Bitlis, Turkey, and to investigate the effect of test anxiety on self-esteem.
Material and methods: Seven-hundred and twenty-four high school students who were preparing for the university entrance examination in Bitlis participated in the study. A questionnaire which includes socio-demographic data form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Revised Test Anxiety Scale was prepared as an e-questionnaire for the students to fill easily and uploaded to the Bitlis State Hospital's website.
Results: The most important findings from our study are that gender is influential on test anxiety and self-esteem score and test anxiety level are negatively correlated. It was observed that female students had more test anxiety than male students and those who had higher self-esteem had less test anxiety. Conclusion: Consequently, our study shows that university entrance examination creates anxiety on students and reduces self-esteem, especially in female students.
About ADHD. Identifying and supporting student with affective disorders in schools: Academic anxieties and emotional information processing. The influence of emotional intelligence, cognitive test anxiety, and coping strategies on undergraduate academic performance. Available online xxxx This study explored factors with the potential to exert facilitative and debilitative influence on undergraduate students' academic performance.
Participants responded to the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale, Analyses tested the iterative and collective influence of the identified variables on four-year GPA after controlling for previous academic performance first-year GPA. The examination revealed cognitive test anxiety and use of emotion-focused coping strategies were significant predictors of students' long-term academic outcomes such that increased cognitive test anxiety and increased use of emotion-focused coping strategies were associated with decreases in four-year GPA.
The results inform the nature of the influence these student factors have on long-term academic outcomes and highlight the importance of developing a multifaceted intervention model that supports emotion regulation and self-regulation skill development to buffer the impact of cognitive test anxiety on achievement.
The influence of personality factors, value appraisals, and control appraisals on cognitive test anxiety. Cognitive test anxiety is a considerable barrier to academic success. The control value theory of achievement emotions suggests emotions within academic situations-including test-anxious responses-follow from control and value appraisals The control value theory of achievement emotions suggests emotions within academic situations-including test-anxious responses-follow from control and value appraisals.
Furthermore, the control value theory suggests a multitude of individual-level factors that influence appraisals. However, few investigations have explored the interactive influence of enduring personality traits and control and value appraisals on the experience of cognitive test anxiety.
The current study was designed to explore the relationship among openness to experience, neuroticism, conscientiousness, control and value appraisals, and cognitive test anxiety. Using exploratory structural equation modeling, we demonstrated that value and control appraisals were important predictors of cognitive test anxiety. Furthermore, results indicated that openness to experience was a positive predictor of value appraisals.
Finally, results indicated that higher levels of control appraisals were associated with higher levels of conscientiousness and openness to experience and lower levels of neuroticism. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the determinants of cognitive test anxiety and have implications for efforts designed to identify test-anxious students.
Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed an unidimensional structure consistent Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed an unidimensional structure consistent with the conceptualized nature of cognitive test anxiety and previous examinations of the English version of the CTAR.
Examination of the factor loadings revealed two items that were weakly related to the test anxiety construct and as such were prime candidates for removal. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to compare model fit for the and item version of the measure. Results indicated that the item version of the measure provided a better fit to the data which support the removal of the problematic items in the Turkish version of the CTAR. Additional analyses demonstrated the internal consistency, test—retest reliability, concurrent validity, and gender equivalence for responses offered on the Turkish version of the measure.
Results of the analysis revealed a item Turkish version of the T-CTAR is a valid and reliable measure of cognitive test anxiety for use among Turkish students. Using both latent class and cluster analyses, we were able to classify participants as belonging to one of the three distinct cognitive test anxiety profiles-low, moderate, and high. Comparison of the identified test anxiety profiles allowed us to generate a set of severity standards for the CTAS-2 that can be used to differentiate between individuals with differing levels of cognitive test anxiety.
Discussion concerns the practical implications of establishing CTAS-2 severity standards for educators, student support staff, and learners. Test anxiety has been identified as a substantial barrier to student success at all educational levels. Given the ubiquitous presence of test anxiety, there have been many attempts to provide readily available measures of test anxiety to Given the ubiquitous presence of test anxiety, there have been many attempts to provide readily available measures of test anxiety to help identify learners at-risk for adverse academic outcomes.
Using exploratory structural equation modeling techniques, we determined that a five-factor solution, including Cognitive Obstruction, Tenseness, Social Derogation—Instructor Focused, Social Derogation—General, and Test Confidence, demonstrated a superior fit to the observed data compared to alternative factorial representations.
Our results highlight the benefit of increased attention to the agents of attention in socially focused concerns that are believed to contribute to the experience of test anxiety. Joshua Heath. Related Topics. Psychological Tests. Follow Following. Shadow Education or Private Tutoring. Big Five Personality Traits. Psychometrics and Test Development. Examination Anxiety.
Study Habits. Test Taking Anxiety. Foreign Language Anxiety. Trait Anxiety.