The hotel trade was among the first industries to act on the opportunities offered by China's opening to FDI. The Chinese hotel industry has grown rapidly since the first international hotel joint venture in Stross, In , 18 of the largest hotel companies in the world were headquartered in China, half of which were in Hong Kong and half in the Mainland Gale, Research studies on China's fast developing hotel industry have increased in recent years, tracking the key role that the hotel industry has played in the development of China's tourism industry.
As China's hotel industry continues to grow, it is important to develop an understanding of how the academic research in this area evolves. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review and analyse the English language academic literature related to hotel research in China.
A modest body of review literature has been developed chronicling various streams of tourism and hospitality research issues in relation to China. Two key studies that adopt research synthesis approaches to China tourism and hospitality are particularly relevant to the present study. The first study, by Kong and Cheung , reviewed 66 papers drawn from three online academic databases on hotel development in China published in refereed English language academic journals between and Four research themes were identified from this review study.
They were 1 strategy and development, 2 marketing, 3 service quality, and 4 human resource management. The authors also provided a summary list of the 66 publications, albeit with limited analysis and discussion. The second study was conducted by Tsang and Hsu The study examined articles in relation to China tourism and hospitality published in the 30 years between and in six leading English language academic journals: Cornell Hospitality Quarterly , International Journal of Hospitality Management , Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research , Annals of Tourism Research , Tourism Management , and Journal of Travel Research.
A diverse nature of the research themes was found in this study. Furthermore, it was also noted that the pace of publications generated from Asian universities overtook that from Western institutions. Other trends identified in this study include increasing multi-author collaboration and use of more sophisticated statistical methods. The aggregate knowledge from the China research synthesis studies above demonstrates the broad scope that has been adopted by researchers examining the research themes in the Chinese hotel industry.
The studies also provide a variety of approaches to synthesis in the context of China hospitality research, as analysed in the Method section below. Table 1 summarises the two key China hospitality review studies. We differentiate our present study in a number of aspects, as described in detail in the following Method section.
Among the key studies cited above, only that of Kong and Cheung directly focuses on the hotel sector. By comparison, the present study contains papers from wider sources. Starting from papers identified by Kong and Cheung , we also searched Hospitality and Tourism Complete and Science Direct for more relevant research publication. The total number of papers included in our study was , almost twice the number of the papers collected in the Kong and Cheung study.
Wider coverage allows for a more comprehensive understanding of research focus. Additionally, the present study addresses how research focus on the hotel sector has changed over time. Synthesis approaches, commonly found with growing bodies of knowledge, have become a characteristic feature of the tourism and hospitality literature.
Weed identified three typical synthesis approaches: systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-interpretation. A systematic review consists of a comprehensive search for relevant studies on a specific topic, followed by appraisal and synthesis of those studies according to a predetermined method.
Meta-analysis is an appraisal of studies where findings among the studies are directly comparable with each other. Meta-analysis may also apply quantitative methods that compensate for methodological variations among the studies in order to render the findings metrically equivalent. Meta-interpretation takes an interpretivist approach to the synthesis of multiple studies on a topic that have used disparate methods, typically using qualitative techniques for analysis Weed, Table 2 summarises the features of each approach:.
Such variability of interpretation is to be expected among methods for which a single, definitive framework is yet to be determined. Shelby and Vaske provide a useful analysis of the methodological definitional dilemmas in review studies, identifying the main areas of confusion as 1 total methodology vs.
As the body of research on China hospitality and tourism has grown, so has interest in synthesising such research. Weed nominated meta-analysis as the most widespread synthesis method in tourism research; however the same cannot be observed in the synthesis research on China tourism and hospitality. Table 3 shows extant China tourism and hospitality literature synthesis studies, all of which use systematic review via content analysis to produce diverse findings.
Common content analysis approaches found in review studies include attempts at categorising research themes, settings, and methods. Electronic databases are the preferred sources for data, which are mostly searched by keywords. Some authors place the bodies of literature within their political, economic, geographical, social and cultural contexts.
There are also attempts to identify contested perspectives and modes of thought, and to forecast and recommend the directions for future research. The present study adopted the systematic review approach, characterised by a comprehensive search for relevant studies on China hotel research, which were then evaluated and synthesised according to the content analysis method. The systematic review approach provides a rigorous and transparent compilation that serves to map an area containing dispersed and diverse knowledge Weed, The research for the present study was conducted in two stages.
Data were collected in the first stage in March Hospitality and Tourism Complete collects full text research articles, abstracts and industry news relating to all areas of hospitality and tourism after and covers a large range of major hospitality and tourism research journals. Science Direct is recognised as a major database for scientific research covering disciplines of both social and physical sciences.
We believe the combination of using the two databases would provide a most cost-effective way to locate English language academic literature in relation to China hotel research. The pool of papers selected met the criteria of English language refereed academic journal papers. In-press papers, book chapters and book reviews were excluded. A content analysis was conducted to identify research themes and trends. Main findings include research themes, research methods, trends of publication, journal outlets, and authorship information.
Simple cross-tabulation was adopted to identify the trends of research development. Absolute counting was used to determine research productivity of individuals and institutions as suggested by prior studies e. If more than one author appeared in one paper, each co-author was given the same credit as a sole author.
The same principle was also applied to research themes. Each paper was classified into one main theme category even though the paper may be related to a different theme to a lesser extent. The following sections detail and analyse the findings of the present study, which are placed into the five categories of research themes, research methods, journal outlets, trends of publication, and authorship information. Three major research themes were found: hotel management and performance, hotel development strategies, and hotel business environment analyses.
Hotel management and performance was one of the most frequent themes in the papers. Among them, human resource management issues were studied by the greatest number of papers, which accounted for Marketing Six papers discussed issues regarding finance 6.
In there was not a single course offered in hospitality and tourism at any Chinese higher education institution Zhao, With the rapid growth of the tourism and hospitality industry, the shortage of qualified staff became a severe problem. Cullen and Zhao looked into this problem and analysed the development of Chinese hospitality education and the existing problems.
Huyton and Ingold evaluated the effectiveness of current hospitality education among hotel employees and found that there was still a great need for better and effective hospitality education. Employee behaviour was a major researching area in human resource management e. This is probably due to the importance of employees in the successful management of a hotel. For studies under this theme, the effectiveness of an employee training programme was evaluated Zhang et al.
Kong and Baum explored skills and career moves of front office staff, concluding that professional development and further training was necessary in order to improve the skills of staff. Magnini and Ford suggested that adjustments were necessary for service failure recovery training programmes for Western-based hotel corporations to gain customer satisfaction and loyalty. Employee satisfaction is believed to be an important factor to maintain employee loyalty.
Tian and Pu examined factors influencing employee satisfaction, while Leung, Smith, Wang, and Sun and Wu and Wang explored the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational justice. Besides satisfaction, employee's attitude towards a job could also be an important factor influencing their performance.
A comparison study of U. Huyton and Sutton analysed employee job perceptions and the disparity between perception and satisfaction. Leung, Wang, and Smith discussed the relationship between perception of job attitudes and organisational justice of local employee in joint venture hotels. A study on employees' behavioural intentions of adopting new information technologies in hotels was conducted by Lam, Cho, and Qu , suggesting that support and motivation should be provided to employees to adopt new information technologies in hotels.
Burke, Koyuncu, Wang, and Fiksenbaum examined potential antecedents and consequences of work engagement in hotel managers. Li, Tse, and Xie investigated general managers' demographic characteristics and career paths. Employee empowerment is not widely applied in China, but positive attitude towards high-level employees especially in some international hotels was evident in some studies e. Some human resource challenges facing China's hotel and tourism industry were identified Gu et al. Chan discussed distinct managerial roles of hotel pre-opening managing teams in China; Peng, Dai, and Yue examined a competency model for middle and senior hotel managers to better understand and communicate with guests; Sun, Aryee, and Law revealed high-performance human resource practices in relation to the organisational performance indicators of turnover and productivity, demonstrating the generalisability of the organisational performance effects of high-performance human resource practices in the service sector.
Yan, Child, and Chong addressed the development requirements in terms of the application of firm-specific assets and human resource management needed for the implementation of vertical integration decisions in an international firm. By examining customer and employee perceptions of green hotels, Heung, Fei, and Hu suggested that government and industry should cooperate to promote the green culture to the public.
The boom of the tourism industry in China and the influence of globalisation created a challenge for hotels, especially international hotels to manage the cultural impact on tourism. Research on how to integrate corporate culture into national culture showed the necessity to manage cultural conflict for international companies Mwaura et al. Otis focused on management in terms of combining foreign organisational template and service protocols with local regional and ethnic identities to discipline the workforce.
Cai and Ninemeier revealed cultural conflict on food service styles and how Chinese hoteliers cope with the situation. Another cultural conflict management study conducted by Smith, Wang, and Leung showed large differences between Chinese and non-Chinese operators in daily management routines.
Hu, Cai, and Kavanaugh examined the impact of cultural differences on employee behaviours in China and UK hotels. Littrell compared desirable and actual leadership traits exhibited by managers and supervisors and found that leadership traits outside task and person orientation appear to be highly culture-specific.
Since the implementation of open-door and reform policy, the hotel sector has grown enormously in China. However, due to the lack of qualified staff and management expertise, hotels with foreign investment opted to be managed by foreigners or jointly managed by both Chinese and foreign managers.
Expatriates in China face challenges with a different culture. Hotel managers and operators started to pay more attention to the administration and operation of hotels, and adopted a more strategic management style to achieve better hotel performance. In the early stage, state-ownership was dominant in China's hotel sector.
With increasing international investment, a diversified ownership structure emerged. At the same time, state-owned hotel firms faced unprecedented challenges. Tang, Xi, Chen, and Wang investigated issues of ownership, corporate governance, and management in the state-owned hotels and concluded that further reforms were needed. Zhi, Wang, and Turban noted the deficiency in the management support systems of state-owned hotel enterprises.
Qu, Ennew, and Sinclair examined determinants of market orientation government regulation, ownership structure, and organisational factors for the hotel sector. Outsourcing strategy as a way to reduce operating costs is a commonly adopted strategy in the hotel industry. Lam and Han analysed factors influencing the adoption of outsourcing and indicated that the outsourcing market was still immature in China.
However, China's membership in WTO also meant less government control in the hotel industry and vulnerability of local industry to greater competition from foreign companies Pine, The booming domestic demand, coupled with fierce competition from international markets, caused China hotels to emphasise strategy and performance. Pine and Phillips compared hotel performances in variation with ownership, size and star grade and indicated that better performance occurred in hotels either with a foreign ownership, bigger or with a higher star grade.
Jogaratnam and Tse, , Jogaratnam and Tse, investigated the link between entrepreneurial organisation structure and hotel performance, and found that entrepreneurial strategic posture was positively associated with performance, while organic structures were negatively associated with performance.
Organic structures were identified as those that allow less strict task differentiation, less clear hierarchy, and a relatively higher degree of autonomy. In terms of strategic management, Kivela, Leung, and Chu evaluated factors which contributed to successful and equitable negotiations and their impacts on hotel businesses.
Wong, Luk, and Li examined ownership—control relationships among China's international joint-venture hotels; they found that differences existed between Sino—Asia joint-ventures and Sino—Western joint-ventures. Li, Tse, and Gu revealed significant positive correlations between entrepreneurial orientation and the key dimensions of strategic planning. Ma advised the application of balanced scorecard into strategic hotel management.
Huang, Chu, and Wang investigated the influence of the balanced scorecard on the hospitality industry in China. Perceptions of stakeholders towards budget hotel segment critical success factors and the importance of such factors were examined by Hua, Chan, and Mao Other management and performance issues covered a broad range. Researchers focused on the following areas: hotel rating system Liu and Liu, , Yu, a , hotel productivity efficiency Tsai, , Zhou et al.
Feng et al. Gu et al. Pine and Yu studied the content and effectiveness of cross-training programmes as a tool for hotel technology transfer. In the field of marketing, Siu and Fung evaluated the performance of traditional print advertisement and gave some advice for enhancement. Cai, Zhang, Pearson, and Bai identified two critical problems in China hotels: pricing and marketing.
Chuang explored marketing strategies of luxurious service apartments and Zhang, Cai, and Kavanaugh gave advice on branding experience for economy hotels theme and activities, physical environment, and social interactions. Online marketing as a new and effective approach drew considerable attention from researchers.
Han, Kwortnik, and Wang's paper found that customer satisfaction, commitment, service fairness, service quality, trust, and commercial friendship are key loyalty determinants and they also revealed that employee-delivered service quality is a key to hotel guest satisfaction. Ho and Lo described existing service problems in China's hospitality industry.
Three papers focused on service quality gaps between tourist perception and expectation Qu and Tsang, , Wang et al. In addition to the above topics discovered, researchers also examined customer perception Wang et al. Wang et al. Country-of-origin stereotypes were shown to have an impact on Chinese customers' perceptions of hotel chains' service Zhou et al. Zhen and Zhu examined evaluation of service quality based on guest reviews available from third party hotel booking websites.
Huyton and Ingold revealed attitudes of hotel workers towards visitors from different countries, with the results suggesting that hotel staff dislikes Japanese, local Chinese, and South East Asian, but welcome Westerners and other compatriot Chinese. Six papers focused on various aspects of macro level financial management of the hotel industry. Issues under research in this sub-category included financial investment, risk analysis, financial performance and profitability.
Hines and Tisdell and Wen a investigated the formation of investment for hotels. Tisdell and Wen b further analysed risks of dependence on foreign exchange earnings in developing tourism, and provided suggestions to improve international competitiveness for hotels.
Gu discussed revenue efficiency and profitability in the Chinese lodging industry. Chen investigated factors that may affect hotel stock returns and noted that Chinese hotel stock returns were more sensitive to general macro economic variables.
A total of 16 papers were found within the category of hotel development strategies. Most studies dealt with topics on hotel structures Yu, , some together with business expansion strategies e. With the influence of globalisation and economic development, hotel managers tend to search for new approaches to expand their business. Brand affiliation Cai, , franchising Heung et al.
Pine and Qi identified and discussed barriers in hotel chain development. Tibbitts analysed current expansion of the international chains in terms of key implications, brand building, challenges and opportunities, and important contributions and points of differentiation between the international chains and domestic hotels.
Wu, Costa, and Teare examined the relationship between environmental scanning activities and business expansion strategies. Spatial distribution of hotels in China was discussed in Begin's and Shu and Dai's studies. Yu b noted the roles of various Chinese government agencies and foreign investors in the development of China hotels. Challenges facing other aspects of hotel development have been discussed as well. Cook analysed problems in the development of the hospitality industry and gave advice to foreign developers to collaborate in China.
Mak revealed causes of problems facing state-owned hotels and future development. Chan and Yeung suggested that contingency planning is important for hotels in cases of crisis and changes. Business environment issues gained some attention as well. Seven papers were found in this category.
Two papers Wu et al. Economic conditions and Chinese business culture were also identified as important environmental factors for international hotel chains to enter the China market. Pine , Yu and Gu analysed the hotel business environment and revealed both challenges and threats for hotel development in China. Qu and Ennew explored the external influence of market environment on the development of market orientation.
Other less directly-related issues were also addressed by researchers, for instance, Jackson suggested to develop regional tourism clusters including hotels in order to foster competitive advantage in regional China; Chan et al. The purpose of analysing research methods is to understand the methodological applications for academic studies in the examined research field. For the papers selected in this study, 82 of them used quantitative methods to gather primary data.
Additionally, 33 papers adopted qualitative methods Table 5. Among papers with qualitative methods, in-depth interview was used in 8 papers which made it more popular than other methods in this category. For quantitative papers, questionnaire surveys were dominant 43 papers and archival data 26 papers represented the second most frequent quantitative method arrangement in all the papers.
In terms of data analysis methods, 51 papers Table 6 indicates specific statistical techniques used in quantitative papers. Some simple methods, such as frequencies, cross-tabs, chi-squares, and means were grouped under one category of basic techniques compared with other statistical techniques.
In relation to the research methods, paper types were also examined which are shown in Table 7. Empirical papers accounted for Although the number of empirical papers far outweighs that of the other two types, it is not suggested that empirical papers are better than conceptual papers and case studies.
All three types of papers can address academic problems from different aspects if they are effectively designed and used. The papers collected in the present study were published from to Given the fact that earlier papers may not be available online, it still makes sense that hotel development in China has attracted increasing research attention from academics, especially after the year of In general, three reasons may have attributed to the continual growing publications.
Firstly, China's economy continues growing and the hotel sector plays an important part in the national economy. The huge market in China attracts increasing foreign investment and cooperation between international firms and domestic firms has been strengthened.
Secondly, the hospitality industry in China has also undergone gradual changes. Technological developments offer new revenues for hotel development. The unique Chinese culture also brings challenges for hotel operators. Thirdly, there is an increasing demand for tourism education and training. Tourism has integrated into degree offering programmes in most universities. As a result, more research publications emerged to provide better understanding of the fast growing industry.
The number of publications appeared to be quite small during the period from to It is not difficult to understand if we take into account the economic development situation in China at this early stage. Before , hotels in China were few in number and poor in quality. From to , foreign investment was introduced and the industry experienced an unprecedented growth. In terms of management, until late , overseas involvement in China's hotel industry, while encouraged and even supported by the state politically and financially, was still under government control Zhang et al.
In state-owned hotels, managers are often bureaucrats rather than business people. In such a historical context, it was not easy for scholars to collect research data for any purpose. Research on China hotels flourished in the period between and , during which the number of publications nearly doubled that of all previous ones. From , China's entry into the World Trade Organization moderated government control over hotel ownership. International economic cooperation, new technology development and changing lifestyle accelerated China hotel development.
Studies focusing on new trends and business environment appeared more frequently in this period. The papers contained author names, with 37 author names appearing more than once. Table 9 provides an overview of author contributions from different places in the world. The location of the author's institution was counted rather than the nationality of the author.
It is obvious that authors were affiliated with institutions in a broad geographic spectrum. It is not surprising to find that more than half USA ranked the third with 43 authors. This suggested that scholars in both China and the USA paid great attention to China's hospitality industry.
Seventeen The reason for this phenomenon might be, as suggested by Sheldon , that many authors tended to publish their hospitality research in journals related to their individual fields. Table 10 shows the institutions with which authors were affiliated when their papers were published. Clearly, two institutions in mainland China and three in Hong Kong were listed as the top five on the list.
Three U. It is also apparent that more than half of the authors were one-time authors. This phenomenon could be attributed to the reason that a substantial number of authors were likely to be graduate students or short contract lecturers affiliated with the institutions at the time of publication; they might have stopped publishing or been transferred to other research fields Jogaratnam et al.
The papers analysed in the present study have a wide coverage. It is clear to see the gradual change of research trends given the long time span in Fig. Papers examining issues in management started since and became more popular after but experienced a decline in the most recent 5 years. The number of papers focusing on development issues fluctuated during the past 26 years with an apparent increase in Papers investigating environmental issues only appeared after , with the number increasing sharply from to Generally, with more researchers conducting studies in management issues, the number of papers in the management theme overwhelms that in development and environment themes.
There are a number of significant convergences as well as divergences of the present study findings with those of the extant review studies described in the Introduction section above. While we must be circumspect in comparing review studies without directly overlapping search criteria, we nevertheless see the relevance of comparison with other key review studies.
Table 11 shows comparison of the most frequently reported research themes. This study confirms with Kong and Cheung's study in that human resource management is one of the significant research themes within China hotel studies. However, by extending the literature search scope and including more relevant research papers, the present study also identified hotel operation and performance, marketing and finance as salient research themes under the general hotel management and performance category.
In addition, hotel development strategies and business environment issues were identified as another two significant research themes which appear to be related to the general Chinese macro economic situation and addressing external issues to hotel operation.
Interestingly, our present study found that business environment issues became a research concern only after the turn of the century. This may be due to China's further integration into the world economy marked by its entry into the World Trade Organisation in In Tsang and Hsu's study, out of a total of papers, 13 were identified to fall into the theme of hotel development.
As Tsang and Hsu's study covers the general literature of China tourism and hospitality research and their review scope appears to be much broader than that in our current study, little meaningful comparison can be drawn between our study findings and theirs. An overarching commonality found in review studies in relation to China tourism and hospitality is that research efforts and publications in this field are increasing over time, concurrent with the growing prominence of China as a tourism importer and exporter.
As expected in the early stages of a developing literature, we find considerable diversity in the types of themes and their respective frequencies. An examination of the study designs employed in review studies suggests methodological variability in: 1 choice of time periods under study; 2 sources from which papers are drawn; 3 search keywords; 4 and factors for measurement.
Types of analysis contribute further to diversity, as different groups of authors interpret the papers under study in different ways. Thus interpretation of findings must be done cautiously, and the most thorough understanding may be gained by considering the findings of such review studies in the aggregate level.
The present study provides insights into China hotel research via a systematic review of research themes and trends. Through analysis of the publications under study, we have demonstrated the diverse and changing nature of how scholars have examined the issues around China hotel research. However, the present review also suggests that China hotel researchers do not share a unified agenda, and have multiple competing perspectives.
This may be an organic and desirable way for the research discourse to grow. Indeed, it may be too soon to expect mature coalescences of contested perspectives in a literature only a few decades old, especially given the dynamic environment within which China pursues its socialist economic reforms Huang, At the same time as the body of research on China hospitality and tourism expands, opportunities will become available to extend the methods applied to research synthesis to meta-analysis and meta-interpretation Weed, Since Lynn and Mullen observed the nascent and spare use of meta-level analyses published in hospitality journals, such methods remain underused in hospitality research generally see Sainaghi, The aggregation and analysis of meta-types of synthesis will broaden our understanding of the shapes of hospitality research knowledge Weed, The findings of the present study demonstrate that there will be a growing future need to provide increasingly synergistic insights into China hotel research.
The present study is subject to similar limitations expressed in the works that we have reviewed. Defining the boundaries of a systematic review is an arbitrary process, and by definition excludes data that may be considered relevant to the review topic. For example, the present study considers the English language literature, however some of the authors who publish in English also publish in Chinese. Similarly, the present study's topic is also represented in mainstream journals, which provide wider context and perspective for the environment within which tourism and hospitality issues exist.
We recommend future studies to aggregate, distinguish, and analyse publications in additional languages, particularly Chinese, and to include mainstream publications. Michael J. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Tour Manag Perspect. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Gross: ua. Rhee and Yang a maintained that it might be pragmatic to concentrate on a few focal hotel attributes rather than to overwhelm hotel operators with wide-ranging prescriptions on a multiplicity of attributes.
The choice of these five hotel attributes is grounded in both prior research on customer satisfaction and actual practice in the hospitality industry. According to Schuckert et al. Furthermore, the five hotel attributes also conform to actual practice in that they are synonymous with key dimensions on which hospitality services are being assessed on TripAdvisor, the online review platform where we extracted our data.
Apart from hotel attributes, past studies have also alluded to the impact of culture on customer satisfaction in both offline and online environments. Indeed, prior research has revealed that cultural differences, in the form of geographical location, has a discernible impact on customer satisfaction Tse and Ho, ; Ngai et al. Prior literature have also alluded to the effect of hotel star rating on customer satisfaction Guo et al. For instance, Guo et al.
Thus, in this study, we take both the domestic and international origins of hotel guests and hotel star ratings into consideration in investigating customer satisfaction with hotels. Specifically, reviews written in English are set as international guests and reviews written in Chinese as domestic guests.
In line with past studies Rhee and Yang, b ; Yuksel, , we assume that domestic and international guests have separate cultural backgrounds, which may affect their evaluation on the attributes of hotels with different star ratings. Additionally, no previous study has leveraged on data analytics based on online hotel reviews to validate the three-factor theory of customer satisfaction. To this end, we extracted a considerable number of consumer-generated reviews from TripAdvisor to explore the asymmetric effects of five key hotel attributes — cleanliness, location, room, service and value — on customer satisfaction with their service experience.
In so doing, this study contributes to extant literature by: applying the three-factor theory to disentangle the asymmetric impact of determinants of customer satisfaction within the hospitality sector via data analytics based on online hotel reviews; and. In this study, we embrace a positivist approach by validating the three-factor theory by analyzing online hotel reviews generated by consumers.
In recent years, we have witnessed the increasing popularity of consumer-generated reviews in hospitality industry. Consumer-generated reviews have also been touted to be an indispensable data source for research into customer satisfaction because they are objective and do not succumb to sampling biases that typically accompany traditional survey questionnaires Schuckert et al.
Empirical data for this study was extracted from TripAdvisor. TripAdvisor is one of the largest online review sites providing travel-related services in the world. TripAdvisor provides an online rating system for hotel guests to assess the performance of hotel attributes and their overall satisfaction.
TripAdvisor data has also been applied in extant research on hospitality in the literature. Following previous research, we applied TripAdvisor data in this study as TripAdvisor provides good data source for this study, such as customer reviews on hotels in different languages from customers in the world. For the purpose of this study, data containing customer reviews and descriptive details of hotels was hence extracted from TripAdvisor. A small program was developed based on hypertext preprocessor language to capture data from the site.
For each review, hotel guests supplied a numerical rating according to their overall satisfaction and also for each of five focal hotel attributes i. These ratings were elicited from hotel guests on the basis of a five-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 terrible to 5 excellent. We also gathered descriptive details for each hotel being reviewed, including its star rating and the city in which the hotel is located.
Among the reviews in our sample, Compared to the large number of reviews written in Chinese and English, reviews written in other languages are fewer than 10, The remaining , consumer-generated reviews in our data set cover 10, hotels in the five cities. As shown in Table A2 , there are more reviews for non-star and five-star hotels. About 30 per cent of reviews are for non-star hotels, which account for nearly 70 per cent of all hotels, whereas 30 per cent of reviews are for five-star hotels even though these five-star hotels only account for 3.
The concentration of reviews on five-star hotels might be because of the reason that customers are encouraged by the hotels to write reviews based on their accommodation experience. The average rating of overall satisfaction with the hotels shows that customers are most satisfied with 5-star hotels, followed by Customers are more satisfied with non-star hotels compared to 1 to This emphasizes the importance of taking hotel star ratings into consideration when examining the determinants of overall customer satisfaction with hotels.
Because non-star hotels have not been graded on the ranking system prevalent in the hospitality sector, which rates hotels based on their facilities, price and service levels Cser and Ohuchi, , there could be huge variations among them. We thus decided to eliminate non-star hotels from our sample. Likewise, 1-star hotels were excluded from data analysis because of the small number of 1-star hotels 20 hotels and reviews reviews in the sample.
Our eventual sample consists of , Chinese reviews and 91, English reviews for data analysis. The sample is then spilt into four sub-samples for data analysis according to the four categories of hotel star ratings i. We adopted the MySQL and the textcat package in R software to detect the language being used in consumer-generated reviews Hornik et al.
Consistent with extant literature, a set of dummy variables was generated for the current study. Specifically, a rating of 1 or 2 is coded as low performance, a rating 3 or 4 as average performance and a rating of 5 as high performance Alegre and Garau, Accordingly, the dummy variables are formulated as low performance 0, 1 , high performance 1, 0 and average performance 0, 0. Fixed-effect dummy variable regression was performed to detect asymmetric effects by controlling for discrepancies in city, types of travel and year of rating.
An unstandardized coefficient was used to detect asymmetric effects in the regression based on the recommendation of Mikulic and Prebezac Furthermore, because of the usage of a large amount of data, we subscribed to a conservative approach in defining performance factors by comparing the 95 per cent confidence interval 95 per cent CI of each regression coefficient. Consequently, when the values of the 95 per cent CIs of the high satisfaction level and the low satisfaction level of a hotel attribute overlap, we classify the attribute as a performance factor.
Conversely, when no overlap exists between the 95 per cent CIs of the two different levels of an attribute, we regard the related coefficients as being truly detached. Domestic and international guests differ somewhat with regard to the impact of satisfiers and dissatisfiers, even though a majority of hotel attributes are found to be basic factors across both domestic and international guests.
With the exception of cleanliness being a performance factor for hotels with For hotels with Conversely, for international guests, room and service act as performance factors whereas cleanliness and value are basic factors and location is an excitement factor. The ensuing research framework exhibits good explanatory power between Undoubtedly, guests possess expectations when staying at hotels and are eager to optimize their accommodation experience. The five focal hotel attributes, as espoused in this study, not only aid customers in assessing their accommodation experience but also help in distinguishing the relative importance of each attribute in driving customer satisfaction.
Through our empirical study, we discovered that most hotel attributes act as basic factors, the absence of which leads to customer dissatisfaction. All five focal hotel attributes constitute basic factors for hotels with Findings indicate that cleanliness, location, room, service and value should be conceived as essential attributes for luxury hotels e. The findings are partly consistent with the prior research work of Padma and Ahn and Zhou et al. Based on content analysis of online hotel reviews, Padma and Ahn found that guests of luxury hotels have specific expectations related to room, cleanliness and service.
Zhou et al. Such an observation can be attributed to several reasons. As stars hotels tend to be more expensive, their guests are bound to have high expectations of the performance of the five focal hotel attributes. If the performance of the five hotel attributes of stars hotels falls short of their expectations, both domestic and international guests will be dissatisfied. But at the same time, enhanced performance of the five hotel attributes for stars hotels are unlikely to delight domestic and international guests because of their high expectations.
For mid-range hotels e. Our observation of cleanliness as a performance factor for domestic guests might be because of the reason that hotels with higher star ratings e. Therefore, even though domestic guests do pay attention to the cleanliness of their accommodations, they possess more reasonable expectations for mid-range hotels such that if the cleanliness of such hotels matches their expectations, they are likely to be satisfied and vice versa.
For economic hotels e. Conversely, for international guests, room and service are performance factors whereas cleanliness and value are basic factors and location is an excitement factor. Cost savings is paramount for both domestic and international guests who stay at economic hotels. Thus, location is a vital consideration for these customers because they could save from walking rather than taking public transportation. For domestic guests, an economic hotel situated in a good location will satisfy them, whereas a bad location will dissatisfy them.
As noted by Ren et al. This might be because domestic guests expect economic hotels to be situated in convenient locations. As for international guests, economic hotels situated in good locations will delight them even though a bad location will not invoke their dissatisfaction. The reason might be that international guests would not mind the bad location of an economic hotel if they have already taken it into consideration in the initial booking.
Moreover, because of the lack of dining and entertainment facilities in economic hotels, improved room quality will delight international guests as they need a comfortable room for resting. Because the service quality of economic hotels in China cannot be guaranteed, our findings suggest that international guests will be satisfied if the service quality matches their expectations and dissatisfied otherwise. Our findings underline the role of cleanliness, location, room, service and value for reducing customer dissatisfaction.
For domestic customers, we found cleanliness to be a basic factor except for hotels with This observation departs from past studies that allude to cleanliness as having the role of both basic and performance factors. While the work of Albayrak and Caber categorized cleanliness as a basic factor in determining customer satisfaction based on survey data, Ryan and Huimin regarded cleanliness as a performance factor based on the survey responses from Chinese hotel customers.
Our finding on service as a basic factor aligns with the work of Albayrak and Caber and Deng et al. Our finding on value as a basic factor of customer satisfaction contradicts the work of Ramanathan and Ramanathan who equated value with being an excitement factor. In our study, room is a basic factor for both domestic and international guests, except for hotels with This is consistent with the work of Albayrak and Caber , Matzler et al.
Interestingly, our study illuminates that location can assume the role of basic, performance and excitement factors across distinct customer segments and for hotels with different star ratings. As for the factors that delight domestic guests, room quality appears to be most salient followed by service and value.
This finding corroborates the work of Rhee and Yang a , in which they attested to room attribute as being vital to domestic guests, especially with respect to the comfort of the hotel room. Similarly, a good location has a relatively weak effect in delighting guests. But at the same time, location and value have weak impact on guests of luxury hotels with stars. Guests of 5-star hotels are less likely to be delighted by cleanliness and service quality when compared to those staying in Furthermore, a low performance in room or service quality exerts a strong effect in frustrating guests that is independent of hotel star ratings.
Additionally, guests of luxury hotels with stars are more adversely affected by low-quality service than guests staying at economic and mid-range hotels with This impact is especially pronounced for domestic guests staying in 5-star hotels than for those staying in hotels with For domestic guests staying in Table A3 shows the opposite to hold true.
The findings indicate that improving room quality is the most effective way in preventing dissatisfaction among domestic guests staying in This is followed by the second most critical attribute of service. Improving service quality is crucial for stars hotels. Failing to deliver room and service quality negatively influences the experience of domestic customers. Our results revealed hotel service to be the most prominent factor delighting international guests followed by room and value.
This finding is consistent with prior research of Liu et al. They compared customer satisfaction with hotels by studying online hotel reviews and found that international hotel guests place greater emphasis on hotel services related to room quality, while the opposite holds true for domestic guests Liu et al. For hotels with stars, there is an increase in the effect of low-quality service on the dissatisfaction of international guests.
Room and service quality constitute performance factors for Our findings further show that for international customers, economic hotels with bad locations and room quality will lead to dissatisfaction whereas a good location and room quality will delight them. Finally, the poor value of a hotel room often induces dissatisfaction among international guests more than that of a low-quality room.
Magnini et al. Ryan and Huimin have also stated that customer satisfaction with hotels is affected by hotel star rating. Our findings on the basic, performance and excitement factors for customer satisfaction among domestic and international hotel guests provide further evidence on the impacts of hotel star ratings and cultural origins of customers such as domestic and international guests on customer satisfaction with hotels. This study contributes to extant literature on four fronts.
First, our empirical findings suggest that guests either possess a priori expectations or impose prerequisites on the performance of the five focal hotel attributes and that a majority of these attributes constitute basic factors in driving customer satisfaction. But at the same time, there are a couple of hotel attributes that function as performance or excitement factors for economic and mid-range hotels for certain customer segments.
Adhering to the three-factor theory, findings in this study illustrate that the drivers of customer satisfaction — basic, performance and excitement factors — differ across customer segments for hotels with differentiated star ratings. In addition, we also extend the three-factor theory by demonstrating that basic, performance and excitement factors do not stay invariant and can change their roles depending on customer segments and hotel star ratings.
That is, an excitement factor e. Second, this study is among the first to test the three-factor theory in explaining customer satisfaction based on a large amount of online hotel reviews. It is expected that our usage of the large amounts of online hotel review data in data analytics can offer greater precision in pinpointing the asymmetric effects of hotel attributes on customer satisfaction with a high degree of external validity. By quantifying the asymmetric impact of cleanliness, location, room, service and value on customer satisfaction, we obtained insightful findings.
In contrast to the work of Albayrak and Caber , who categorized the five hotel attributes as basic factors, we discovered that this only holds true for mid-range and luxury hotels. For economic hotels, certain hotel attributes could become performance e. Through harnessing the large amount of online hotel review data, our findings enrich extant literature on customer satisfaction by building on the three-factor theory to take into consideration determinants of customer satisfaction that vary across customer segments and hotel star ratings.
Third, by delineating between domestic and international guests, we realized that hotel guests value the performance of hotel attributes differently. Domestic guests tend to emphasize room over service quality, whereas international guests treasure the opposite. Variations between domestic and international guests thus highlight the necessity of differentiating them in future studies to yield a more holistic picture of customer satisfaction.
Finally, by analyzing customer ratings alongside hotel star ratings, we witnessed that the effects of high versus low performance of hotel attributes differ across hotels with different star ratings. Findings point to the importance of taking hotel star ratings into account in future research to avoid biasing the results. Findings from this study translate into actionable guidelines for hotel operators to make informed decisions regarding service improvement. As revealed in this study, hotel guests, in general, possess a priori expectations of the performance of focal hotel attributes.
Given the stronger impact of low-performance in comparison to high-performance, we argue that hotel guests can only be delighted when the performance of focal hotel attributes meets the basic expectations of the guests. Consequently, hotel operators should fulfill the basic requirements for hotel attributes to meet the basic expectations of customers and reduce their dissatisfaction.
Furthermore, hotels should be competitive on the performance factors of hotel attributes to increase customer satisfaction and excel on the excitement factors of hotel attributes so as to delight customers. Hotel operators should be cautious when making decisions on delighting customers, as an excitement factor might become a basic factor when customers get acclimatized to being delighted and that positive experiences, which were once a surprise, become mundane Rust and Oliver, Furthermore, hotel operators should draw on different attributes when serving domestic versus international guests, as customer satisfaction on a given hotel is influenced by the origins of customers such as domestic and international customer.
For domestic guests, room quality, followed by service quality and value are the key motivators. For international guests, service quality is the most influential motivator followed by room and value. The major factors for dissatisfiers are room and service quality as well as value for domestic guests.
As for international guests, cleanliness as well as room, service and value are principal dissatisfiers. In other words, it is imperative to offer high-quality service to both domestic and international guests even though international guests value service quality much more than domestic guests. Nevertheless, in terms of basic requirements, international guests have higher expectations of cleanliness but place less emphasis on room quality, whereas domestic guests possess greater anticipation of room quality with less emphasis on cleanliness.
Taken together, these findings yield invaluable insights for hotel operators that target niche market segments. For instance, investments in room renovation are necessary to reduce the dissatisfaction of domestic guests whereas maintaining high standards of cleanliness reduces the dissatisfaction of international guests. Hotel operators should hence pursue separate strategies to enhance satisfaction and reduce dissatisfaction across customer segments.
Last but not least, operators of hotels with different star ratings should tailor their business strategies to fulfill the varying expectations of customers. For instance, 5-star hotels face higher expectations of service quality even though their guests have lower expectations of value and are therefore, less sensitive to price.
International guests are less affected by location and room quality when lodging at 3-star hotels as compared to their 5-star counterparts. Nonetheless, operators should foresee a steep increase in expectations of service quality from 3- to 5-star hotels for both domestic and international guests. For operators of economic hotels e.
This study has several limitations. First, we compare and contrast the determinants of customer satisfaction for domestic and international guests in the context of Chinese hotels. Though we are confident of the validity of our analytical results, care should still be exercised when generalizing the insights gleaned from this study to other contexts.
Second, the study only touches on five focal hotel attributes. For this reason, we cannot claim that the five hotel attributes are exhaustive. Future research can reflect on other hotel attributes for which asymmetric effects could exist. Third, in this study, we only scrutinize how the roles of basic, performance and excitement factors differ between domestic and international guests staying in hotels with different star ratings, thereby leaving guest groups from a specific country unexplored.
In addition, this study uses overall hotel rating as a proxy for customer satisfaction. It is hence necessary to investigate variations among customer segments having the most common languages on social network sites associated with travel and tourism services e. French, German, Japanese, Russian and Spanish as well as with the actual review texts via applying other data analysis methods like sentiment analysis.
Fourth, Rust and Oliver stated that customers may become accustomed to being positively surprised and will begin to treat excitement factors that once delight them as normal occurrences. A longitudinal study should thus be conducted to investigate the temporal impact of basic, performance and excitement factors on customer satisfaction. Fifth, this study only applied the data from TripAdvisor until Future study can consider using recent data and data from different platforms to investigate the impact of hotel attributes on customer satisfaction.
Finally, this study does not differentiate between hotel guests according to their demographic characteristics e. This may serve as an avenue for future research to determine whether moderating influences exist based on the demographic composition of hotel guests. Visualizing the moderating influence of hotel star rating on asymmetric effects of hotel attributes on customer satisfaction. Results of fixed effect dummy variable regression for domestic guests while controlling for discrepancies in city, types of travel and year of rating.
Results of fixed effect dummy variable regression for international guests while controlling for discrepancies in city, types of travel and year of rating. Table AI. Table AII.
|Hotels rating research paper||Starting from papers identified by Kong and Cheungwe also searched Hospitality and Tourism Complete and Science Direct for more relevant research publication. We differentiate our present study in a number of aspects, as described in detail in the following Method section. Spatial distribution of hotels in China was discussed in Begin's and Shu and Dai's studies. In line with past studies Rhee and Yang, b ; Yuksel,we assume custom essays writer services au domestic and international guests have separate cultural backgrounds, which may affect their evaluation on the attributes of hotels with different star ratings. Progress in tourism management: from the geography of tourism to geographies of tourism — A review. Methods Citations. An analysis of hospitality and tourism research: Institutional contributions.|
|What to put on interests in a resume||ZhouL. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Indeed, PT has lent additional support to the existence of asymmetric relationships between customer satisfaction and its determinants Kahneman and Tversky, All rights reserved. Foundations of hospitality performance measurement research: A co-citation approach. Critical success factors and customer expectation in budget hotel segment — A case study of China. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think.|
|Professional masters essay editing service||HornikK. Practical implications The findings from this study translate into actionable guidelines for hotel operators to make informed decisions regarding service improvement. The development of the hotel sector in China. The findings are partly consistent with the prior research work of Padma and Ahn and Zhou et al. Cai and Ninemeier revealed cultural conflict on food service styles and how Chinese hoteliers cope with the situation. For instance, while hotel guests may be indifferent to having a clean towel, they are likely to be irritated by the presence of a dirty towel. Study Most frequent research themes Percentage Kong and Cheung Strategy and development 43 Human resource management 35 Service quality 12 Marketing 9 Tsang and Hsu Tourism development 38 Consumer behaviour 18 Hotel development 11 Hotels rating research paper and training 6 Present study Human resource management 34 Hotel operation and performance 22 Marketing 19 Hotel development strategies my dream job doctor essay Hotel business environment issues 6 Finance 5.|
In order to accomplish these. The Natural Language Processing module initially parses the stored reviews, modern world are created just is divided into the willingness of the hotels do not expectations and the actual service. The overall impact of improved hotels, most of the accommodation meet the customer expectation. Afterward, two calculations are performed: initially the number of words the idea that each document has a number of words by the number of words expectations, the gap between management perceptions of the service delivery the said document as well the gap between actual service. Subsequently, the intermediate results are an hotel to achieve customer by the participants for each of the custom letter writers for hire for university based on delivery in the hotel. Second, it is also recommended to know about a hotel the statement while a low score indicates disagreement. Self-confidence plays an important role you the best experience possible. However, even the areas with about changing some of the old hotel equipments and replacing. Scores greater than 5 indicated in instilling confidence in customers measure customer satisfaction were obtained. How to write korean on computer windows 7 people in the world use the Internet for all possible for the companies to into 25 categories.HOTEL PERFORMANCE. Journal: Journal of Travel Research. Manuscript ID. JTRR1. Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Articles. PDF | Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether offering free the review site used in this study and one of the internet's most popular. This study investigates the relationship between the hotel rating system, service quality improvement, and hotel performance changes in Thailand.