In this article, the authors carried out an integrative literature review of CSR and employer branding literatures. Informed by signaling theory, the authors develop a conceptual model of the CSR employer branding process as a cohesive view from the potential and current employee perspective.
These two factors frame a typology that enable managers to better execute their CSR employer brand identity to achieve favourable results, such as a high-quality talent pool and positive affective, cognitive and behavioural employee outcomes. A new model of living the brand : the emergence and impact of brand value aligned behaviour in social banks. Academic research text: This doctoral research thesis looks at brand value orientation of Social Banks. It addresses how Living the Brand by employees emerges and how it affects individual work performance.
The dissertation applies a The dissertation applies a mixed methods research design including case studies. The new model of Living the Brand is validated through structural equation modeling as well as qualitative surveys. The banking industry is one of the fast-growing industries that require talented and skilled workers in a highly competitive environment. Currently keeping an employee has been the biggest challenge for banking industries as turnover is Currently keeping an employee has been the biggest challenge for banking industries as turnover is high, therefore this study was conducted to discuss the issue.
For this purpose, they use employer branding, which is the perception of people about the organizations, but branding is affected by and dependent on many factors. In this research we find some of the factors like compensation, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation system after finding relevant literature. Questionnaire was adopted for this purpose to find whether the relationship between variables possess.
The tools used in this study to examine the relationships were correlation and regression method along with the reliability test known as Cronbach test. The research found that compensation is a good factor to attract employees while performance appraisal shows highest correlation with retention. Enhancing leadership capacity in the public sector: branding as an employer of choice.
Purpose Public services around the world are grappling to enhance their leadership capacity. One approach is to provide leadership training and development to public servants, while another would be to target and hire individuals with One approach is to provide leadership training and development to public servants, while another would be to target and hire individuals with proven leadership ability.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on that latter strategy by critically examining the concept of branding the public service as an employer of choice as a means of recruiting and retaining sufficient leadership capacity. It then reviews the literature on the concept of branding as an employer of choice, including its perceived advantages and limitations, before undertaking a case study analysis of the public sector branding initiative of the Canadian federal government.
Findings It is very difficult to develop a single, master brand given the diversity and c The relevance of employer branding guides its reason for being in the collaborators of the organizations, these being one of the main stakeholders to whom it must guide the nature of marketing, providing value proposals to this important Talent management TM has received lots of attention of academicians, practitioners, researchers, scholars, and competitive firms in recent years, but there are many gaps left for further theoretical and empirical development.
One of gap One of gap is lack of clarity of definition of TM, and the ongoing debate about whether it is merely repackaging of already existing human resource management HRM practices or a new concept. In this context, this paper concludes that TM practices are distinct from the traditional HRM practices. The researcher has consolidated the existing literature on TM for designing an integrated model of TM including its antecedents and consequences. The study calls future research to empirically test the derived propositions.
The paper includes various theoretical, economic, managerial, and future research implications. In the global business environment, competition is always an inevitable factor that each and every organization would face up with and on the other hand, employer branding has been concentrated more among its employees in order to attract In the global business environment, competition is always an inevitable factor that each and every organization would face up with and on the other hand, employer branding has been concentrated more among its employees in order to attract and retain the talented employees, wherein employer branding would also maximize their overall employee work turn over and productivity within the organization.
Further, the researcher carried out the research with major objective focusing on the various major impact of employer branding components and its related human resource practices among the employees of their respective organization, so that it would motivate the talented employees and also it would attract the potential employees into the organisation which would certainly play a major role in the success of the organization.
The target population of the research was found to be indefinite, so the researcher adopted a non-probability sampling method and also the researcher used convenience sampling method towards collecting primary data samples. The primary samples were collected through formal and structured questionnaire as the research instrument and further the researcher deployed personal interview method in order to ensure the primary data collection were effective.
Similarly, secondary data were collected from the available resources from internet sources, journal publications, magazines, academic reference books etc. In addition to the major observations, results and outcome of current research study would certainly reveal the major implications of certain Employer Branding with its related HR Practices and their expected outcome of the intended research in a most predominant manner.
In addition to the major observations, results and outcome of current research study would certainly. Published version. Purpose-This study aims to unveil the determinants of employer branding EB that attracts and retains the employees working in the Indian higher education sector using the factor-analytic approach. Exploratory factor analysis and independent t-test were deployed to analyze the data. Findings-The results of independent samples t-test explicate that perception of male and female university employees pertaining to EB factors of employee attraction EA and employee retention ER is congruent.
Further, the perception of employees in public and private universities on EB factor is similar for ER and non-similar for EA. Abstract Currently, companies understand that brand image can not only be seen as a way, but as a way to achieve the strategic goals of the organization.
The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the importance of Employer Branding The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the importance of Employer Branding EB for corporate brand success in the context of Small and Medium Business from the perspective of the employees compared to the founders, considering all the stable variables. This is an ongoing process through which that company employees want to understand "who" and "what" is behind the brand's value proposition.
A quantitative methodology was used based on interviews with open questions, in order to gather as much information as possible and without constraints. This was properly supported in a literature review, from edited works, academic works, as well as articles in scientific area. The conclusions of this study demonstrate that EB is contributing to a successful brand in the SME context, however, it needs a medium- and long-term marketing and communication plan.
Particularly regarding a brand plan, duly defined and implemented. Do not believe and not betting on the brand capital appreciation, certainly will not potentiate EB. In this way, there is a risk that these organizations would become morbid entities with no sense of belonging. Particularmente, no que se refere a um plano da marca, devidamente definido e implementado. Employer brand, which is defined as the perception of existing employees and Employer brand, which is defined as the perception of existing employees and candidates that the organization is an ideal place to work, is one of the strategic tools mentioned.
The employer brand is a concept that gives organizations a competitive edge over their competitors. Priming must therefore be considered as a mainly retrospective meaning creation method that follows initial perceptual processes. Framing, by contrast, refers to emerging perspectives e.
The framing aspect within sensemaking stresses reflexive actions and reasoning. It particularly acknowledges processes through which actors identify and evaluate their experiences Weber and Glynn Framing stresses the prospective in sensemaking e. Thus, when potential applicants engage in framing employer brand activities and material, they are guided by past employment experiences, the present context and their expectations of future employers, employment or career aspirations.
We conceptualize sensemaking as embracing both of these aspects within a dual-processing model of meaning creation, distinguishing perceptual processes of priming from reflexive, deliberate reasoning processes. Priming and framing as two aspects in meaning construction often relate to each other in recursive processes of influence Cornelissen and Werner In preparation for our study, we identified four tight labor market sectors based on information provided by the regional governmental job center.
We then contacted managers of the largest employer for each branch, to find out what type of workers they aimed to attract and who their main competitors in the labor market were. We used this information to identify pools of companies that were competing for the same set of potential applicants. In return, we offered to provide them with a written summary of overall findings for their sector. To reach our goal of having four companies from each sector, tourism, electrical engineering, civil engineering and timber technology, we contacted 17 companies.
One company rejected our request because it was in the process of developing its employer profile at the time and was not ready to supply us with its standard portfolio of employer brand material. The educational institutions selected are devoted to practical expert education in their main subject areas and require their students to work for extended periods of time in internships or as part of dual education programs before they can graduate. Average full-time work experience among the 47 participants in our study was 6.
By means of this sampling strategy, we created pools of rival employers in tight labor market segments, who actively competed for the potential applicants in our study. The employer brand materials provided by the employers ranged from product samples to employer-related informational material to giveaways.
These artifacts were put in uniform boxes, which were positioned randomly on a table before each respondent entered the room. To avoid potential irritation or awkwardness, we used ordinary-looking glasses with a camera lens built in at the right side of the frames. In each of the boxes, you will find material that potential employers have provided to present themselves. We now would like you to take a look at these materials and to articulate your thoughts.
Simply say out loud whatever comes to your mind. Respondents were invited to identify the companies that they considered the most and least attractive employers and were then asked about their decisions and their opinions on the selected companies. The interviewers asked follow-up questions regarding the opinions given, exploring motives and contexts within the subjective assessments of the employer brands. To prepare our data for analysis, we first created verbatim transcripts of the audio data and then used the video data to add information on nonverbal activities e.
After the transcripts of the audio data had been complemented with the notes on nonverbal activities, we conducted a template analysis King using the software ATLAS. We began our data analysis with the inductive coding of a random subsample of 12 transcripts. Each of the three authors individually conducted open line-by-line coding for four of the 12 transcripts with the aim of developing categories for an initial coding template. We then collectively discussed our coding suggestions against the background of the theoretical themes and subthemes reflecting the conceptual distinction between priming and framing Cornelissen and Werner This process of combining thematic categories from the conceptual framework with inductively generated codes resulted in an initial coding template, which was entered as a code hierarchy in ATLAS.
Based on the initial coding structure, we began coding the complete data. During this part of the coding process, the initial template was adapted several times to incorporate new findings until the coding structure was suited to the overall data set.
To facilitate the development of the template, the three authors met at least once a week during the period of data analysis to review the coding and discuss data-based adaptations to the coding template.
These discussions were based on the current versions of the following three Atlas. The agreed final template that resulted from this process was used to code the complete data set. This coding structure is shown in Table 1 , 2 , 3 and 4 in the Findings section. The following findings report focuses on phenomena that were evident across the data set and were essential parts of the observed opinion-making processes.
Exemplary quotes for codes are provided in one table for each root code. When looking at the material provided, in almost all cases, the study participants started the thinking aloud process by saying the company name and stating whether they were familiar with this employer. However, irrespective of existing employer knowledge and of the nature of preconceptions, in all cases except one these initial reactions were followed by continued engagement with the branded artifacts.
In one instance, the first impression of the employer brand material led to the immediate, spontaneous rejection of that employer. In all other documented employer brand encounters, the potential applicants continuously engaged with the material provided by the companies. This early phase of the observed sensemaking process was marked by the key role of priming. Footnote 1.
In their early investigation of the material, respondents took a rather analytical approach and were very matter-of-fact in their statements. However, their interpretations of the features and contents that stood out to them were subjective in the sense that they were strongly guided by priming effects. General schemas were particularly frequent points of reference in the absence of strong and prevailing employer- or industry-related preconceptions. In addition to general schemas, company- and industry-specific schemas were crucial reference points when study participants already held views on the company image or selected features of the company e.
In addition, if participants were familiar with a company but did not have a strong and clear perception of its image, familiarity did not appear to affect the initial interpretation of employer brand material strongly. For instance, in the quotation displayed in Table 1 , Code 1. Once study participants had engaged with the employer brand material sufficiently to develop a first impression, they drew on their created employer attributions and—by adding new, original thoughts—started to create more holistic, congruent employer images.
For most participants, their impressions of the employers from the initial exploration of their respective brand materials did not translate smoothly into a congruent employer image. In fact, participants formulated a consistent image immediately after viewing the employer brand material in only a few cases Table 2 , Code 2. Those participants whose perceptions were not consistent felt compelled to at least address perceived inconsistencies.
For example, Jack pointed out that he considers owning a shark tank to be incompatible with the ecological focus claimed by TO2 Table 2 , Code 2. If faced with divergent attributions for an employer and multiple options for interpretations, participants usually went beyond simply identifying divergent meanings and engaged in the active construction of consistent images in four ways. Firstly, in most cases potential applicants added more evidence that is consistent or used argumentative strategies to explain the plausibility of their chosen interpretation Table 2 , Code 2.
Martha, for example, presented her memories of an organized company visit she had participated in during her studies in the context of her overall impression of TT2 as a tough and cynical employer. Her account contains references to brand information from different sources. Thirdly, some participants actively questioned and revised some of their prior brand attributions resulting in more consistent brand perceptions.
In these three ways, participants constructed consistent images of employers by reducing ambiguity and emphasizing homogeneity of various employer brand aspects. In these cases, participants projected their frustration with perceived inconsistencies onto the employer and concluded that this inconsistency was a core feature of their employer brand.
In this context, they subsequently actively constructed employer images that were built around themes of chaos, uncertainty, unreliability or lack of structure Table 2 , Code 2. If study participants grew frustrated during the process of making sense of employer brand material, they sometimes stopped constructing their personal idea of the employer. On one hand, this became visible when study participants temporarily suspended their engagement with the material.
This happened, for instance, when potential applicants felt a need to take some more time to rethink or reconsider employer information Table 3 , Code 3. On the other hand, some potential applicants did not just suspend the process but completely withdrew from sensemaking. This happened firstly when company features e.
Secondly, potential applicants also withdrew from sensemaking if they were not willing to process what they perceived to be ambiguous attributions. For example, Dean concludes from his lack of a coherent image of company CE4 that he cannot formulate an opinion about it and subsequently shifts his focus to a different employer Table 3 , Code 3. Both suspending and withdrawing from sensemaking took place during concurrent verbalization phase 1 and during the retrospective inquiry phase 2.
The employers used as a point of reference were either other companies in the study or employers that potential applicants considered to be particularly relevant for the comparison of critical employer brand features. Based on our empirical findings, we present a process model that illustrates a central but flexible trajectory of how potential applicants make sense of employer brand material Fig. We argue that exploring the employer brand material, constructing a plausible employer image and assessing employer attractiveness represent the dominant sensemaking journey that potential applicants undertake when making sense of employer brand material.
In the following, we discuss the activities of the main trajectory, their interplay and deviations from the main trajectory. Chia , p. Such ad hoc commentaries may lead to rough, diverse and disparate ideas about employers. Our study illustrates, however, that this is not a linear process, as participants experienced tensions, ambiguity and uncertainty in this context. For example, some cues were regarded negatively e.
Weick et al. Similarly, participants in our study tried to extract specific cues and aspects from the employer brand material for closer consideration. We conceptualize this process predominantly as priming, in which individuals describe what they see and read in the employer brand material and connect it to already-available mental models Cornelissen and Werner ; Weick et al.
These models mainly refer to knowledge about employment and general attitudes to work or to specific aesthetics or ideas in the provided material. In cases where the organization was already known to the participant, mental models were enriched with personal experiences as well as the experiences and opinions of others e. However, the empirical results also demonstrate evidence that participants had problems applying such mental models. Importantly, such suspensions did not necessarily lead to a breakdown of sensemaking for particular employers since some participants later examined the material again and continued exploring it.
In only a few cases, potential applicants developed a robust, stable perspective on an employer rather early in the process, which we interpret as an overlap with the next activity. During the second activity, potential applicants attempted to narrate a meaningful story about the organization as an employer.
They did that by interpreting specific or general employer attributions and constructing a plausible employer image. This occurred through a process of active, deliberate reasoning that aimed to resolve tensions and ambiguities that arose in the previous activity of their sensemaking journey.
These employer images were constructed subjectively, they were unique in their argumentation, diverse in their plausibility-driven interpretations and entrenched in the story that was crafted. However, this storytelling is usually not straightforward, as it may also include diverse attempts at making sense of contents, aesthetics and the type of employer brand material.
This continued redrafting was fundamentally social since participants in our study also referred to the experiences of others and to discussions with peers, relatives or representatives of an employer. Moreover, by constructing a plausible employer image, the retrospective character of sensemaking Weick becomes particularly evident. This is because interpretations of the present situation, here the consideration of employer brand material, are strongly influenced by past experiences, interactions and events.
The future, in the form of employment options and desires, was already hinted at in the expressed thoughts of many participants but was not the focus of this sensemaking. While constructing an employer image, some participants were reinforcing an already-activated schema to the extent that it was confirmed. Such sensemaking was based on an obvious, consistent and strong narrative and thus included few individual reflections from the exploration activity.
However, the vast majority of participants explicitly reflected on the schemas that dominated their employer brand exploration. Interestingly, previous employment experiences e. In this trajectory, participants went beyond their first assumptions and developed original frames. They related to these comments, returned to the material and substantiated or questioned former perspectives by connecting them to past work experiences, their present situation and ideas about their future employment and careers.
This framing of employer brand material can be regarded as more substantial than priming since participants developed original views about the employers based on an ongoing process of reflecting on assumptions and an attempt to resolve contradictions and achieve consistency and clarity.
Participants related to the employer brand material and selected employer brand attributions but they also considered what this material and these attributions meant for them as individuals and for their values and self-concepts. Thus, constructing a plausible employer image can be regarded as a form of identity work. Potential applicants employed socio-cultural resources such as general reputations of specific industries and structural characteristics of labor market segments and personal memories and wishes Alvesson and Willmott to identify and describe relevant aspects of their employer images.
In doing this, they tried to meet their human needs for self-worth and confidence. This exposure to sensebreaking Pratt provoked strong reactions in participants. They reconstructed their image of an employer or adapted aspects of their identity to make an employer more acceptable, or they strengthened and enforced their identity by devaluing an employer.
However, others stopped the process of sensemaking because the identity they constructed in relation to an employer remained implausible. Usually, this took the form of an articulated need to return to employer brand exploration and study the material in greater detail. We regard the successful construction of a plausible employer image as an essential step in making sense of employer brands.
The activity of employer attractiveness assessment potentially overlaps with the phase of employer image construction, but it is characterized by different characteristics. In this activity, the relationship between potential applicants and the employer shifts from exploration first phase and construction second phase to assessment.
More precisely, potential applicants become evaluators of their prospective life courses in the context of their assessments of employer attractiveness. In this third phase, the prospective dimension of sensemaking comes to the forefront. Identity work becomes dominant, more specific and future driven as potential applicants assess employers in relation to their personal expectations regarding employment. The concept of identity projects thoroughly captures this feature of assessing the attractiveness of future employers Appleby et al.
Potential applicants relate their self-concepts to the individually created employer image and regard employers as either supporting, ignoring or threatening their identity projects Appleby et al. To be able to make such viable judgments, participants in our study sought to develop a plausible narrative that convincingly captured perceived characteristics of the employer and connected them to their personal ideas on their future employment and careers.
This process is beyond the control of the employer because it is highly subjective and represents an independent act of meaning creation Aggerholm et al. In this activity of assessing employer attractiveness, potential applicants relate their constructed employer image primarily to themselves and their identity projects, which then leads to clear rejections or approvals of employers. As our empirical data shows, the process of sensemaking can be severely disrupted and then break down completely.
In other words, in some cases, participants stopped making sense of employer brands. Such withdrawals from sensemaking mainly occurred within two activities. Firstly, in employer brand exploration, terminations of sensemaking arose from the unwillingness or inability of participants to engage with and relate to the provided employer brand material, not even in very basic terms. Participants identified the low quantity or poor quality of information, time restrictions and insufficient interest in an employer as their main reasons for disengaging.
The employer brand material is not able to trigger either sensemaking in the sense of creating meaning Weick or sensebreaking in the sense of destruction of an existing individual meaning Pratt Secondly, withdrawals from sensemaking in the employer image construction occurred when participants were not able to resolve tensions, ambiguities and disinterest caused by the employer brand material, additional information, word of mouth or their own experiences.
These participants were neither able nor willing to relate the employer to their future employment and life options. This describes a situation in which potential applicants are not able to determine their connection with the employer and fail to plausibly construct their identity in relation to this employer.
They develop neither a clear and constructive meaning of an employer nor seekership Pratt , p. Thus, potential applicants remain or become indifferent. In these situations, the process of sensemaking does not recover from a state of indifference.
The function of the first activity of exploration is to orient oneself and therefore represents a necessary step before the construction of a plausible employer image in the second activity. Even more significant, this construction of an employer image constitutes a foundation of the individual assessment of employer attractiveness.
This image represents an interpretation of attributions that potential applicants ascribe to features and contents of employer material and information. Our model implies that there are strong elements of interpretative uncertainty and unpredictability within the various activities of making sense of employer brand material. Additionally, specific deviations from the main trajectory described above are part of our model. Firstly, there is a possibility that potential applicants are not satisfied with their sensemaking process, the level of information they perceive or the plausibility of the constructed employer image.
This situation can lead either to a temporary suspension or a complete withdrawal of potential applicants from making sense of employer brand material. The latter represents a strong uncertainty in the process of individual construction of employer brand images and derives from a breakdown of sensemaking because of indifference towards an employer and their brand material. Secondly, non-linear dynamics are possible within the process model. They can prevent potential applicants from integrating new aspects or information into their sensemaking framing.
This early determination of an employer image based on a small number of impressions and experiences leads to the phenomenon of selective redrafting and rationalization of an existing employer image. Preferences for and against employers are set based on limited information and criteria at an early stage, with the subsequent process focusing on confirming and rationalizing those early choices as a type of retrospective reasoning.
This model identifies various important aspects within this process, including the relevance of a plausible employer image and the possibility of a complete breakdown of individual meaning creation. However, there are some limitations to this study that are relevant to further research on employer branding.
Firstly, we did not fully explore the social dimension of framing in our study. We cover this social dimension in our study via past interactions and implied presence of others, which is an important part of the sociomaterial context of sensemaking Maitlis and Christianson However, we did not cover social processes of constructing meanings of employer brands in the presence of other relevant agents such as peers, family members, recruiters, etc. To grasp this social dimension in the present, it would be necessary to observe communication processes between potential applicants e.
Secondly, we used real employer brand material provided by selected companies. These employers also had the freedom to choose the quantity and composition of their material. Several authors highlight the importance of using realistic scenarios in recruitment research to account for various facets of applicant reactions to employer information e.
In this regard, the heterogeneity of employers and employer brand material used in our study are an advantage for our main study aim. However, we are unable to make any claims about isolated effects of the quantity or quality of the material or the existing employer image on perceived attractiveness of employers. However, company-independent sources played a role in our empirical study when participants related to information on social media or platforms in the interviews.
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