This has prompted public debate on the apparent increased frequency of extremes and focussed attention in particular on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Climate model integrations predict increases in both the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall in the high latitudes under enhanced greenhouse conditions.
These projections are consistent with recent increases in rainfall intensity seen in the UK and worldwide. There is a highly significant correlation between increases in Northern Hemisphere land temperatures and the decreases. There is now ample evidence to support a major retreat of alpine and continental glaciers in response to 20th century warming. In a few maritime regions, increases in precipitation due to regional atmospheric circulation changes have overshadowed increases in temperature in the past two decades, and glaciers have re-advanced.
Over the past to years, ground-based observations show that there is possibility of a reduction of about two weeks in the annual duration of lake and river ice in the mid- to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere Fig. Time-series of relative sea level for the past years from Northern Europe: Amsterdam, Netherlands; Brest, France; Sheerness, UK; Stockholm, Sweden detrended over the period to to remove to first order the contribution of post-glacial rebound ; Swinoujscie, Poland formerly Swinemunde, Germany ; and Liverpool, UK.
There is little indication of reduced Arctic sea-ice extent during winter when temperatures have increased in the surrounding region. By contrast, there is no readily apparent relationship between decadal changes of Antarctic temperatures and sea-ice extent since After an initial decrease in the mids, Antarctic sea-ice extent has remained stable, or even slightly increased. Interannual variability and inter-decadal variability could be influencing these changes. A recent study shows that an increase in heat-absorbing greenhouse gases intensifies an unusual atmospheric circulation pattern already observed during heat waves in Europe and North America.
As the pattern becomes more pronounced, severe heat waves occur in the Mediterranean region and the southern and western United States. Other parts of France, Germany and the Balkans also become more susceptible to severe heat waves. Heat waves can kill more people in a shorter time than almost any other climate event. According to records, people died as a result of Chicago's July, , heat wave.
Fifteen thousand Parisians are estimated to have died from heat in August, , along with thousands of farm animals. For the study, Meehl and Tebaldi compared present and future decades to determine how greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols might affect future climate in Europe and the United States, focusing on Paris and Chicago. They assumed little policy intervention to slow the buildup of greenhouse gases.
During the Paris and Chicago heat waves, atmospheric pressure rose to values higher than usual over Lake Michigan and Paris, producing clear skies and prolonged heat. In the model, atmospheric pressure increases even more during heat waves in both regions as carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere.
Heat wave is based on the concept of exceeding specific thresholds, thus allowing analyses of heat wave duration and frequency. Three criteria were used to define heat waves in this way, which relied on two location-specific thresholds for maximum temperatures. Threshold 1 T1 was defined as the A heat wave was then defined as the longest period of consecutive days satisfying the following three conditions:.
Because the Chicago heat wave of and the Paris heat wave of had particularly severe impacts, we chose grid points from the model that were close to those two locations to illustrate heat wave characteristics. This choice was subjective and illustrative given that there are, of course, other well-known heat waves from other locations. Also, we are not suggesting that a model grid point is similar to a particular weather station; we picked these grid points because they represent heat wave conditions for regions representative of Illinois and France in the model, and therefore they can help identify processes that contribute to changes in heat waves in the future climate in those regions.
Heat waves in Chicago, Paris, and elsewhere in North America and Europe will become more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century, according to a new modeling study by two scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research NCAR in Boulder, Colo.
In the United States, heat waves will become most severe in the West and South. The findings appear in the August 13 issue of the journal Science. Department of Energy DOE. During the Chicago heat wave, the most severe health impacts resulted from the lack of cooling relief several nights in a row, according to health experts.
In the model, the western and southern United States and the Mediterranean region of Europe experience a rise in nighttime minimum temperatures of more than 3 degrees Celsius 5. They will occur more often: The average number of heat waves in the Chicago area increases in the coming century by 25 percent, from "Heat Waves of the 21st Century: More Intense, More Frequent and Longer Lasting.
In Paris, the average number increases 31percent, from 1. They will last longer: Chicago's present heat waves last from 5. In Paris, present-day heat waves persist from 8. Source: National Science Foundation. Based on tide gauge data, the rate of global mean sea level rise during the 20th century is in the range 1. The causes for change of the sea level : At the shoreline it is determined by many factors in the global environment that operate on a great range of time-scales, from hours tidal to millions of years ocean basin changes due to tectonics and sedimentation.
On the time-scale of decades to centuries, some of the largest influences on the average levels of the sea are linked to climate and climate change processes. Firstly, as ocean water warms, it expands. On the basis of observations of ocean temperatures and model results, thermal expansion is believed to be one of the major contributors to historical sea level changes.
Further, thermal expansion is expected to contribute the largest component to sea level rise over the next hundred years. Deep ocean temperatures change only slowly; therefore, thermal expansion would continue for many centuries even if the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases were to stabilise.
The amount of warming and the depth of water affected vary with location. In addition, warmer water expands more than colder water for a given change in temperature. The geographical distribution of sea level change results from the geographical variation of thermal expansion, changes in salinity, winds, and ocean circulation. The range of regional variation is substantial compared with the global average sea level rise.
Rise in sea Level: Sea level also changes when the mass of water in the ocean increases or decreases. This occurs when ocean water is exchanged with the water stored on land. The major land store is the water frozen in glaciers or ice sheets. Indeed, the main reason for the lower sea level during the last glacial period was the amount of water stored in the large extension of the ice sheets on the continents of the Northern Hemisphere. After thermal expansion, the melting of mountain glaciers and ice caps is expected to make the largest contribution to the rise of sea level over the next hundred years.
These glaciers and ice caps make up only a few per cent of the world's land-ice area, but they are more sensitive to climate change than the larger ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, because the ice sheets are in colder climates with low precipitation and low melting rates. Consequently, the large ice sheets are expected to make only a small net contribution to sea level change in the coming decades.
A new study says the seas are acidifying ten times faster today than 55 million years ago when a mass extinction of marine species occurred. And, the study concludes, current changes in ocean chemistry due to the burning of fossil fuels may portend a new wave of die-offs.
In other words, the vast clouds of shelled creatures in the deep oceans had virtually disappeared. The seawater became so corrosive that it ate away at the shells, along with other species with calcium carbonate in their bodies. It took hundreds of thousands of years for the oceans to recover from this crisis, and for the sea floor to turn from red back to white.
By spewing carbon dioxide into the air, we are now once again making the oceans more acidic. Approximately one millennium after the 7 Ka 32 nd Century BCE slowing of sea-level rise, many coastal urban centers rose to prominence around the world Day, John W. It has been hypothesized that this is correlated with the development of stable coastal environments and ecosystems and an increase in marine productivity also related to an increase in temperatures , which would provide a food source for hierarchical urban societies.
The last written records of the Norse Greenlanders are from a marriage in the church of Hvalsey — today the best-preserved of the Norse ruins. Climate change has been associated with the historical collapse of civilizations, cities and dynasties.
Notable examples of this include the Anasazi Demenocal, P. Other, smaller communities such as the Viking settlement of Greenland transl. There are two proposed methods of Classic Maya collapse: environmental and non-environmental. The environmental approach uses paleoclimatic evidence to show that movements in the intertropical convergence zone likely caused severe, extended droughts during a few time periods at the end of the archaeological record for the classic Maya Haug, Gh, et al.
The non-environmental approach suggests that the collapse could be due to increasing class tensions associated with the building of monumental architecture and the corresponding decline of agriculture Hosler D, et al. The Harappa and Indus civilizations were affected by drought 4,—3, years ago. Notable periods of climate change in recorded history include the medieval warm period and the little ice age. In the case of the Norse, the medieval warm period was associated with the Norse age of exploration and arctic colonization, and the later colder periods led to the decline of those colonies Patterson, W.
Climate change in the recent past may be detected by corresponding changes in settlement and agricultural patterns. Archaeological evidence, oral history and historical documents can offer insights into past changes in the climate. Climate change effects have been linked to the collapse of various civilizations. The instrumental temperature record shows global warming of around 0.
The future level of global warming is uncertain, but a wide range of estimates projections have been made Fisher, BS et al. Climate models using the six SRES "marker" scenarios suggest future warming of 1.
The projected rate of warming under these scenarios would very likely be without precedent during at least the last 10, years IPCC SPM. The most recent warm period comparable to these projections was the mid-Pliocene, around 3 million years ago Stern N. Global Land-Ocean, mean surface temperature difference from the average for — Courtesy: Wikipedia. The most recent report IPCC projected that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further1.
This was based on the consistency of evidence across a range of observed changes, including increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level Solomon S, b. Human activities have contributed to a number of the observed changes in climate Hegerl GC, et. This contribution has principally been through the burning of fossil fuels, which has led to an increase in the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere.
This increase in GHG concentrations has caused a radiative forcing of the climate in the direction of warming. Human-induced forcing of the climate has likely to contributed to a number of observed changes, including sea level rise, changes in climate extremes such as warm and cold days , declines in Arctic sea ice extent, and to glacier retreat Fig.
Projected Global Temperature Rise 1. Decline in thickness of glaciers worldwide over the past half-century. Key climate indicators that show global warming Courtesy: Wikipedia. Human-induced warming could potentially lead to some impacts that are abrupt or irreversible. The probability of warming having unforeseen consequences increases with the rate, magnitude, and duration of climate change.
Observations show that there have been changes in weather Le Treut H, et. As climate changes, the probabilities of certain types of weather events are affected. Changes have been observed in the amount, intensity, frequency, and type of precipitation. Widespread increases in heavy precipitation have occurred, even in places where total rain amounts have decreased. Projections of future changes in precipitation show overall increases in the global average, but with substantial shifts in where and how precipitation falls.
Climate models tend to project increasing precipitation at high latitudes and in the tropics e. Evidence suggests that, since the s, there have been substantial increases in the intensity and duration of tropical storms and hurricanes. Models project a general tendency for more intense but fewer storms outside the tropics. Since the late 20th century, changes have been observed in the trends of some extreme weather and climate events, e. Human activities have, with varying degrees of confidence, contributed to some of these observed trends.
Projections for the 21 st century suggest continuing changes in trends for some extreme events Fig. Solomon et al. Projected changes in extreme events will have predominantly adverse impacts on ecosystems and human society. Scientists are to outline dramatic evidence that global warming threatens the planet in a new and unexpected way — by triggering earthquakes, tsunamis, avalanches and volcanic eruptions.
It is assessed that the Melting glaciers will set off avalanches, floods and mud flows in the Alps and other mountain ranges; torrential rainfall in the UK is likely to cause widespread erosion; while disappearing Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets threaten to let loose underwater landslides, triggering tsunamis that could even strike the seas around Britain.
At the same time the disappearance of ice caps will change the pressures acting on the Earth's crust and set off volcanic eruptions across the globe. Life on Earth faces a warm future — and a fiery one. Accumulated cyclone energy in the Atlantic Ocean and the sea surface temperature difference which influences such, measured by the U. Not only are the oceans and atmosphere conspiring against us, bringing baking temperatures, more powerful storms and floods, but the crust beneath our feet seems likely to join in too, said Professor Bill McGuire, director of the Benfield Hazard Research Centre, at University College London UCL.
Some of the key evidence will come from studies of past volcanic activity. These indicate that when ice sheets disappear the number of eruptions increases, said Professor David Pyle, of Oxford University's earth sciences department. The last ice age came to an end between 12, to 15, years ago and the ice sheets that once covered central Europe shrank dramatically, added Pyle.
The impact on the continent's geology can be measured by the jump in volcanic activity that occurred at this time. In the Eiffel region of western Germany a huge eruption created a vast caldera, or basin-shaped crater, 12, years ago, for example.
This has since flooded to form the Laacher See, near Koblenz. Scientists are now studying volcanic regions in Chile and Alaska — where glaciers and ice sheets are shrinking rapidly as the planet heats up — in an effort to anticipate the eruptions that might be set off. Recently scientists from Northern Arizona University reported in the journal Science that temperatures in the Arctic were now higher than at any time in the past 2, years.
Ice sheets are disappearing at a dramatic rate — and these could have other, unexpected impacts on the planet's geology. These ice-like deposits are found on the seabed and in the permafrost regions of Siberia and the far north.
These permafrost deposits are now melting and releasing their methane, said Maslin. You can see the methane bubbling out of lakes in Siberia. And that is a concern, for the impact of methane in the atmosphere is considerable.
It is 25 times more powerful than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. A build-up of permafrost methane in the atmosphere would produce a further jump in global warming and accelerate the process of climate change. Even more worrying, however, is the impact of rising sea temperatures on the far greater reserves of methane hydrates that are found on the sea floor.
It was not just the warming of the sea that was the problem, added Maslin. As the ice around Greenland and Antarctica melted, sediments would pour off land masses and cliffs would crumble, triggering underwater landslides that would break open more hydrate reserves on the sea-bed. Again there would be a jump in global warming.
These are key issues that we will have to investigate over the next few years, he said. The last on this list could even send a tsunami across the Atlantic, one that might reach British shores. From other experts, it is said that the risk posed by melting ice in mountain regions, which would pose significant dangers to local people and tourists. The Alps, in particular, face a worryingly uncertain future, said Jasper Knight of Exeter University.
Rock walls resting against glaciers will become unstable as the ice disappears and so set off avalanches. In addition, increasing melt-waters will trigger more floods and mud flows. For the Alps this is a serious problem. Tourism is growing there, while the region's population is rising. Managing and protecting these people was now an issue that needed to be addressed as a matter of urgency, Knight said. It is a wake-up call to Terra Firma," McGuire said.
Sea level rise due to climate change would leave lower Manhattan dangerously exposed to flood surges during major storms, the report, which looks at the impact of climate change across the entire state of New York, warns. Clearly areas of the city that are currently inhabited will be uninhabitable with the rising of the sea.
Factor in storm surges, and the scenario becomes even more frightening, he said. Subway tunnels get affected, airports - both LaGuardia and Kennedy sit right at sea level - and when you are talking about the lowest areas of the city you are talking about the business districts.
The report, commissioned by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, said the effects of sea level rise and changing weather patterns would be felt as early as the next decade. The Manhattan skyline as Hurricane Irene approached. By the mids, sea level rise around Manhattan and Long Island could be up to 10 inches, assuming the rapid melting of polar sea ice continues.
By , sea-rise could reach 2. In such a scenario, many of the tunnels - subway, highway, and rail - crossing into the Bronx beneath the Harlem River, and under the East River would be flooded within the hour, the report said. Some transport systems could be out of operation for up to a month. The report, which was two years in the making, was intended to help the New York state government take steps now to get people out of harm's way - and factor climate change into long-term planning to protect transport, water and sewage systems.
New York mayor Michael Bloomberg was so concerned that he went on to commission an even more detailed study of the city after receiving early briefings on the report. That makes him an outlier among his fellow Republicans, who blocked funds for creating a new climate service in budget negotiations in Congress this week. DeGaetano said climate change would force governments to begin rethinking infrastructure.
The impacts of global warming are already harming people around the world. Now climate scientists have concluded that we must limit global warming to 1. These effects are felt by all people in one way or another but are experienced most acutely by the underprivileged, the economically marginalized, and people of color, for whom climate change is often a key driver of poverty, displacement, hunger, and social unrest.
Normally this radiation would escape into space, but these pollutants, which can last for years to centuries in the atmosphere, trap the heat and cause the planet to get hotter. These heat-trapping pollutants—specifically carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and synthetic fluorinated gases—are known as greenhouse gases, and their impact is called the greenhouse effect.
In the United States, the largest source of greenhouse gases is transportation 29 percent , followed closely by electricity production 28 percent and industrial activity 22 percent. Curbing dangerous climate change requires very deep cuts in emissions, as well as the use of alternatives to fossil fuels worldwide. The good news is that countries around the globe have formally committed—as part of the Paris Climate Agreement —to lower their emissions by setting new standards and crafting new policies to meet or even exceed those standards.
To avoid the worst impacts of climate change, scientists tell us that we need to reduce global carbon emissions by as much as 40 percent by For that to happen, the global community must take immediate, concrete steps: to decarbonize electricity generation by equitably transitioning from fossil fuel—based production to renewable energy sources like wind and solar; to electrify our cars and trucks; and to maximize energy efficiency in our buildings, appliances, and industries.
They also said the odds of similar droughts happening in the future had roughly doubled over the past century. And in , the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine announced that we can now confidently attribute some extreme weather events, like heat waves, droughts, and heavy precipitation, directly to climate change.
In other words, global warming has the ability to turn a category 3 storm into a more dangerous category 4 storm. In fact, scientists have found that the frequency of North Atlantic hurricanes has increased since the early s, as has the number of storms that reach categories 4 and 5. The Atlantic hurricane season included a record-breaking 30 tropical storms, 6 major hurricanes, and 13 hurricanes altogether.
With increased intensity come increased damage and death. The impacts of global warming are being felt everywhere. Extreme heat waves have caused tens of thousands of deaths around the world in recent years. And in an alarming sign of events to come, Antarctica has lost nearly four trillion metric tons of ice since the s.
The rate of loss could speed up if we keep burning fossil fuels at our current pace, some experts say, causing sea levels to rise several meters in the next 50 to years and wreaking havoc on coastal communities worldwide. A: Each year scientists learn more about the consequences of global warming , and each year we also gain new evidence of its devastating impact on people and the planet.
As the heat waves, droughts, and floods associated with climate change become more frequent and more intense, communities suffer and death tolls rise. Global warming is already taking a toll on the United States. Though everyone is affected by climate change, not everyone is affected equally. Indigenous people, people of color, and the economically marginalized are typically hit the hardest.
Inequities built into our housing , health care , and labor systems make these communities more vulnerable to the worst impacts of climate change—even though these same communities have done the least to contribute to it. A: In recent years, China has taken the lead in global-warming pollution , producing about 26 percent of all CO2 emissions. The United States comes in second.
And America is still number one, by far, in cumulative emissions over the past years. As a top contributor to global warming, the United States has an obligation to help propel the world to a cleaner, safer, and more equitable future. Our responsibility matters to other countries, and it should matter to us, too. But in order to avoid the worsening effects of climate change, we need to do a lot more—together with other countries—to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and transition to clean energy sources.
Despite the lack of cooperation from the Trump administration, local and state governments made great strides during this period through efforts like the American Cities Climate Challenge and ongoing collaborations like the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. Meanwhile, industry and business leaders have been working with the public sector, creating and adopting new clean-energy technologies and increasing energy efficiency in buildings, appliances, and industrial processes.
Today the American automotive industry is finding new ways to produce cars and trucks that are more fuel efficient and is committing itself to putting more and more zero-emission electric vehicles on the road. Developers, cities, and community advocates are coming together to make sure that new affordable housing is built with efficiency in mind , reducing energy consumption and lowering electric and heating bills for residents.
And renewable energy continues to surge as the costs associated with its production and distribution keep falling.
Inthis research paper you will find most of the history of global warming, how it has had a impact on the world, how it impacts us and our daily lives, and etc. Also I Yarely Juarez will be stating what are the planning or direction of this technology. Many 7t However, today, due to global warming we will not able to experience that anymore. Global warming is a real issue today because of the amount of pollution we create, the future effects it will cause and becoming the uproar in political debates.
In the past 50 years, the average global temperature has increased at an alarming rate. The increased heat is caused by greenhouse gases, greenhouse gases act as. A history of climate change. Since this time, reports, and study have be done with graphs to show the impact of global warming and what could happen to our planet. Discovering the Main Cause of Global Warming Upon researching the causes of Global warming, it was discovered that humans are the main cause of global warming which contributes to the rising average global temperatures.
The theory of global warming was originated in the late 's by a scientist named John Tyndall. He then suggested that the accumulation of these gases to a high level, causes climate change. What could be causing these extreme weather patterns? Scientists say that it is the gradual increase of the temperature over the entire earth. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature all over the earth.
Global Warming is a major problem in the world today and is argued among all of the world leaders. This is the problem that the world has made and now we need to find the solution to this. There are many gases that are emitted into the atmosphere that implicate the acceleration and poutiness of the greenhouse effect.
These gases are called the greenhouse gases; they are all a natural part of the atmosphere, but because of human interaction they are increasing drastically. They are: carbon dioxide , water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons, per fluorocarbon, and sulfur hexafluoride, these seven gases are aiding in the acceleration of global warming Energy and the Environment.
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