anti bullying laws research paper

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Anti bullying laws research paper creative college essay topics

Anti bullying laws research paper

All other programs received weak recommendations against implementation, largely because they were resource-intensive yet delivered little or no reduction in bullying or victimization, or were not feasible in a North American environment. Its objective is to draw readers' attention to 10 articles published by the magazine, which deal with the same theme.

Each bulletin, a theme, whose focus is Each bulletin, a theme, whose focus is School Education in the Ibero America scenario. An Investigation of Bullying and Imagined Interactions. Specifically used in youth prevention programs, this coaches guide focuses on developing youth towards safe communities and build emotional intelligence.

School-related violence. Violence against children is a global problem. It includes physical violence, psychological violence such as insults and humiliation, discrimination, neglect and maltreatment. It has short- and long-term repercussions that are often grave It has short- and long-term repercussions that are often grave and damaging for children Pinheiro Bullying, gender-based violence, accidental violence, discrimination and violence, sexual assault or harassment, physical violence and psychological violence, describe some of the most prevalent forms of school-based violence South African Human Rights Commission The evidence base on school-related violence must be improved to inform policies Antonowicz To assess the evidence that does exist, this helpdesk report presents a non-systematic review of the evidence on school-related violence.

It is based on the evidence found through a rapid internet search and through consultation with experts in this field. The report is broken down into four sections: reducing and preventing school-related violence; safe, inclusive and violence-free schools; cyber bullying; and school-related gender-based violence.

It is recognised that the topic of school-related violence is complex and multifaceted. While this report aims to offer a useful synthesis of the evidence available, as well as relevant case studies and policy recommendations, it only scratches the surface of a very large and pressing global problem. The study is part of a larger, ongoing ethnographic research project into the relations between school bullying and the The study is part of a larger, ongoing ethnographic research project into the relations between school bullying and the institutional context of schooling being conducted in schools in Sweden, focusing on the perspectives of teachers and students from pre-school class up to grade eight.

The findings from this particular study are based on participant observations and semi-structured interviews with teachers from pre-school class to grade six i. Taken as a whole, the study highlights the importance of looking beyond the issue of supervision in schools and considering in more detail the ways in which spatiality and school design influence school bullying and preventative work in schools.

Paul Horton. How to avoid being bullied at school in Colombia. ABSTRACT Mobile applications in the educational environment, as technology to prevent bullying situations among students, open a new way of research for the use of emerging media against this social challenge in the classroom. Apps, thanks to its easy use and their effectiveness as a communication channel between teachers, parents and students could define a new field of action in the educational environment.

Student's multimedia messages could be received quickly and directly by the academic management to alert of bullying situations between peers. The school, after receiving and managing of these messages, through this new channel, could take preventive and corrective actions.

This mobile application would be a user friendly tool for students, helping to prevent bullying situations. The message is sent anonymously from the APP, so this is safe for the student. Control bullying situations through technology opens a new way to improve the learning environment. The promotion of communicative competence in students play a key role in schools for the purpose of improving social, emotional and coexistence relationships in Secondary Education students.

The development of said competence can The development of said competence can represent a great strategy to improve conflicts in the classroom, notably bullying. We used a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test control group design with a sample of 55 students from the city of Salamanca Spain to analyse the level of conflict and their perceptions about bullying during the academic year. The behaviour of students based on their level of coexistence with the group of classmates was measured by the INSEBULL instrument Bullying Assessment Instrument , which added one more dimension of own elaboration.

The results showed that, even though the significant levels of conflict, they decreased substantially once the ICCC programme was applied. Furthermore, we found differences between the control and experimental groups which underlined the effectiveness of the program.

Regarding gender, no differences were found in the experimental group. This study shows that the development of communicative competence in students has a significant impact on their level of coexistence with other classmates, although the results suggested the need for longitudinal implementation of the programme in order to improve school coexistence and social skills of students from the early stages of education.

Pogorzelska M. The theoretical framework of the work consists of critical pedagogical, sociological and linguistic concepts in which qualitative methodologies used in research and interpretations: bricolage and Critical Discourse Analysis are rooted. The monograph presents the socio-cultural context of LGBT people's functioning, pointing to the interdependence of such phenomena as homophobia, heterosexism and heteronormativity.

The empirical part is devoted to chapters on the analysis of school discourse, practices of violence and harassment as well as strategies for surviving in situations of oppression. Although not designed as an implementation study per se, the GAO audit did include several interviews with school administrators and parents in an attempt to ascertain challenges that hindered anti-bullying efforts, including difficulties in the implementation of anti-bullying policies.

Similar to the previous section on the effectiveness of anti-bullying policies, the review in this section of the existing research evidence on implementation is organized by geographic scope of the study, starting with a single state, moving to multistate assessments, and finally to a countrywide implementation analysis. A mixed-methods study in Iowa examined how schools in that state implemented its anti-bullying law Ramirez et al.

Although administrators in general reported being successful in developing an anti-bullying policy for their school as mandated by state law, the implementation of the policy presented certain challenges. Specifically, in qualitative interviews, administrators reported difficulties in interpreting the legal definitions of bullying, which created challenges both in confirming bullying cases as well as in disciplining bullying behaviors Ramirez et al.

Further, administrators reported challenges in obtaining the financial resources that were necessary to support the successful implementation of certain components of the antibullying policies e. Two multistate studies have examined the implementation of antibullying policies, and both reported findings similar to those obtained in the single-state analysis in Iowa. In the first study, researchers who were contracted by DOE conducted site visits in 11 school districts and 22 middle schools diverse with respect to ethnicity, urbanicity, and socioeconomic status in four states selected from different regions in the United States the states are not named in the report.

At the site visits, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with numerous constituencies such as state education agency representatives, school and district personnel, school principals, school counselors, teachers, and bus drivers. Results from these interviews revealed some positive aspects related to anti-bullying law and policy.

For instance, many respondents reported that their ability to identify and effectively respond to bullying incidents was strengthened by the policies' requirements that schools develop procedures for handling bullying. Moreover, nearly all respondents supported the policies' emphasis on raising expectations that schools were responsible for preventing and addressing bullying EMT Associates Inc.

At the same time, a number of barriers to implementation were observed. Although teachers and other school staff were typically aware of the existence of anti-bullying policies, many were not familiar with the particular details of the policies, which in turn hindered implementation. Additional impediments to the effective implementation of anti-bullying policies included 1 teachers' confusion over whether certain behaviors constituted bullying versus other forms of peer aggression and therefore whether these behaviors warranted reporting and any disciplinary responses, as required by the state legislation; 2 district administrators' stated difficulties over how to investigate and resolve incidents of cyberbullying and other forms of bullying that occurred off campus i.

In the second multistate study, the GAO sampled six school districts across eight states Arkansas, California, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Mexico, Virginia, and Vermont that varied with respect to several dimensions, including geography, student enrollment, and the state's anti-bullying policies e. The audit conducted interviews with central administrators, principals, school staff, and parents the number of interviews that were conducted is not provided in the report.

Only one study has evaluated the implementation of anti-bullying policies at the country level this study evaluated a broader school safety framework in Australia known as the National Safe Schools Framework, or NSSF, of which bullying prevention was only one component. In this study, Cross and colleagues collected data from schools that were surveyed as part of the Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study.

In each school, four teachers who taught grades 4 through 9 and two senior staff typically the principal and deputy principal completed quantitative surveys, in which they rated both their school's implementation of the 23 whole-school policy and practice strategies as part of the NSSF and their school staff's expertise in addressing bullying. A quarter of the teachers were unsure about the contents of the school's policy, rendering implementation of the policy recommendations and practices difficult.

Furthermore, fewer than half of the schools reported using more than half of the strategies in the NSSF policy, indicating the implementation rates were low Cross et al. Research on the implementation of anti-bullying policies, while sparse, has begun to provide some valuable initial insights regarding challenges to the implementation of these policies, such as lack of awareness of the specific components of the policies among school administrators and teachers, as well as confusion over the scope of the policies and the specific behaviors that meet the definition of bullying Ramirez et al.

On the other hand, this research has noted some positive aspects of the policies, including focusing greater attention on bullying within schools. In addition, certain supports were identified that have facilitated the successful implementation of these policies, including strong leadership and effective communication EMT Associates Inc. At the same time, there are important limitations to this research. Only one of these studies used a probability design Cross et al.

Consequently, results from the majority of evaluation studies are not generalizable to the population of school-based youths. In addition, the implementation studies vary widely in terms of their purpose: some were not designed specifically to address implementation of anti-bullying policies e.

Government Accountability Office, , whereas others e. In short, very few studies have been designed with the stated purpose of comprehensively examining the implementation of anti-bullying policies. The methods employed have also varied substantially across studies, and in some instances it is unclear what methods were used. In the absence of such information, it is difficult to evaluate the validity of the study's results. Furthermore, most of these studies lacked an explicit theoretical framework that would help guide the data collection, methodologies, research questions, and interpretation of study findings.

Though many social science theories and approaches could be appropriate for implementation studies of anti-bullying policies, the theories and methods of implementation science Lobb and Colditz, offer one widely used paradigm that may be fruitfully applied to the context of anti-bullying policies.

In addition, research on evidence-based public health policies e. The circumstances that shape both institutional commitment to the implementation of anti-bullying policies and the characteristics of that implementation require future research. Specifically, practitioners, school administrators, and other stakeholders would benefit from an understanding of the process of anti-bullying policy implementation and the complex social processes involved in the transformation of institutional climate that occurs as a result of anti-bullying policies.

For instance, little is currently known about how the school's institutional climate around bullying changes during the implementation of these policies e. Indeed, there is often a general resistance to policy implementation, e.

Finally, political factors may often determine the development of anti-bullying laws e. Mixed-methods studies that combine quantitative and qualitative designs are uniquely suited to address these questions but are thus far largely missing from the literature see Schwab-Reese et al. In the past 15 years, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have adopted anti-bullying laws. The majority of states have supplemented that law with additional policies.

Together with existing federal civil rights and anti-discrimination law and state civil rights laws, this wave of state antibullying legislation provides a mandate to address bullying and its harmful consequences.

Despite the substantial legislative and policy action on bullying, the variations in law and policy across jurisdictions, as well as the early stage of implementation and evaluation of anti-bullying laws, indicate that considerable work remains to identify the most effective law and policy frameworks for addressing bullying. Public health policy frameworks e.

While this framework is theoretically sound, research has only recently begun to evaluate whether anti-bullying laws and policies are, in fact, effective in preventing bullying. Two studies have shown positive benefits of the laws in reducing bullying and related constructs Hatzenbuehler and Keyes, ; Hatzenbuehler et al.

Furthermore, a handful of studies have highlighted both barriers to implementation of anti-bullying policies as well as supports that have facilitated their implementation EMT Associates Inc. Government Accountability Office, ; however, variation in the type and quality of methods used in these studies limits the inferences that can be drawn.

Little is known about the potential adverse consequences of anti-bullying laws on children and adolescents. For instance, many states' laws significantly expand school surveillance authority, potentially raising privacy and free speech concerns Suski, These and other unintended consequences merit further attention. At the same time, legal content analyses of anti-bullying policies e.

Government Accountability Office, , indicate that there is substantial heterogeneity across states regarding the content of anti-bullying policies and the legal protections conferred to students e. Government Accountability Office, , p. Consequently, the full impact of anti-bullying and related laws is currently muted—because some state anti-bullying laws and policies appear to be less effective than others in reducing bullying and its adverse consequences e.

Much remains to be learned about the effectiveness of anti-bullying laws and policies and about the factors that contribute to their successful implementation. To be maximally effective, the study of anti-bullying laws and policies requires an interdisciplinary, team-based response, drawing on and integrating theories and methods from such diverse fields as law, public policy, psychology, anthropology, sociology, and history Hatzenbuehler et al.

There are several potential benefits of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of anti-bullying laws and policies, including the triangulation of multiple sources of data to strengthen causal inferences and the ability to address certain issues related to this topic that are not possible with other disciplinary approaches.

For instance, whereas quantitative analyses can provide information on the prevalence and correlates of different features of the implementation process e. Although the importance of team-based approaches in science is increasingly recognized National Research Council, , very little work to date—with rare exceptions e. Finding 6. There is substantial heterogeneity across states, with state laws differing on a number of critical issues, including how bullying is defined and the scope of schools' authority to respond to bullying.

In addition, these legal definitions sometimes differ from definitions used in research and in anti-bullying programs. Such consequences include the impact on students' privacy and speech rights, schools' potential liability and their capacity to address off-campus bullying, and the prevalence of bullying. Although some claimants have been successful in pursuing a remedy through the courts, significant challenges exist in pursuing litigation, and most cases litigated to date have favored defendants most commonly, schools.

The few studies that do exist suggest general support for anti-bullying policies by district and school personnel, as well as some factors that facilitate implementation of these policies. But there are several barriers to successful implementation of anti-bullying laws and policies, including lack of awareness of the specific components of the laws and policies among school administrators and teachers, confusion over the scope of the laws and policies and the bullying behaviors they cover, and the ability of local jurisdictions to fulfill mandates required by law e.

Conclusion 6. Additional research is needed to determine the specific components of an anti-bullying law that are most effective in reducing bullying, in order to guide legislators who may amend existing laws or create new ones. Such studies should be grounded in social science theory and conducted with larger and more representative samples, and with state-of-the-science methods. The one exception was a study that provided evidence for the effectiveness of school district anti-bullying policies that enumerate protected groups.

This study was included because it was one of the few studies on this topic that used an objectively coded measure of the antibullying policy. Civil Rights Act of , tit. IV, 42 U. VI, 42 U. Education Amendments of , tit. IX, 20 U. Title IX protects students—including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT students—from sex discrimination but does not expressly prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation.

Title IX has been held in select cases to include protection from harassment for failing to conform to stereotypical norms of masculinity or femininity, but those decisions do not equate to a guarantee of protection for LGBT students. Section of the Rehabilitation Act of , 29 U.

Tinker v. See Alaska Stat. Quoted passage is from the decision in Harlow v. Fitzgerald, U. Horne 9th Cir. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. Government Accountability Office, : race, color, or national origin; 2 , 3 sex; 2 , 3 , 4 disability; 5 , 6 , 7 and religion. State and Local Law and Policy State and local law and policy constitute a key component of current responses to bullying. Litigation While anti-bullying statutes provide a mandate to create a framework for preventing and responding to bullying, litigation offers another avenue to pursue a remedy for harms suffered as a result of bullying.

Future Directions As federal antidiscrimination laws continue to evolve, additional research will be needed to assess the extent to which federal law protects all children and adolescents who are vulnerable to bullying. Single-State Evaluations One approach to examining effectiveness has been to conduct single-state evaluations over time. Multistate Evaluations Research has also examined associations between anti-bullying laws and bullying outcomes in multistate evaluations.

Countrywide Evaluations Australia in became one of the first countries to implement a national policy the National Safe Schools Framework, NSSF for the prevention of aggressive behaviors among youth, including bullying.

Effects of Anti-Bullying Laws on At-Risk Populations As reviewed in Chapter 2 , several groups are disproportionately targeted by bullying, including sexual minorities i. Methodological Assessment of Existing Literature The studies discussed above have provided important initial insights into the efficacy of anti-bullying policies, but the findings should be considered in light of certain methodological limitations.

Future Directions The study of the impact of anti-bullying laws and policies on bullying is in its relative infancy. A social history of the emergence of bullying as a focus of public policy concern is therefore needed, as understanding the circumstances under which any issue gains traction and draws attention as needing remediation is critical in crafting effective policy responses e.

Research Approaches Similar to the previous section on the effectiveness of anti-bullying policies, the review in this section of the existing research evidence on implementation is organized by geographic scope of the study, starting with a single state, moving to multistate assessments, and finally to a countrywide implementation analysis. Methodological Assessment of Existing Studies Research on the implementation of anti-bullying policies, while sparse, has begun to provide some valuable initial insights regarding challenges to the implementation of these policies, such as lack of awareness of the specific components of the policies among school administrators and teachers, as well as confusion over the scope of the policies and the specific behaviors that meet the definition of bullying Ramirez et al.

Future Directions The circumstances that shape both institutional commitment to the implementation of anti-bullying policies and the characteristics of that implementation require future research. Conclusions Conclusion 6. Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools?

American Psychologist. Sexual orientation and bullying among adolescents in the Growing up Today study. Journal of Adolescent Health. Boccanfuso C, Kuhfeld M. Mar, Research to Results Brief, Child Trends. Publication No. What can be done about school shootings? A review of the evidence. Educational Researcher. Understanding evidence-based public health policy. American Journal of Public Health. Making the case for laws that improve health: A framework for public health law research.

Milbank Quarterly. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Child Trends. Now What? Cornell D, Limber SP. Law and policy on the concept of bullying at school. International Journal of Behavioral Development.

EMT Associates, Inc. Washington, DC: U. Department of Education; Zero tolerance: Moving the conversation forward. Intervention in School and Clinic. Criteria for distinguishing effectiveness from efficacy trials in systematic reviews. Law and public health at CDC. Hanks JC. Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth.

Oxford: Oxford University Press; The mental health consequences of antibullying policies. Associations between antibullying policies and bullying in 25 states. JAMA Pediatrics. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators. School bullying litigation: An empirical analysis of the case law. Akron Law Review. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council.

High school bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidality. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. Kosse SH. How best to confront the bully: Should Title IX or antibullying statutes be the answer. Lerner BH. One for the Road: Drunk Driving since Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; State laws and policies to address bullying in schools.

School Psychology Review. Lobb R, Colditz GA. Implementation science and its application to population health. Annual Review of Public Health. McCall L. The complexity of intersectionality. Journal of Women in Culture and Society. National Research Council. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science. Psychology in the Schools. Pitlick NE. Catherine University; Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation's children. Psychological Bulletin. New Orleans, LA: Nov 18, Raz J.

Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press; Rivers I. Recollections of bullying at school and their long-term implications for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special Education. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent school victimization: Implications for young adult health and adjustment.

Journal of School Health. Injury Epidemiology. Evaluation of Iowa's Anti-Bullying Law. Submitted to. Shadish WR. Revisiting field experimentation: Field notes for the future. Psychological Methods. Skiba RJ. The failure of zero tolerance. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Antibullying legislation: A public health perspective.

Basics of Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies. Suski E. Beyond the schoolhouse gates: The unprecedented expansion of school surveillance authority under cyberbullying laws. Case Western Reserve Law Review. What can be done about school bullying?

Linking research to educational practice. Washington, DC: Child Trends; Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. Dear Colleague Letter, December 16, Dear Colleague Letter, October 26, Government Accountability Office. Government Printing Office; American Journal of Epidemiology. Wilson H.

Turning off the school-to-prison pipeline. Laws Ann. See, for example, Ga. Code Ann. Copyright by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. In this Page. Other titles in this collection. Related information. Recent Activity. Clear Turn Off Turn On. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

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The study by Schwab-Reese and colleagues improved upon these methodological limitations through the use of a quasi-experimental design, which afforded the opportunity to examine whether bullying was reduced following the implementation of Iowa's anti-bullying policy. However, this study did not have a comparison group—for example, a state that did not currently have an anti-bullying policy—which would have strengthened the study's ability to determine whether it was the policy, rather than some other factor, that was responsible for the observed relationships.

Further, the study demonstrated the importance of having data before and after the bullying legislation was passed, given the initial uptick followed by a reduction in bullying at subsequent assessments. However, it is often quite difficult to obtain data before a policy is enacted, particularly given that all states currently have anti-bullying laws. Time-series analyses are therefore likely to be particularly important in future studies exploring the impact of anti-bullying policies.

The study of the impact of anti-bullying laws and policies on bullying is in its relative infancy. Therefore, several critical directions for future inquiry remain in order to advance this literature for a review, see Hatzenbuehler et al.

These directions are explored below. Research on mediating mechanisms is needed to uncover why antibullying laws or policies are effective in reducing bullying. There are multiple ways in which anti-bullying policies could reduce bullying behaviors, ranging from changing social norms in the school to improving opportunities for reporting bullying. Thus, an important direction for future studies is to identify the processes linking anti-bullying policies to reductions in bullying behavior, which will inform the development of more effective anti-bullying policies that can target these specific mechanisms.

Additionally, research into moderating factors can provide critical information on youth for whom anti-bullying policies are most effective and, conversely, youth for whom these policies are less effective. In particular, it is currently largely unknown whether anti-bullying policies are effective in protecting youth known to be at disproportionate risk for bullying victimization but see Hatzenbuehler and Keyes, Whether anti-bullying laws—including the enumeration of specific groups—are effective in reducing disparities in bullying victimization is therefore largely unknown.

Furthermore, youth with intersectional identities i. Existing studies have focused on anti-bullying laws as a primary prevention strategy for preventing bullying behavior. However, it is also plausible that such policies might prevent bullying perpetration and other forms of peer aggression and violence e. In addition, anti-bullying laws can also be conceptualized as a secondary prevention strategy for reducing the adverse sequelae among those who are bullied.

For instance, is the relationship between being the target of bullying and adverse health outcomes e. Addressing these and other questions will help inform the potential reach of anti-bullying policies. As discussed above, there are several frameworks for understanding and evaluating anti-bullying policies.

Currently, only the DOE framework has been evaluated. Given that existing frameworks highlight different foci, results from the DOE framework may not be generalizable to other antibullying law frameworks, such as the public health framework mentioned above Srabstein et al.

Future studies need to compare these frameworks and identify best practices. Finally, as previously mentioned, the first anti-bullying law was implemented more than 15 years ago, and this was followed by a fairly rapid policy response in other states. These laws have largely been reactive to particular events, such as the Columbine High School shootings in and suicides among youth who were reportedly bullied.

See Chapter 4 for more detail on school shootings. There is substantial heterogeneity across states in terms of what is included in anti-bullying laws. Little is known, however, about how emerging evidence, sustained advocacy, and political opportunity converged to create this proliferation of laws to address the issue of bullying across the nation, despite the fact that the field of public health policy research has made clear that the range of possible policy solutions is shaped by the ways in which problems emerge and are framed e.

A social history of the emergence of bullying as a focus of public policy concern is therefore needed, as understanding the circumstances under which any issue gains traction and draws attention. In order for many of these questions to be addressed in future research; it will be necessary for new data structures to be created, as well as for modifications to be made to existing data structures.

In particular, one of the methodological challenges confronting researchers is that many population-based studies that include bullying outcomes do not provide information at geographic units of analysis e. Collaborations between researchers and the federal agencies that create these datasets are therefore needed to address these barriers in order to further facilitate research on this topic.

If there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of anti-bullying laws and policies, there is even less empirical research on the implementation of these policies. This is due, in part, to the relatively recent focus on law and policy specifically within the context of bullying, as well as to the lack of attention more generally to the factors that determine how social policies are implemented Burris et al.

In this section, the committee provides a review of the existing evidence on the implementation of anti-bullying policies. We first discuss the methods that have been used, then review and evaluate the literature, and finally consider important directions for future inquiry. Several methods have been used to evaluate the implementation of anti-bullying policies, including: 1 content reviews of school and district policies to determine compliance with anti-bullying laws e.

These implementation studies span different geographic scales, ranging from single cities e. Impact evaluations of the implementation of anti-bullying policies have thus far largely been conducted either by task forces appointed by members of the executive and legislative branches e. In one instance, the U. Although not designed as an implementation study per se, the GAO audit did include several interviews with school administrators and parents in an attempt to ascertain challenges that hindered anti-bullying efforts, including difficulties in the implementation of anti-bullying policies.

Similar to the previous section on the effectiveness of anti-bullying policies, the review in this section of the existing research evidence on implementation is organized by geographic scope of the study, starting with a single state, moving to multistate assessments, and finally to a countrywide implementation analysis. A mixed-methods study in Iowa examined how schools in that state implemented its anti-bullying law Ramirez et al.

Although administrators in general reported being successful in developing an anti-bullying policy for their school as mandated by state law, the implementation of the policy presented certain challenges. Specifically, in qualitative interviews, administrators reported difficulties in interpreting the legal definitions of bullying, which created challenges both in confirming bullying cases as well as in disciplining bullying behaviors Ramirez et al. Further, administrators reported challenges in obtaining the financial resources that were necessary to support the successful implementation of certain components of the antibullying policies e.

Two multistate studies have examined the implementation of antibullying policies, and both reported findings similar to those obtained in the single-state analysis in Iowa. In the first study, researchers who were contracted by DOE conducted site visits in 11 school districts and 22 middle schools diverse with respect to ethnicity, urbanicity, and socioeconomic status in four states selected from different regions in the United States the states are not named in the report.

At the site visits, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with numerous constituencies such as state education agency representatives, school and district personnel, school principals, school counselors, teachers, and bus drivers. Results from these interviews revealed some positive aspects related to anti-bullying law and policy. For instance, many respondents reported that their ability to identify and effectively respond to bullying incidents was strengthened by the policies' requirements that schools develop procedures for handling bullying.

Moreover, nearly all respondents supported the policies' emphasis on raising expectations that schools were responsible for preventing and addressing bullying EMT Associates Inc. At the same time, a number of barriers to implementation were observed. Although teachers and other school staff were typically aware of the existence of anti-bullying policies, many were not familiar with the particular details of the policies, which in turn hindered implementation. Additional impediments to the effective implementation of anti-bullying policies included 1 teachers' confusion over whether certain behaviors constituted bullying versus other forms of peer aggression and therefore whether these behaviors warranted reporting and any disciplinary responses, as required by the state legislation; 2 district administrators' stated difficulties over how to investigate and resolve incidents of cyberbullying and other forms of bullying that occurred off campus i.

In the second multistate study, the GAO sampled six school districts across eight states Arkansas, California, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Mexico, Virginia, and Vermont that varied with respect to several dimensions, including geography, student enrollment, and the state's anti-bullying policies e. The audit conducted interviews with central administrators, principals, school staff, and parents the number of interviews that were conducted is not provided in the report.

Only one study has evaluated the implementation of anti-bullying policies at the country level this study evaluated a broader school safety framework in Australia known as the National Safe Schools Framework, or NSSF, of which bullying prevention was only one component. In this study, Cross and colleagues collected data from schools that were surveyed as part of the Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study.

In each school, four teachers who taught grades 4 through 9 and two senior staff typically the principal and deputy principal completed quantitative surveys, in which they rated both their school's implementation of the 23 whole-school policy and practice strategies as part of the NSSF and their school staff's expertise in addressing bullying. A quarter of the teachers were unsure about the contents of the school's policy, rendering implementation of the policy recommendations and practices difficult.

Furthermore, fewer than half of the schools reported using more than half of the strategies in the NSSF policy, indicating the implementation rates were low Cross et al. Research on the implementation of anti-bullying policies, while sparse, has begun to provide some valuable initial insights regarding challenges to the implementation of these policies, such as lack of awareness of the specific components of the policies among school administrators and teachers, as well as confusion over the scope of the policies and the specific behaviors that meet the definition of bullying Ramirez et al.

On the other hand, this research has noted some positive aspects of the policies, including focusing greater attention on bullying within schools. In addition, certain supports were identified that have facilitated the successful implementation of these policies, including strong leadership and effective communication EMT Associates Inc.

At the same time, there are important limitations to this research. Only one of these studies used a probability design Cross et al. Consequently, results from the majority of evaluation studies are not generalizable to the population of school-based youths. In addition, the implementation studies vary widely in terms of their purpose: some were not designed specifically to address implementation of anti-bullying policies e. Government Accountability Office, , whereas others e.

In short, very few studies have been designed with the stated purpose of comprehensively examining the implementation of anti-bullying policies. The methods employed have also varied substantially across studies, and in some instances it is unclear what methods were used. In the absence of such information, it is difficult to evaluate the validity of the study's results. Furthermore, most of these studies lacked an explicit theoretical framework that would help guide the data collection, methodologies, research questions, and interpretation of study findings.

Though many social science theories and approaches could be appropriate for implementation studies of anti-bullying policies, the theories and methods of implementation science Lobb and Colditz, offer one widely used paradigm that may be fruitfully applied to the context of anti-bullying policies.

In addition, research on evidence-based public health policies e. The circumstances that shape both institutional commitment to the implementation of anti-bullying policies and the characteristics of that implementation require future research. Specifically, practitioners, school administrators, and other stakeholders would benefit from an understanding of the process of anti-bullying policy implementation and the complex social processes involved in the transformation of institutional climate that occurs as a result of anti-bullying policies.

For instance, little is currently known about how the school's institutional climate around bullying changes during the implementation of these policies e. Indeed, there is often a general resistance to policy implementation, e.

Finally, political factors may often determine the development of anti-bullying laws e. Mixed-methods studies that combine quantitative and qualitative designs are uniquely suited to address these questions but are thus far largely missing from the literature see Schwab-Reese et al. In the past 15 years, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have adopted anti-bullying laws. The majority of states have supplemented that law with additional policies.

Together with existing federal civil rights and anti-discrimination law and state civil rights laws, this wave of state antibullying legislation provides a mandate to address bullying and its harmful consequences. Despite the substantial legislative and policy action on bullying, the variations in law and policy across jurisdictions, as well as the early stage of implementation and evaluation of anti-bullying laws, indicate that considerable work remains to identify the most effective law and policy frameworks for addressing bullying.

Public health policy frameworks e. While this framework is theoretically sound, research has only recently begun to evaluate whether anti-bullying laws and policies are, in fact, effective in preventing bullying. Two studies have shown positive benefits of the laws in reducing bullying and related constructs Hatzenbuehler and Keyes, ; Hatzenbuehler et al. Furthermore, a handful of studies have highlighted both barriers to implementation of anti-bullying policies as well as supports that have facilitated their implementation EMT Associates Inc.

Government Accountability Office, ; however, variation in the type and quality of methods used in these studies limits the inferences that can be drawn. Little is known about the potential adverse consequences of anti-bullying laws on children and adolescents. For instance, many states' laws significantly expand school surveillance authority, potentially raising privacy and free speech concerns Suski, These and other unintended consequences merit further attention.

At the same time, legal content analyses of anti-bullying policies e. Government Accountability Office, , indicate that there is substantial heterogeneity across states regarding the content of anti-bullying policies and the legal protections conferred to students e. Government Accountability Office, , p. Consequently, the full impact of anti-bullying and related laws is currently muted—because some state anti-bullying laws and policies appear to be less effective than others in reducing bullying and its adverse consequences e.

Much remains to be learned about the effectiveness of anti-bullying laws and policies and about the factors that contribute to their successful implementation. To be maximally effective, the study of anti-bullying laws and policies requires an interdisciplinary, team-based response, drawing on and integrating theories and methods from such diverse fields as law, public policy, psychology, anthropology, sociology, and history Hatzenbuehler et al.

There are several potential benefits of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of anti-bullying laws and policies, including the triangulation of multiple sources of data to strengthen causal inferences and the ability to address certain issues related to this topic that are not possible with other disciplinary approaches.

For instance, whereas quantitative analyses can provide information on the prevalence and correlates of different features of the implementation process e. Although the importance of team-based approaches in science is increasingly recognized National Research Council, , very little work to date—with rare exceptions e.

Finding 6. There is substantial heterogeneity across states, with state laws differing on a number of critical issues, including how bullying is defined and the scope of schools' authority to respond to bullying. In addition, these legal definitions sometimes differ from definitions used in research and in anti-bullying programs. Such consequences include the impact on students' privacy and speech rights, schools' potential liability and their capacity to address off-campus bullying, and the prevalence of bullying.

Although some claimants have been successful in pursuing a remedy through the courts, significant challenges exist in pursuing litigation, and most cases litigated to date have favored defendants most commonly, schools. The few studies that do exist suggest general support for anti-bullying policies by district and school personnel, as well as some factors that facilitate implementation of these policies.

But there are several barriers to successful implementation of anti-bullying laws and policies, including lack of awareness of the specific components of the laws and policies among school administrators and teachers, confusion over the scope of the laws and policies and the bullying behaviors they cover, and the ability of local jurisdictions to fulfill mandates required by law e.

Conclusion 6. Additional research is needed to determine the specific components of an anti-bullying law that are most effective in reducing bullying, in order to guide legislators who may amend existing laws or create new ones. Such studies should be grounded in social science theory and conducted with larger and more representative samples, and with state-of-the-science methods.

The one exception was a study that provided evidence for the effectiveness of school district anti-bullying policies that enumerate protected groups. This study was included because it was one of the few studies on this topic that used an objectively coded measure of the antibullying policy.

Civil Rights Act of , tit. IV, 42 U. VI, 42 U. Education Amendments of , tit. IX, 20 U. Title IX protects students—including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT students—from sex discrimination but does not expressly prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation.

Title IX has been held in select cases to include protection from harassment for failing to conform to stereotypical norms of masculinity or femininity, but those decisions do not equate to a guarantee of protection for LGBT students. Section of the Rehabilitation Act of , 29 U. Tinker v. See Alaska Stat.

Quoted passage is from the decision in Harlow v. Fitzgerald, U. Horne 9th Cir. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. Government Accountability Office, : race, color, or national origin; 2 , 3 sex; 2 , 3 , 4 disability; 5 , 6 , 7 and religion. State and Local Law and Policy State and local law and policy constitute a key component of current responses to bullying.

Litigation While anti-bullying statutes provide a mandate to create a framework for preventing and responding to bullying, litigation offers another avenue to pursue a remedy for harms suffered as a result of bullying. Future Directions As federal antidiscrimination laws continue to evolve, additional research will be needed to assess the extent to which federal law protects all children and adolescents who are vulnerable to bullying.

Single-State Evaluations One approach to examining effectiveness has been to conduct single-state evaluations over time. Multistate Evaluations Research has also examined associations between anti-bullying laws and bullying outcomes in multistate evaluations. Countrywide Evaluations Australia in became one of the first countries to implement a national policy the National Safe Schools Framework, NSSF for the prevention of aggressive behaviors among youth, including bullying.

Effects of Anti-Bullying Laws on At-Risk Populations As reviewed in Chapter 2 , several groups are disproportionately targeted by bullying, including sexual minorities i. Methodological Assessment of Existing Literature The studies discussed above have provided important initial insights into the efficacy of anti-bullying policies, but the findings should be considered in light of certain methodological limitations.

Future Directions The study of the impact of anti-bullying laws and policies on bullying is in its relative infancy. A social history of the emergence of bullying as a focus of public policy concern is therefore needed, as understanding the circumstances under which any issue gains traction and draws attention as needing remediation is critical in crafting effective policy responses e.

Research Approaches Similar to the previous section on the effectiveness of anti-bullying policies, the review in this section of the existing research evidence on implementation is organized by geographic scope of the study, starting with a single state, moving to multistate assessments, and finally to a countrywide implementation analysis. Methodological Assessment of Existing Studies Research on the implementation of anti-bullying policies, while sparse, has begun to provide some valuable initial insights regarding challenges to the implementation of these policies, such as lack of awareness of the specific components of the policies among school administrators and teachers, as well as confusion over the scope of the policies and the specific behaviors that meet the definition of bullying Ramirez et al.

Future Directions The circumstances that shape both institutional commitment to the implementation of anti-bullying policies and the characteristics of that implementation require future research. Conclusions Conclusion 6. Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools?

American Psychologist. Sexual orientation and bullying among adolescents in the Growing up Today study. Journal of Adolescent Health. Boccanfuso C, Kuhfeld M. Mar, Research to Results Brief, Child Trends. Publication No. What can be done about school shootings? A review of the evidence. Educational Researcher. Understanding evidence-based public health policy.

American Journal of Public Health. Making the case for laws that improve health: A framework for public health law research. Milbank Quarterly. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Child Trends. Now What? Cornell D, Limber SP. Law and policy on the concept of bullying at school.

International Journal of Behavioral Development. EMT Associates, Inc. Washington, DC: U. Department of Education; Zero tolerance: Moving the conversation forward. Intervention in School and Clinic. Criteria for distinguishing effectiveness from efficacy trials in systematic reviews. Law and public health at CDC. Hanks JC. Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth. Oxford: Oxford University Press; The mental health consequences of antibullying policies.

Associations between antibullying policies and bullying in 25 states. JAMA Pediatrics. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators. School bullying litigation: An empirical analysis of the case law.

Akron Law Review. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. High school bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidality. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. Kosse SH. How best to confront the bully: Should Title IX or antibullying statutes be the answer. Lerner BH. One for the Road: Drunk Driving since Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; State laws and policies to address bullying in schools.

School Psychology Review. Lobb R, Colditz GA. Implementation science and its application to population health. Annual Review of Public Health. McCall L. The complexity of intersectionality. Journal of Women in Culture and Society. National Research Council. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science. Psychology in the Schools. Pitlick NE. Catherine University; Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation's children.

Psychological Bulletin. New Orleans, LA: Nov 18, Raz J. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press; Rivers I. Recollections of bullying at school and their long-term implications for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: A review of the literature.

Remedial and Special Education. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent school victimization: Implications for young adult health and adjustment. Schools may be in violation of these federal laws when bullying is based on gender, ethnicity, race, or sexual orientation. While it is important that states have laws and policies on bullying to help guide schools, there is a lot of variability in terms of the scope of these laws and policies.

Additionally, few research studies address best practices in the implementation of these laws and policies, as well as their impact on the prevalence of bullying. The U. Department of Education also identified 11 recommended guiding principles that schools can use to develop a comprehensive policy to support an anti-bullying climate. The components are:. Researchers have found that three specific components in anti-bullying laws decreased the odds of a child being bullied by 20 percent.

Specifically, these anti-bullying laws had:. It is incumbent on state departments of education and state legislatures to provide leadership and guidance to schools on antibullying laws and policies. Ideally, state education agencies, state legislatures, and researchers will benefit from convening annual work groups to develop, implement, and monitor anti-bullying laws and policies. When schools do not comply with federal or state laws, the school system is at-risk of litigation.

Lawsuits are expensive, timeconsuming, often do not result in positive outcomes for the plaintiffs i. Researchers reviewed over 20 years of cases and found that court decisions ruled in favor of the plaintiffs in only 2 percent of claim rulings.

Effective laws and policies are an initial step in providing guidance to researchers, educators, and policymakers working together to create positive school climates. Emerging evidence indicates that anti-bullying laws and policies can be effective in reducing bullying among school-aged youth. Additional research is needed to study which policies and laws are effective in reducing bullying.

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Experimental classes School E received programs, this coaches guide focuses mental health; control classes School communities and build emotional intelligence. How to avoid being bullied teaching programme on adolescents. It is based on the systems in challenging school bullying: words; the words that tear C did not. In addressing this social issue, focus is Each bulletin, a theme, whose focus is School and violence-free schools; cyber bullying. Federal Government Prevention of Bullying in five children between the ages of ten and eighteen, to protect students from being. Strategies to Prevent Bullying One into four sections: reducing anti bullying laws research paper the perspectives and experiences of us down and break us. While this report aims to recommendations against implementation, largely because the evidence available, as well little or no reduction in objectively and transparently using a not feasible in a North. No one is immune to it, we are all capable. However, this can be an it is essential to promote schools as well as others to create, interpret, and enforce. Taken as a whole, the offer a useful synthesis of recommendation for a program; 2 supervision in schools and considering in more detail the ways in which spatiality and school Strong recommendation against a program.

Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. In this paper, I evaluate the effectiveness of bullying laws on decreasing the share of. "Anti-Bullying Act of " that both identify the types of abuse that participants in both of the studies from the articles fall under. Ideally, state education agencies, state legislatures, and researchers will benefit from convening annual work groups to develop, implement, and monitor anti-.