drug free legalization paper term

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They will instead make a cash settlement, which reflects the market value at the time the loss happened. This is so a prospective buyer knows a vehicle was previously written off when conducting vehicle history checks. These checks also cover whether the vehicle is stolen or has outstanding finance, too. So, what do the categories mean?

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Drug free legalization paper term

The current method that has long been used to fight the drug war is very expensive and has not yielded any meaningful results. It is a simplistic solution that has all along failed to recognize the complexity surrounding the problem. It has also been oblivious of the dangers a drug has on the individual. Full scale legalization of the drug act will enable the state to educate the public on risks associated with drug use, and how such problems can be taken care of.

While there is a possibility that the act of legalization of drugs will attract more users, their lives will be much healthier and safer. Let us not get speculative here, since we are aware of people who used to take drugs but still leading healthy lives. For instance Barrack Obama to have taken Cocaine Hope. The common myth surrounding the whole idea of legalizing drugs is that it will make people law abiding citizens, and enable the government to tax the industry.

Legalizing and taxing drugs as some argue is not a solution to the drug menace in the world today. The reason is that the black market will be given an easy path to groove is because the act will be made socially acceptable. It will be much easier to take these substances to the market under the legalization act as opposed to government regulated outlets.

This would also increase funding for the crime because the drugs will be easily accessed by users who can in turn lure non-users since there are no laws prohibiting the act. What are the results? The drugs will circulate in the society, destroy more lives, tear families, and cause people to be violent.

Even if the current war on drugs is not effective, legalizing drugs is much worse and should not be passed into law James. Conclusion The war on drug has brought more harm than good, and the policy on drug use has failed to protect the people it is intended to. In Mexico alone, the war on drug policy has claimed close to 14, lives since This figure does not however include those people who have been traumatized, maimed or displaced.

Prohibitions on drug use have resulted in wars between the authority and the users in most cities across the world, and this battle seems not to be coming to an end any time soon. The war on drug should therefore, be stopped and pave way for the government to impose control measures and legalize the whole business. I support this motion because I believe that the outcomes of such a move would be beneficial, both for the state itself and in the fight against global drugs crime.

At AdvancedWriters. All custom research papers are written from scratch. High quality and timely delivery guarantee! Writing Tips, Samples and News for Students. Legalization of Drugs Research Paper Research Paper on Legalization of Drugs has more benefits than harm : Introduction A drug is any substance that alters the normal biological functions of the body.

Mar 5, Filed under: Example Papers — Tags: legalization of drugs , legalization of drugs essay , legalization of drugs research papers , legalization of drugs term paper , research paper on drugs — Joan Young am. Essay is always a headache!

Send us your paper details. We'll find the best professional writer for you! Get a quote. Need help with your essay? You don't have to waste your time writing an essay! It is not certain whether marijuana companies could market marijuana as a medicine e. Although there is some evidence in their favor, it is unlikely that a marijuana manufacturer marketing smoked marijuana to AIDS and cancer patients could produce scientific sufficient evidence to get FDA approval. The safety standard prong of the NDA process would be valuable for two reasons in this legalized drug regime.

First, it could make it more difficult to for marijuana manufacturers to market marijuana as a traditional medication—specifically, in the case of medical marijuana. Secondly, under the risk-benefit analysis employed by the FDA, recreational marijuana could potentially be approved. Using the current risk-benefit safety standard, the FDA could approve recreational marijuana. The FDA approval process is influenced by public opinion.

Presumably, in a drug legalization regime, public opinion would hold that the benefits of available narcotics no black market, no drug-related crime; fewer drug-related societal costs would outweigh the risks to users addiction, drug interaction, overdose, etc.

If this were the case, the overwhelming public opinion in favor of drug legalization might allow the FDA to approve the marketing of marijuana. The decision to approve a drug for marketing, or to withdraw an earlier approval requires a weighing of the benefit to be expected from use of the product against the risk inherent in its use The judgments of society are not necessarily consistent with the scientific facts.

Neither are they always logical. They can be and sometimes are arbitrary. Even so, neither the executive nor the legislative branches can ignore them. If it should become the overwhelming public view that society should drastically limit the risk no matter how much good a drug can do, then we would be forced to remove from the market many drugs whose good far outweighs their harm. Nevertheless, to the extent that public opinion can influence the FDA to approve a drug, public opinion could be a powerful factor in the risk-benefit analysis, allowing the FDA to approve the use of marijuana.

Like the safety standard, the effectiveness standard could prevent inaccurate marketing of marijuana as a traditional medicine where it is proven ineffective. Any drug United States , which held that it was illegal for doctors to dispense prescription drugs to alleviate the symptoms of narcotics withdrawal, made legal use of narcotics illegal.

Another reason for approving marijuana under the grandfather clause is that the NDA process, like the general principles of the FDA itself, are purity and safety of drugs. And, the purpose of the FDA is to ensure the purity and safety of drugs. Thus, once the FDA fulfilled its statutory obligation to classify tobacco products, it could not allow them to be marketed. On the other hand, use of the grandfather clause to approve marijuana may equally weaken the credibility of the FDA approval process, and by extension the credibility of the FDA.

According to U. Allan Drug Corp. The FDA has accommodated governmental growth, budgetary cutbacks, and remains insulated from some of the public pressures facing other governmental bodies. If not, the new charge of regulating once-illegal drugs could amount to a budgetary cutback, given the many responsibilities of the agency.

However, in the past, the FDA has survived budget cutbacks. In contrast, drug decriminalization entails purposeful non-enforcement of drug laws. Drug decriminalization is best exemplified by the Netherlands. In spite of this liberalization of use of soft drugs, trafficking in cannabis products is still forbidden.

Many of those who once held professional positions and semiskilled jobs in manufacturing now find themselves building and operating the infrastructure of the prison-industrial complex Many states and localities depend on prison construction and operation as an integral part of their economies.

For an excellent critique of the drug legalization movement, see James Q. If these factors were decisive, then surely alcohol and tobacco would be banned Rather, the proper focus is how effective drug laws are in preventing damage from drugs, compared with the amount of injury the laws themselves cause. Exempting small categories of people form the prohibition laws e. These states include, California Cal. XX; Nevada, see NV. See generally id. Louisiana has passed such a measure three times since , and Virginia has had a similar one on the books since More recently, saw Ohio give medical marijuana a thumbs up Most seem to fall into one of three general categories: decriminalization plans, limitation plans, and regulation and taxation plans.

Falling outside this grouping are calls for outright legalization in which drugs would be produced, bought and sold like any ordinary commodity. See 21 U. See Part Two. See e. Merrill eds. FDA , F. FDA, F. But see United States v. Supp , n. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. Harris , F. Supp , at United States , U. Rivers id e Bayview Homes, Inc. The Congress hereby finds and declares that there is a widespread illicit traffic in depressant stimulant drugs moving in or other wise affecting interstate commerce; that use of such drugs, when not under the supervision of a licensed practitioner, often endangers safety on the highways However marijuana manufacturers could make unsupported medical claims.

United States , F. Habit forming substances [ d ]. Directions For Use f 1. The FDA would have to regulate proper directions for use. Some drugs might be more safely ingested by one means as opposed another. United States, F. See also 21 U. Intended Use. Here the intended use would be recreation unless the FDA approved marijuana for treating AIDS wasting symptoms and side-effects of chemotherapy. According to 21 C. See also United States v. Article of Drug This issue may be less relevant with marijuana, which is smoked, than with other drugs, such as cocaine or heroin, which can be administered in many ways.

For example, there are several methods of administrating cocaine. Snorting is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. Injecting is the act of using a needle to release the drug directly into the bloodstream.

Smoking involves inhaling cocaine vapor or smoke into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream is as rapid as by injection. This issue is addressed in Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc. Weinberger , F. Part One: The Trend Toward Drug Legalization Introduction: The Failure of American Drug Prohibition Americans have been spending more money on drugs; the government has been spending more money to fight drugs and incarcerating more drug offenders.

Disproportionate imprisonment of blacks Safety Standard Prong The safety standard prong of the NDA process would be valuable for two reasons in this legalized drug regime. According to former FDA Commissioner George Larrick: The decision to approve a drug for marketing, or to withdraw an earlier approval requires a weighing of the benefit to be expected from use of the product against the risk inherent in its use

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This has helped devastate many inner-city neighborhoods because poor blacks and Hispanics in these neighborhoods are the main foot soldiers in drug supply networks. They earn what may appear to be pathetically little, given the risks they take, but their earnings often are higher than what they could get in legal jobs.

As a result of the failures of the American war on drugs, some prominent intellectuals, policymakers, and lawyers, from both sides of the political spectrum, have called for legalization. Twenty-five years ago, President Richard M. For children, almost everyone would answer at least a qualified yes. But for responsible adults, I, for one, would answer no That basic ethical flaw has inevitably generated specific evils during the past quarter century, just as it did during our earlier attempt at alcohol prohibition.

Immense sums are at stake. It is inevitable that some relatively low-paid police and other government officials—and some high-paid ones as well—will succumb to the temptation to pick up easy money. Filling the prisons. In , , people were in prison. Today, 1. Eight times as many in absolute number, six times as many relative to the increased population.

In addition, 2. The attempt to prohibit drugs is by far the major source of the horrendous growth in the prison population. There is no light at the end of that tunnel. Compounding the harm to users. Prohibition makes drugs exorbitantly expensive and highly uncertain in quality. A user must associate with criminals to get the drugs, and many are driven to become criminals themselves to finance the habit. Needles, which are hard to get, are often shared, with the predictable effect of spreading disease Can any policy, however high-minded, be moral if it leads to widespread corruption, imprisons so many, has so racist an effect, destroys our inner cities, wreaks havoc on misguided and vulnerable individuals and brings death and destruction to foreign countries?

Other proponents of drug legalization include conservatives like William F. McCaffrey, an opponent of drug legalization, has argued for some changes to the current drug war strategy. Proponents of some form of drug legalization cite many justifications: efficacy, wasted federal dollars, rising incarceration rates the prison industrial complex and the disproportionate incarceration on minority communities, the legality of tobacco and alcohol, [26] libertarian ideals, etc.

Other proponents argue that drug legalization is simply a more efficient and practical solution to the drug problem. For instance, a Rand study found that current drug policy is much less cost-effective than other non-enforcement methods. While there has been little traditional public support for drug legalization, [28] proponents argue that some sort of drug legalization is inevitable given the history of American prohibition, public frustration with the war on drugs, and recent state initiatives for compassionate use of marijuana for terminally ill patients.

The rising number of states enacting medical marijuana referenda may also signal gradually increasing popularity for some form of drug legalization. One of the most powerful arguments offered for ending drug prohibition are the similarity of problems caused by the drug war and those caused by American Prohibition Proponents of drug legalization cite a number of competing theoretical drug legalization models—some in which the government markets and provides legalized drugs and others entailing a free market approach to legalization.

This is the free-market approach championed by famous drug legalization proponent and libertarian Dr. Thomas Szaz. If drugs are to be treated under the law like tomatoes, magazines, medicines, or toothpaste, it is hardly necessary to conjure a new set of rules about where and to whom they can be sold, or to what extent they may become ingredients in other products, or how they are to be taxed, and if their potency is to latch on to the existing commodity that best illustrates the favored approach.

Free market proponents can bring clarity and spirit to the debate over how to legalize drugs Thus, this model presumes that there is free-market availability of currently illegal drugs. As noted above, the free-market approach decreases problems associated with the current drug war: excessive availability lessens the possibility of black markets, drug—related crime, etc.

For example, requiring prescriptions would merely generate income for Dr. Feel Goods and prescription pad printers. If [currently illegal drugs] are legalized they must be available over the counter. Thirdly, we should assume that the FDA Commissioner will be diligent, but non-resistant to the ongoing drug legalization regime.

Here, FDA would play the role that one commentator describes when discussing the recent tobacco industry settlements with states attorneys general:. Notably, there is no talk of prohibition. If these restrictions are codified, and the new cigarette scheme is successful in curbing smoking by the young, reducing threat to the public health, and reimbursing government its costs is entirely possible that the new cigarette model could provide a legalization protocol at least for marijuana, if not for other drugs as well.

Finally, for the sake of simplicity, the only particular drug considered in detail in this model will be marijuana for marketing by a private drug companies as both a recreational drug and, separately, as a medical drug used to treat chemotherapy side effects and AIDS wasting syndrome..

The Pure Food and Drug Act of led directly to the demise of the patent medicine industry, not by prohibiting these substances, but simply by requiring that all medications contain accurate labeling of their contents.

Subsequent amendments to the act required the labels to contain accurate information about the strength of the drugs and to state that federal purity standards had been met. This act, combined with various governmental educational efforts encouraging people not to use any medications containing narcotics, resulted in a prompt, substantial, and permanent decline in the sales of these products. Further, the Harrison Act and Webb v. United States , [55] which together made it impossible for doctors to legally give out prescription drugs for addicts suffering narcotics withdrawal.

As a result, people, including those who were already accidentally addicted to these drugs, were forced to turn to the criminal black market in order to obtain these substances. In FDA v. The Court found there was insufficient evidence of congressional intent to permit the FDA to regulate tobacco products. First, the court noted that Congress had never passed an initiative granting the FDA authority to regulate tobacco products. The dissent in FDA v. Such a possibility is inherent in the very nature of a broad delegation.

In contrast to the majority in FDA v. The Middle District Court also considered relevant legislative history that demonstrated that the FDA had once maintained that it did not have jurisdiction over tobacco products, but did not believed this foreclosed subsequent agency assertion of jurisdiction. In addition to expressing its view to Congress that it lacked jurisdiction to regulate tobacco products, FDA defended that position in court.

Specifically, the Middle District Court did not find this legislative history convincing because it did not meet the extraordinary circumstances test required for a court to rely on unenacted bills and statements by members of Congress relevant to a determination of congressional intent.

New findings show, unlike past agency information, that smoking affects the structure and function of the body. Nevertheless, the arguments rejected by the Court in FDA v. Further, it could be argued that regardless of the holding in FDA v. How would marijuana be introduced onto the market?

Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems as tobacco smokers. These individuals may have daily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, and more frequent chest colds. Continuing to smoke marijuana can lead to abnormal functioning of lung tissue injured or destroyed by marijuana smoke. Regardless of the THC content, the amount of tar inhaled by marijuana smokers and the level of carbon monoxide absorbed are three to five times greater than among tobacco smokers.

This may be due to the marijuana users' inhaling more deeply and holding the smoke in the lungs and because marijuana smoke is unfiltered. Although marijuana manufacturers would most likely have to make NDA applications to market recreational and medical marijuana, the current FDCA would may have little effect on the ultimate safety of drugs on users. In the least, section p 1 could be used to regulate the claims of marijuana manufacturers marketing marijuana as a medicine.

Yet, introduction of marijuana would create several paradoxical agency problems for the FDA. That is, by virtue of the legalized drug regime, the FDA must accept a new drug application from at least one marijuana company, or marijuana would once again only be available on the black market.

Ironically, under current NDA provisions, marijuana companies might not be able market marijuana to AIDS and cancer patients but the same companies could possibly market marijuana as a recreational drug. First, in legalized drug regime, the FDA would have to approve marijuana for consumers in some form.

It is not certain whether marijuana companies could market marijuana as a medicine e. Although there is some evidence in their favor, it is unlikely that a marijuana manufacturer marketing smoked marijuana to AIDS and cancer patients could produce scientific sufficient evidence to get FDA approval. The safety standard prong of the NDA process would be valuable for two reasons in this legalized drug regime.

First, it could make it more difficult to for marijuana manufacturers to market marijuana as a traditional medication—specifically, in the case of medical marijuana. Secondly, under the risk-benefit analysis employed by the FDA, recreational marijuana could potentially be approved. Using the current risk-benefit safety standard, the FDA could approve recreational marijuana. The FDA approval process is influenced by public opinion.

Presumably, in a drug legalization regime, public opinion would hold that the benefits of available narcotics no black market, no drug-related crime; fewer drug-related societal costs would outweigh the risks to users addiction, drug interaction, overdose, etc. This kind of business has encouraged global terrorism, illegal munitions trade, control on prostitution, and sexual slavery.

Almost half of all the criminal offenses committed in the country are drug related. Unnecessary prohibitions on drug use has led our children into committing drug related crimes, and this has denied them the much needed advice on drugs, besides undermining our respect for the law. The government should therefore take the obvious step, put all the drugs state control, and impose legislation and taxes on their sale.

This will relieve our country the burden of staggering under unnecessary prohibitions Gray. Prohibitions on drug and substance abuse such as alcohol have been in place since the s in the US and other developed countries. It has made people believe that taking it is a criminal activity, which can land someone in jail. The ill effects of the drugs and alcohol are so adverse such that no sane person could like to be associated with them by using the drug.

So many people are convinced that these effects are harmful, and have successfully restrained from the habit. It is good to establish such a law in the society, and most government has effectively controlled drug abuse since time immemorial through prohibitions. For example, the alcohol prohibition act of the s proved effective because cases of alcohol consumption greatly dropped even though it did not succeed in eliminating the alcohol. The rate of crime and drunkenness dropped and taxes were reduced by putting the offenders in jail.

Minor crimes such as vagrancy, public indecency, and disorderliness have been successfully eliminated use to these prohibitions. This is enough prove that this method really works C. Prohibition of drug use in countries such as the United States, Britain, and other parts of the larger Europe has proved to be futile and the war on drugs in these societies has caused multiple harms to the users.

Since prohibition is aimed at increasing price and penalty of a serious drug habit, it makes it unaffordable for most individuals. Penalizing the use of the drugs drives the law-abiding individuals into the criminal market economy. Criminalizing users and prohibitions exposes them to health risks that could have otherwise been avoided. This distracts attention from legal to those that are harmful but legal, such as alcohol.

The prohibition on drugs has never and will never work. This attempt of trying to deny people their right of doing what they want with their bodies is doomed to fail as long as the person using the drug does not harm his or her neighbor. The current method that has long been used to fight the drug war is very expensive and has not yielded any meaningful results.

It is a simplistic solution that has all along failed to recognize the complexity surrounding the problem. It has also been oblivious of the dangers a drug has on the individual. Full scale legalization of the drug act will enable the state to educate the public on risks associated with drug use, and how such problems can be taken care of. While there is a possibility that the act of legalization of drugs will attract more users, their lives will be much healthier and safer.

Let us not get speculative here, since we are aware of people who used to take drugs but still leading healthy lives. For instance Barrack Obama to have taken Cocaine Hope. The common myth surrounding the whole idea of legalizing drugs is that it will make people law abiding citizens, and enable the government to tax the industry.

Legalizing and taxing drugs as some argue is not a solution to the drug menace in the world today. The reason is that the black market will be given an easy path to groove is because the act will be made socially acceptable.

It will be much easier to take these substances to the market under the legalization act as opposed to government regulated outlets. This would also increase funding for the crime because the drugs will be easily accessed by users who can in turn lure non-users since there are no laws prohibiting the act.

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Please enter something. Since its illegalization in the early twentieth century, the legalization of marijuana is a prominent social issue which undoubtedly sparks controversy when considering its state of legality. While some rightfully believe that marijuana should remain a Schedule I illegal narcotics, there is a faction that believes that cannabis serves a greater and much-needed use in our American society; I am part of that faction. I believe that marijuana, consumed both for recreational and medicinal purposes, should be one-hundred percent legal… Drug Legalization Legalizing Marijuana Marijuana.

Legalization of DrugsThe debate over the legalization of drugs continues to disturb society as time progresses. All of us have in some way or another, directly or indirectly, been affected by drugs, whether it be from a family member or the economic burden on society. Some people went from being preppy, well-kept human beings to turning into long-haired, earth- loving and careless people.

In this article a person thinks twice about what they are really doing when they use drugs, and it is clear as to why legalizing drugs would not be a logical solution As spoken. The Legalization Drugs The dawn of the twenty first century has ushered in a new age of optimism and wonder. Despite the proclamations of television, all is not in well in our part of the world. Our societies have succumbed to the modern holy war on drugs.

Being fought against our own citizens and citizens abroad, an international effort to eradicate drug production and use has undoubtedly failed leaving in its wake social unrest and political chaos. Assault, property crime, racial and economic. Drugs have become a routine aspect of everyday life in the United States. Neither a gigantic metropolis nor a minute town have gone without feeling the everlasting effects of drugs.

Drug use has always posed a major dilemma for America to overcome. The banning of illegal drugs takes many back to the days of the Prohibition problems involving the banishment of alcohol. This was quote was claimed by the wise man, Jim Morrison who had experienced drugs beforehand and had foreseen their consequences.

The issue of the legalization of drugs has been a topic of interest and is one of the most controversial topics of all time. One argument claims that all drugs should be legalized, as they aid in medical and recreational. Drugs and Legalization Since early on man has been interested in the consumption of substances that altered the mind or ones feeling.

The consumption of substances can be broken down into legal and illegal substances. The question is, who are we to label certain substances illegal and prohibit others from using them by creating penalties for their use?

If the importation, sale and use of drugs were legal, the open competition would eliminate the profitability of drug dealing. Without the economic. Legalization of Drugs The drug connection is one that continues to resist analysis, both because cause and effect are so difficult to distinguish and because the role of the drug- prohibition laws in causing and labeling "drug-related crime" is so often ignored.

There are four possible connections between drugs and crime, at least three of which would be much diminished if the drug-prohibition laws were repealed. The prohibition against drugs is not working for us. Instead more people are dying from overdose or too much use of these drugs. Many people like Russell Brand thinks that legalizing drugs might be able to solve. Drug Legalization Strong drug enforcement in the United States is correlated with the reduction in crime , drug use, and drug addiction growth rates.

The impact on tougher drug sanctions has been overshadowed by a myth that U. This myth has been promoted by the multi-million dollar pro-drug legalization lobby, civil libertarians, and misguided academic researchers to the public with limited review and challenge. Attacks on drug enforcement efforts often.

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