sample science research papers

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Sample science research papers

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The first goal of the research paper is to explain ideas, goals, and theory as clear as water. An in-depth analysis of theoretical framework examples research paper is underlined in the sample below. Now that you have explored the research paper examples, you can start working on your research project. Hopefully, these examples will help you understand the writing process for a research paper.

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Research Paper Outline. Research Paper Topics. Research Proposal. History Research Paper Topics. How to Start a Research Paper. How to Write an Abstract. How to Write a Literature Review. Qualitative Research. Sociology Research Topics. Types Of Qualitative Research. Qualitative VS Quantitative Research. Psychology Research Topics.

How To Write A Hypothesis. Types Of Research. Quantitative Research. Exclusive access to the MyPerfectWords. You'll get weekly tips and tricks for improving your own writing and for achieving academic success through your writing.

We are U. This is all that we do. Register Login. Paper Due? That's Our Job! Learn More. Why suffer? Click here to learn more. Was this helpful? Papers reporting something other than experiments, such as a new method or technology, typically have different sections in their body, but they include the same Introduction and Conclusion sections as described above. Although the above structure reflects the progression of most research projects, effective papers typically break the chronology in at least three ways to present their content in the order in which the audience will most likely want to read it.

First and foremost, they summarize the motivation for, and the outcome of, the work in an abstract, located before the Introduction. In a sense, they reveal the beginning and end of the story — briefly — before providing the full story. Second, they move the more detailed, less important parts of the body to the end of the paper in one or more appendices so that these parts do not stand in the readers' way.

Finally, they structure the content in the body in theorem-proof fashion, stating first what readers must remember for example, as the first sentence of a paragraph and then presenting evidence to support this statement.

At the beginning of the Introduction section, the context and need work together as a funnel: They start broad and progressively narrow down to the issue addressed in the paper. To spark interest among your audience — referees and journal readers alike — provide a compelling motivation for the work presented in your paper: The fact that a phenomenon has never been studied before is not, in and of itself, a reason to study that phenomenon.

Write the context in a way that appeals to a broad range of readers and leads into the need. Do not include context for the sake of including context: Rather, provide only what will help readers better understand the need and, especially, its importance.

Consider anchoring the context in time, using phrases such as recently , in the past 10 years , or since the early s. You may also want to anchor your context in space either geographically or within a given research field. Convey the need for the work as an opposition between actual and desired situations. Start by stating the actual situation what we have as a direct continuation of the context. If you feel you must explain recent achievements in much detail — say, in more than one or two paragraphs — consider moving the details to a section titled State of the art or something similar after the Introduction , but do provide a brief idea of the actual situation in the Introduction.

Next, state the desired situation what we want. Emphasize the contrast between the actual and desired situations with such words as but , however, or unfortunately. One elegant way to express the desired part of the need is to combine it with the task in a single sentence. This sentence expresses first the objective, then the action undertaken to reach this objective, thus creating a strong and elegant connection between need and task.

Here are three examples of such a combination:. To confirm this assumption , we studied the effects of a range of inhibitors of connexin channels. To assess whether such multiple-coil sensors perform better than single-signal ones , we tested two of them — the DuoPXK and the GEMM3 — in a field where. To form a better view of the global distribution and infectiousness of this pathogen , we examined postmetamorphic and adult amphibians collected from 27 countries between and for the presence of.

An Introduction is usually clearer and more logical when it separates what the authors have done the task from what the paper itself attempts or covers the object of the document. In other words, the task clarifies your contribution as a scientist, whereas the object of the document prepares readers for the structure of the paper, thus allowing focused or selective reading.

To confirm this assumption, we studied the effects of a range of inhibitors of connexin channels, such as the connexin mimetic peptides Gap26 and Gap27 and anti-peptide antibodies, on calcium signaling in cardiac cells and HeLa cells expressing connexins. During controlled experiments, we investigated the influence of the HMP boundary conditions on liver flows.

To tackle this problem, we developed a new software verification technique called oblivious hashing, which calculates the hash values based on the actual execution of the program. The three examples below are suitable objects of the document for the three tasks shown above, respectively.

This paper clarifies the role of CxHc on calcium oscillations in neonatal cardiac myocytes and calcium transients induced by ATP in HL-cells originated from cardiac atrium and in HeLa cells expressing connexin 43 or This paper presents the flow effects induced by increasing the hepatic-artery pressure and by obstructing the vena cava inferior. This paper discusses the theory behind oblivious hashing and shows how this approach can be applied for local software tamper resistance and remote code authentication.

Even the most logical structure is of little use if readers do not see and understand it as they progress through a paper. Thus, as you organize the body of your paper into sections and perhaps subsections, remember to prepare your readers for the structure ahead at all levels.

You already do so for the overall structure of the body the sections in the object of the document at the end of the Introduction. You can similarly prepare your readers for an upcoming division into subsections by introducing a global paragraph between the heading of a section and the heading of its first subsection. This paragraph can contain any information relating to the section as a whole rather than particular subsections, but it should at least announce the subsections, whether explicitly or implicitly.

An explicit preview would be phrased much like the object of the document: "This section first. Although papers can be organized into sections in many ways, those reporting experimental work typically include Materials and Methods , Results , and Discussion in their body. In any case, the paragraphs in these sections should begin with a topic sentence to prepare readers for their contents, allow selective reading, and — ideally — get a message across.

When reporting and discussing your results, do not force your readers to go through everything you went through in chronological order. Instead, state the message of each paragraph upfront: Convey in the first sentence what you want readers to remember from the paragraph as a whole. Focus on what happened, not on the fact that you observed it. Then develop your message in the remainder of the paragraph, including only that information you think you need to convince your audience.

At the end of your Conclusion , consider including perspectives — that is, an idea of what could or should still be done in relation to the issue addressed in the paper. If you include perspectives, clarify whether you are referring to firm plans for yourself and your colleagues "In the coming months, we will. If your paper includes a well-structured Introduction and an effective abstract, you need not repeat any of the Introduction in the Conclusion.

In particular, do not restate what you have done or what the paper does. Instead, focus on what you have found and, especially, on what your findings mean. Do not be afraid to write a short Conclusion section: If you can conclude in just a few sentences given the rich discussion in the body of the paper, then do so. In other words, resist the temptation to repeat material from the Introduction just to make the Conclusio n longer under the false belief that a longer Conclusion will seem more impressive.

Typically, readers are primarily interested in the information presented in a paper's Introduction and Conclusion sections. Primarily, they want to know the motivation for the work presented and the outcome of this work. Then and only then the most specialized among them might want to know the details of the work.

Thus, an effective abstract focuses on motivation and outcome; in doing so, it parallels the paper's Introduction and Conclusion. Accordingly, you can think of an abstract as having two distinct parts — motivation and outcome — even if it is typeset as a single paragraph. For the first part, follow the same structure as the Introduction section of the paper: State the context, the need, the task, and the object of the document.

For the second part, mention your findings the what and, especially, your conclusion the so what — that is, the interpretation of your findings ; if appropriate, end with perspectives, as in the Conclusion section of your paper. Although the structure of the abstract parallels the Introduction and Conclusion sections, it differs from these sections in the audience it addresses.

The abstract is read by many different readers, from the most specialized to the least specialized among the target audience. In a sense, it should be the least specialized part of the paper. Any scientist reading it should be able to understand why the work was carried out and why it is important context and need , what the authors did task and what the paper reports about this work object of the document , what the authors found findings , what these findings mean the conclusion , and possibly what the next steps are perspectives.

In contrast, the full paper is typically read by specialists only; its Introduction and Conclusion are more detailed that is, longer and more specialized than the abstract. An effective abstract stands on its own — it can be understood fully even when made available without the full paper. To this end, avoid referring to figures or the bibliography in the abstract.

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Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences, which study the material universe; the social sciences, which study people and societies; and the formal sciences, which study logic and mathematics. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. Browse science research paper examples below.

Show Posts in List View. This sample Crime Science Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. You can use an anecdote, a provocative question, or a quote to begin within the introduction. Here is a detailed guide to help you write a research proposal. After submitting the research proposal, prepare for writing a seasoned abstract section.

The abstract delivers the bigger picture by revealing the purpose of the research. The name itself sounds terrifying to many students. Make no mistake; it sure is dangerous when touched without practice. Students become afraid and hence aspire to locate an outstanding essay paper writer to get their papers done.

The words methodology, procedure, and approach are the same. They indicate the approach pursued by the researcher while conducting research to accomplish the goal through research. See the way the researcher has shared participants and limits in the methodology section of the example. Utilize this standard of outline in your research papers to polish your paper.

Here is a step by step guide that will help you write a research paper according to this format. To enlighten him, focus on the literature review section. This section offers an extensive analysis of the past research conducted on the paper topics. Always remember! The first goal of the research paper is to explain ideas, goals, and theory as clear as water. An in-depth analysis of theoretical framework examples research paper is underlined in the sample below. Now that you have explored the research paper examples, you can start working on your research project.

Hopefully, these examples will help you understand the writing process for a research paper. If you still require help writing your paper, you can hire a professional writing service. For high quality and affordable help, contact MyPerfectWords. You can buy well-written yet cheap research papers by contacting our expert writers. Research Paper Outline. Research Paper Topics. Research Proposal. History Research Paper Topics.

How to Start a Research Paper. How to Write an Abstract. How to Write a Literature Review. Qualitative Research. Sociology Research Topics. Types Of Qualitative Research. Qualitative VS Quantitative Research.

The sample paper below has been compressed into the left-hand column on the pages below.

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French transitional phrases for essays The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. To this end, they must emphasize both the motivation for the work and the outcome of it, and they must include just enough evidence to establish the validity of this outcome. Red, black, orange and light green DMC four-ply cotton embroidery floss was cut into 2. Both the common and scientific names of the research organism must be included in the title. This article has been posted to your Facebook page via Scitable LearnCast. Our experiment tested people's obedience to authority. It's presented here for educational purposes.
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