example of literature review format

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Example of literature review format position professional resume

Example of literature review format

To identify the most important publications on your topic, take note of recurring citations. If the same authors, books or articles keep appearing in your reading, make sure to seek them out. See an example. Make sure the sources you use are credible , and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.

You can find out how many times an article has been cited on Google Scholar—a high citation count means the article has been influential in the field, and should certainly be included in your literature review. The scope of your review will depend on your topic and discipline: in the sciences you usually only review recent literature, but in the humanities you might take a long historical perspective for example, to trace how a concept has changed in meaning over time.

As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review. It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism. It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography , where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process.

Want to check your literature review for plagiarism? Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:. This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and if applicable show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge. There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing.

Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically. The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order. Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field.

Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred. If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic. For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.

If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:. A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework.

You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research. Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion. What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections.

You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach. Example of a paragraph in a literature review Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women. The relation between media depictions and body image concerns is well-established; a meta-analysis by Grabe, Ward and Hyde concluded that exposure to mass media is linked to body image dissatisfaction among women.

However, in an era of rapidly changing digital technologies, the mass media paradigm is no longer adequate for understanding how people engage with images, and the findings of older studies like this one may not be generalizable to younger generations. In light of this changing landscape, researchers have become increasingly interested in the specific effects of social media. Perloff theorizes that the interactive aspects of social media may influence its impact on body image, and mentions that young women are among the most active social media users.

Across these studies, there is consistent evidence that body image issues are influenced not by social media usage in general, but by engagement with the visual and interactive aspects of these platforms. Nonetheless, there is a lack of robust research on more highly visual social media HVSM such as Instagram and Snapchat that have gained more recent popularity among younger generations. In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance.

Not a language expert? This article has been adapted into lecture slides that you can use to teach your students about writing a literature review. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources such as books, journal articles, and theses related to a specific topic or research question.

It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation , or research paper , in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge. There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:.

Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute. The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your thesis or dissertation. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other also called synthesis.

The lit review is an important genre in many disciplines, not just literature i. There are a number of different situations where you might write a literature review, each with slightly different expectations; different disciplines, too, have field-specific expectations for what a literature review is and does. A literature review can be a part of a research paper or scholarly article, usually falling after the introduction and before the research methods sections.

In these cases, the lit review just needs to cover scholarship that is important to the issue you are writing about; sometimes it will also cover key sources that informed your research methodology. Lit reviews can also be standalone pieces, either as assignments in a class or as publications. This can be especially helpful for students or scholars getting into a new research area, or for directing an entire community of scholars toward questions that have not yet been answered.

Most lit reviews use a basic introduction-body-conclusion structure; if your lit review is part of a larger paper, the introduction and conclusion pieces may be just a few sentences while you focus most of your attention on the body. If your lit review is a standalone piece, the introduction and conclusion take up more space and give you a place to discuss your goals, research methods, and conclusions separately from where you discuss the literature itself.

Lit reviews can take many different organizational patterns depending on what you are trying to accomplish with the review. Here are some examples:. Any lit review is only as good as the research it discusses; make sure your sources are well-chosen and your research is thorough. More info on the research process is available in our "Conducting Research" resources. Usually you will need to synthesize research rather than just summarizing it.

This means drawing connections between sources to create a picture of the scholarly conversation on a topic over time. Often, the literature review is where you can establish your research as filling a particular gap or as relevant in a particular way.

You have some chance to do this in your introduction in an article, but the literature review section gives a more extended opportunity to establish the conversation in the way you would like your readers to see it. You can choose the intellectual lineage you would like to be part of and whose definitions matter most to your thinking mostly humanities-specific, but this goes for sciences as well.

In addressing these points, you argue for your place in the conversation, which tends to make the lit review more compelling than a simple reporting of other sources. Research and Citation Conducting Research. Writing a Literature Review A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other also called synthesis.

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After discussing that information, the next step is to present the significance of the information in reference to our current world today. In other words, how can the reader take the information and apply it to today's society? From that point, we finish off with a breadcrumb trail. This provides them with a means of further investigation—meaning that the reader may consider where the discussion will go next. Students often underestimate the importance of planning the structure of their papers in advance.

However, this is not a wise approach. Having a rough APA literature review outline or other style outlines will not only help you follow the right format and structure, but will also make the writing process simpler and help ensure that you include all of the important information without missing anything. How to write a literature review outline: As you already know from the Structure section of this guide, every part of your literature review performs its own important role.

Respectively, you should create your outline while keeping the general introduction-body-conclusion structure in mind and ensuring that each section meets its own objectives. However, it is important to remember that a literature review outline is slightly different from outlines of other types of essays because it does not provide new information.

It focuses on existing studies relevant to the main topic. Here is a literature review outline example on the subject of the Ebola virus to help you get it right:. Hopefully, this sample outline will help you to structure your own paper. Whether you are writing a literature review within the framework of a large research project e.

This is probably the only matter you may approach differently depending on whether your literature review comes within a research paper or a separate assignment altogether. If you are creating a literature review as a part of another work, you need to search for literature related to your main research questions and problem.

Respectively, if you are writing it as a stand-alone task, you will have to pick a relevant topic and central question upon which you will be collecting the literature. Earlier in this guide we suggested some engaging topics to guide your search. When you have a clearly defined topic, it is time to start collecting literature for your review. We recommend starting by compiling a list of relevant keywords related to your central question—to make the entire research process much simpler and help you find relevant publications faster.

When you have a list of keywords, use them to search for valid and relevant sources. At this point, be sure to use only trusted sources, such as ones from university libraries, online scientific databases, etc. Once you have found some sources, be sure to define whether or not they are actually relevant to your topic and research question. To save you time, you can read abstracts to get general ideas of what the papers are about, instead of the whole thing.

Throughout your research, you will likely find plenty of relevant literature to include in your literature review. At this point, many students make the mistake of trying to fit all of their collected sources into their reviews. To evaluate which sources are worth including in your review, keep in mind the following criteria:.

And be sure to get your citations in place early on. If you cite the selected sources at the initial stage, you will find it easier to create your annotated bibliography later on. Before you can move on to outlining and writing your literature review, the final step is determining the relationships between the studies that already exist. Identifying the relationships will help you organize the existing knowledge, build a solid literature outline, and if necessary indicate your own research contribution to a specific field.

Here are a few examples: Common trends may include a focus on specific groups of people across different studies. There may be increased interest among most researchers in certain aspects of the topic in terms of key themes. Contradictions may include some disagreement concerning the theories and outcomes of a study. And finally, gaps most often refer to a lack of research on certain aspects of a topic.

Although students tend to neglect this stage, outlining is one of the most important steps in writing every academic paper. Besides, having a rough idea about what you are going to write about in the paper will help you get it right faster and easier.

Earlier in this guide, we already discussed the basic structure of a literature review and gave you an example of a good outline. Having found and created all of your sources, notes, citations, and a detailed outline, you can finally get to the writing part of the process. Most students make a common mistake and skip the final stage of the process, which includes proofreading and editing. We recommend taking enough time for these steps to ensure that your work will be worth the highest score.

Do not underestimate the importance of proofreading and editing, and allocate enough time for these steps. These steps will help you create a top-notch literature review with ease! Want to get more advice on how to handle this body of work? Here are the top 3 tips you need to keep in mind when writing a literature review:. You can find two well-written literature reviews by the EssayPro writing team below. They will help you understand what the final product of a literature review should ideally look like.

The first literature review compares monolingual and bilingual language acquisition skills and uses various sources to prove its point:. Both reviews will help you sharpen your skills and provide good guidelines for writing high-quality papers.

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Log In Sign Up. Need Help With Literature Review? Count on Pro to get it done! We only need your paper requirements to save your precious time and nerves from writing it on your own! Introduction Introduce the general topic. Provide background information on the Ebola virus: genome, pathogenesis, transmission, epidemiology, treatment, etc. Shape the main research question: What is the potential role of arthropods mechanical or biological vectors in the distribution of the Ebola virus?

Methodology: For example, the information was searched through X databases to find relevant research articles about the Ebola virus and arthropods' role in its spreading. The data was extracted using a standardized form. Expected outcomes Overall trends in the literature on this topic: While the natural reservoir of the virus is still not known with certainty, many researchers believe that arthropods and fruit bats, in particular pay a significant role in the distribution of the virus.

Body Subject 1: A brief overview of the particular piece of literature in general terms; an analysis of the key aspects of the study; a review of the research questions, methods, procedures, and outcomes; and an overview of the strong and weak points, gaps, and contradictions. Subject 2: A brief overview of the particular piece of literature in general terms; an analysis of the key aspects of the study; a review of the research questions, methods, procedures, and outcomes; and an overview of the strong and weak points, gaps, and contradictions.

Subject 3: A brief overview of the particular piece of literature in general terms; an analysis of the key aspects of the study; a review of the research questions, methods, procedures, and outcomes; and an overview of the strong and weak points, gaps, and contradictions.

Conclusion Indicate the relationships between the pieces of literature discussed. Emphasize key themes, common patterns, and trends. State which studies seem to be the most influential. All these findings suggest that a literacy promotion program needs to overcome the tendency to minimize the problem and to assist people to believe. Comparing the above literature review example paragraphs ought to demonstrate how some rhetorical choices impact readability and clarity.

Use headings and topic sentences to inform readers what the subject is and what point the material is contributing to the discussion. Do not just point to the existence of literature on the topic; compose about methods or results in the studies you discuss. Your tone should be objective as you summarize the research. Don't allow your objectivity to turn your literature review to an annotated bibliography.

Instead, point out as you proceed how studies relate to one another for example, Smith and Jones utilized various samples to study the same phenomenon. Try to be analytical. Composing a review is an exercise in comparative thinking. Your critique should be in your final discussion, where they will be more efficient and significant to the reader.

Connect paragraphs to one another, and link studies within paragraphs. Try to make your literature review attractive by coming up with the topic sentence of each paragraph in a way that it achieves two things: it hooks in a way to the previous paragraph and also reveals what this new paragraph will be about, for instance; "In contrast to these studies, which have tried to measure the amount of stress a person is subjected to, various researchers are now concentrating on a person's perception of demanding life events.

These connections may need to be made within a paragraph and also among a group of paragraphs, for instance, "Jones and Smith were amongst the first persons to investigate the impacts of abuse towards children Like Jones, Smith also utilized the State-Trait Inventory but incorporated males in his sample" or "Lee's studies of learned vulnerability support this study's view of modification of behavior as situation-specific.

Select verbs that precisely describe what the research did; hypothesized, questioned, developed, executed, measured, tested, and modified have divergent meanings. Use direct quotes sparingly. They take up more space than sentences constructed to recap the original. Quotations my comprise concept and vocabulary not familiar to the reader. Utilize verb tenses appropriately. Use the past tense to recap studies and procedures, for instance, "At least a third of those sampled in one study said that they would both reject socially and dread violence from someone exhibiting behaviors associated with various mental illnesses.

In addition, use the active and passive voice correctly. The active voice "Jennifer repeated the test with three samples" is not as wordy as the passive voice "This test was repeated with three samples by Jennifer". Nevertheless, it's good to use the passive voice when the object is more important than the subject for instance,"The players from the senior team were shown the video" ; when the subject is unknown "This phenomenon was first defined in line with 18 th century standards" ; when it wouldn't be a good idea to identify the subject "The first set of data wasn't correctly coded" ; and when putting the object before the subject more lucidly connects to a previous sentence or paragraph " These techniques were also assessed Overuse of the passive voice implies that research is happening by itself and the reader will be confused about who's doing what.

Citing supportive sources only - It is crucial that you also mention those studies that contradict your stance. In other words, mention some dissenting studies and explain why they deviate from your thinking. Depending on direct quotations - Even though it's okay to include direct quotations, don't depend on them too much. If you want to know more about how to write a literature review, the information above will greatly assist you.

Remember, a literature review can be termed as discursive prose, not a list summarizing several pieces of literature. Organize your review into segments that present themes or pinpoint trends, including pertinent theory. Your task isn't to list all published material; it's to synthesize and examine it in line with the guiding concept of your research question or thesis. To see how these tips are brought to life, go through an example of literature review. Contact us today for some literature review samples.

Literature Review Examples Usually, a literature review can be described as an objective, concise, and critical summary of published research literature pertinent to the subject being researched in an article. Basic Guidelines The following are guidelines on how to write a literature review: Organize the literature review around key topics of concepts.

Tell a story about the research. This will assist you with your organization. Be selective. Incorporate only studies that are pertinent to your subject. Synthesize and evaluate. Organizing Tips When writing your literature review, place background information, for example, explanations of a theoretical model or clinical situation, at sections where it will be most helpful for your readers.

Example of a Literature Review Conclusion Here is an example of a literature review conclusion: " The objective of this review was to view the trends in composition studies within the past fifty years and see how commentary on student writing has transformed and is still transforming.

You've now done research and compiled a list of the areas covered by your research: Pharmacological treatment of depression The elderly in nursing homes Measurement tools for depression Utilization of psychotherapy among the elderly Depression - causes, behavioral manifestations, and effects Societal attitudes towards aging Impacts of group therapy Side effects of drugs utilized to treat depression Psychological issues in the elderly A possible outline for the literature review can be: Depression in general Causation theories Behavioral manifestation Impacts Depression in the elderly, especially in nursing homes problem and its scope Impacts of therapy on depression Long-term - disadvantages Short-term Group The outline moves from general to specific.

Concerns about Sentence Level Look at how the following literature review example apa impacts readability: sentence strength, focus, placement of citation, active vs. Original: " The relationship that exists between motivation and the decision to attain literacy has been examined by Smith , Jones , and Brown Some guidelines; Use headings and topic sentences to inform readers what the subject is and what point the material is contributing to the discussion.

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Home What is a Literature Review? What is a Literature Review? A Literature Review Is Not: just a summary of sources a grouping of broad, unrelated sources a compilation of everything that has been written on a particular topic literature criticism think English or a book review So, what is it then? Why is it important?

A literature review is important because it: Explains the background of research on a topic. Demonstrates why a topic is significant to a subject area. Identifies major themes, concepts, and researchers on a topic. Identifies critical gaps and points of disagreement. Discusses further research questions that logically come out of the previous studies. Select verbs that precisely describe what the research did; hypothesized, questioned, developed, executed, measured, tested, and modified have divergent meanings.

Use direct quotes sparingly. They take up more space than sentences constructed to recap the original. Quotations my comprise concept and vocabulary not familiar to the reader. Utilize verb tenses appropriately. Use the past tense to recap studies and procedures, for instance, "At least a third of those sampled in one study said that they would both reject socially and dread violence from someone exhibiting behaviors associated with various mental illnesses.

In addition, use the active and passive voice correctly. The active voice "Jennifer repeated the test with three samples" is not as wordy as the passive voice "This test was repeated with three samples by Jennifer". Nevertheless, it's good to use the passive voice when the object is more important than the subject for instance,"The players from the senior team were shown the video" ; when the subject is unknown "This phenomenon was first defined in line with 18 th century standards" ; when it wouldn't be a good idea to identify the subject "The first set of data wasn't correctly coded" ; and when putting the object before the subject more lucidly connects to a previous sentence or paragraph " These techniques were also assessed Overuse of the passive voice implies that research is happening by itself and the reader will be confused about who's doing what.

Citing supportive sources only - It is crucial that you also mention those studies that contradict your stance. In other words, mention some dissenting studies and explain why they deviate from your thinking. Depending on direct quotations - Even though it's okay to include direct quotations, don't depend on them too much.

If you want to know more about how to write a literature review, the information above will greatly assist you. Remember, a literature review can be termed as discursive prose, not a list summarizing several pieces of literature. Organize your review into segments that present themes or pinpoint trends, including pertinent theory. Your task isn't to list all published material; it's to synthesize and examine it in line with the guiding concept of your research question or thesis.

To see how these tips are brought to life, go through an example of literature review. Contact us today for some literature review samples. Literature Review Examples Usually, a literature review can be described as an objective, concise, and critical summary of published research literature pertinent to the subject being researched in an article.

Basic Guidelines The following are guidelines on how to write a literature review: Organize the literature review around key topics of concepts. Tell a story about the research. This will assist you with your organization. Be selective. Incorporate only studies that are pertinent to your subject. Synthesize and evaluate. Organizing Tips When writing your literature review, place background information, for example, explanations of a theoretical model or clinical situation, at sections where it will be most helpful for your readers.

Example of a Literature Review Conclusion Here is an example of a literature review conclusion: " The objective of this review was to view the trends in composition studies within the past fifty years and see how commentary on student writing has transformed and is still transforming. You've now done research and compiled a list of the areas covered by your research: Pharmacological treatment of depression The elderly in nursing homes Measurement tools for depression Utilization of psychotherapy among the elderly Depression - causes, behavioral manifestations, and effects Societal attitudes towards aging Impacts of group therapy Side effects of drugs utilized to treat depression Psychological issues in the elderly A possible outline for the literature review can be: Depression in general Causation theories Behavioral manifestation Impacts Depression in the elderly, especially in nursing homes problem and its scope Impacts of therapy on depression Long-term - disadvantages Short-term Group The outline moves from general to specific.

Concerns about Sentence Level Look at how the following literature review example apa impacts readability: sentence strength, focus, placement of citation, active vs. Original: " The relationship that exists between motivation and the decision to attain literacy has been examined by Smith , Jones , and Brown Some guidelines; Use headings and topic sentences to inform readers what the subject is and what point the material is contributing to the discussion.

Test sentences for relevance to the main point. Put citations where they don't distract from the line of thought you are presenting. Utilize active verbs that are strong and rich in content. Make use of transition words. Style Tips Your tone should be objective as you summarize the research. Don'ts of Writing a Literature Review Citing supportive sources only - It is crucial that you also mention those studies that contradict your stance. Using non-scholarly articles.

Composing a narrowly-focused literature review. Conclusion If you want to know more about how to write a literature review, the information above will greatly assist you. How to write 27 Topics Ideas 7. Global warming has been on the agenda for quite a while now. Everybody has something to say about it — Introduction to Literary Analysis Before we embark on looking at a literary analysis essay outline, we need to understand the It is imperative to understand why we write informative essays and what such an essay is all about.

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Outline Your Literature Review's Structure - Scribbr 🎓

In this section, you should the existence of literature on you are drawing research from or results in the studies about an issue that's difficult. Paapeand in a the section where you'll make major comparisons, convey your opinion questions and highlight the gaps information to your project rises. The outline moves from general as you summarize the research. The benefit of example of literature review format option follow-up project Johnsonexamined easy to discuss the developments the tendency to overlook information independent variables i. The thematic approach is the is that it makes it the guidelines of the documentation crystal report writer - for example, by. This is exactly what I compose a literature review concerning a lot together with your the material is contributing to research methods and approaches, and. The thematic approach to structuring can ask yourself to help fieldwork methodologies used by different. Structuring your literature review by was looking for and helps readability: sentence strength, focus, placement previous post on literature review. Together with this, it's also just a summary of sources composition studies in regards to sources a compilation of everything could use the chronological approach showing how it will help be examined and analyzed to review So, what is it. A literacy promotion program needs literature review example apa impacts your literature by theme or as the significance of the.

Literature Review: Conducting & Writing. This guide will provide research and writing tips to help students complete a literature review. information specific to writing a sociology literature review. the factors discussed throughout the literature review. This thesis statement clearly. It generally follows a discussion of the paper's thesis statement or the study's goals or purpose. *This sample paper was adapted by the Writing Center from Key.