Abstract: This paper analyzes the computer network security features and ieee research paper firewall the main threat, synthesis the firewall technology of current domestic and international, on the basis of various firewalls' principles, advantages and shortcomings. But the selection of suitable solution for the security of the organizational systems is a major issue.
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The authors classify firewalls into three main categories: packet filtering, circuit gateways, and application gateways. Commonly, more than one of these is used at the same time. Their examples and discussion relate to UNIX systems and programs. Most application-level gateways are implemented in UNIX. This is not to say that other operating systems are more secure; however, there are fewer of them on the Internet, and they are less popular as targets for that reason.
But the principles and philosophy apply to network gateways built on other operating systems as well. Article :. Date of Publication: Sept.
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We believe that difficulties should not stop you from achieving your dream career. You have nothing to fear when working with us. It is either you get quality services or your money back. Every client deserves the best. In addition to These are required because Ethernet's cable-based media are not usually shared, whereas with wireless all transmissions are received by all stations within the range that employ that radio channel.
While Ethernet has essentially negligible error rates, wireless communication media are subject to significant interference. Therefore, the accurate transmission is not guaranteed so delivery is, therefore, a best-effort delivery mechanism. For internetworking purposes, Wi-Fi is usually layered as a link layer equivalent to the physical and data link layers of the OSI model below the internet layer of the Internet Protocol.
This means that nodes have an associated internet address and, with suitable connectivity, this allows full Internet access. In infrastructure mode, which is the most common mode used, all communications go through a base station.
For communications within the network, this introduces an extra use of the airwaves but has the advantage that any two stations that can communicate with the base station can also communicate through the base station, which enormously simplifies the protocols. Wi-Fi also allows communications directly from one computer to another without an access point intermediary.
This is called ad hoc Wi-Fi transmission. Different types of ad hoc networks exist. In the simplest case network nodes must talk directly to each other. In more complex protocols nodes may forward packets, and nodes keep track of how to reach other nodes, even if they move around.
This wireless ad hoc network mode has proven popular with multiplayer handheld game consoles , such as the Nintendo DS , PlayStation Portable , digital cameras , and other consumer electronics devices. Some devices can also share their Internet connection using ad hoc, becoming hotspots or "virtual routers".
Similarly, the Wi-Fi Alliance promotes the specification Wi-Fi Direct for file transfers and media sharing through a new discovery- and security-methodology. An Extended Service Set may be formed by deploying multiple access points that are configured with the same SSID and security settings.
Wi-Fi client devices typically connect to the access point that can provide the strongest signal within that service set. Increasing the number of Wi-Fi access points for a network provides redundancy , better range, support for fast roaming, and increased overall network-capacity by using more channels or by defining smaller cells. Except for the smallest implementations such as home or small office networks , Wi-Fi implementations have moved toward "thin" access points, with more of the network intelligence housed in a centralized network appliance, relegating individual access points to the role of "dumb" transceivers.
Outdoor applications may use mesh topologies. Wi-Fi operational range depends on factors such as the frequency band, radio power output , receiver sensitivity, antenna gain, and antenna type as well as the modulation technique. Also, the propagation characteristics of the signals can have a big impact. Compared to cell phones and similar technology, Wi-Fi transmitters are low-power devices. To reach requirements for wireless LAN applications, Wi-Fi has higher power consumption compared to some other standards designed to support wireless personal area network PAN applications.
For example, Bluetooth provides a much shorter propagation range between 1 and metres 1 and yards  and so in general has a lower power consumption. Other low-power technologies such as ZigBee have fairly long range, but much lower data rate.
The high power consumption of Wi-Fi makes battery life in some mobile devices a concern. An access point compliant with either The same radio with an external semi parabolic antenna 15 dB gain with a similarly equipped receiver at the far end might have a range over 20 miles. Higher gain rating dBi indicates further deviation generally toward the horizontal from a theoretical, perfect isotropic radiator , and therefore the antenna can project or accept a usable signal further in particular directions, as compared to a similar output power on a more isotropic antenna.
Note that this assumes that radiation in the vertical is lost; this may not be the case in some situations, especially in large buildings or within a waveguide. In the above example, a directional waveguide could cause the low-power 6 dBi antenna to project much further in a single direction than the 8 dBi antenna, which is not in a waveguide, even if they are both driven at mW.
On wireless routers with detachable antennas, it is possible to improve range by fitting upgraded antennas that provide a higher gain in particular directions. Outdoor ranges can be improved to many kilometres miles through the use of high gain directional antennas at the router and remote device s. Wi-Fi 4 and higher standards allow devices to have multiple antennas on transmitters and receivers.
Multiple antennas enable the equipment to exploit multipath propagation on the same frequency bands giving much faster speeds and greater range. Wi-Fi 4 can more than double the range over previous standards. As of the first quarter of , The Wi-Fi Alliance certifies devices compliant with the This standard uses several signal processing techniques such as multi-user MIMO and 4X4 Spatial Multiplexing streams, and wide channel bandwidth MHz to achieve its gigabit throughput.
With Wi-Fi signals line-of-sight usually works best, but signals can transmit, absorb, reflect, refract , diffract and up and down fade through and around structures, both man-made and natural. Due to the complex nature of radio propagation at typical Wi-Fi frequencies, particularly around trees and buildings, algorithms can only approximately predict Wi-Fi signal strength for any given area in relation to a transmitter.
Mobile use of Wi-Fi over wider ranges is limited, for instance, to uses such as in an automobile moving from one hotspot to another. Other wireless technologies are more suitable for communicating with moving vehicles. Wi-Fi connections can be blocked or the Internet speed lowered by having other devices in the same area.
Wi-Fi protocols are designed to share the wavebands reasonably fairly, and this often works with little to no disruption. Nevertheless, Wi-Fi networks are still susceptible to the hidden node and exposed node problem. A standard speed Wi-Fi signal occupies five channels in the 2. Interference can be caused by overlapping channels. Any two channel numbers that differ by five or more, such as 2 and 7, do not overlap no adjacent-channel interference.
The oft-repeated adage that channels 1, 6, and 11 are the only non-overlapping channels is, therefore, not accurate. Channels 1, 6, and 11 are the only group of three non-overlapping channels in North America. However, whether the overlap is significant depends on physical spacing. Channels that are four apart interfere a negligible amount-much less than reusing channels which causes co-channel interference -if transmitters are at least a few metres yards apart.
However, many 2. Wi-Fi pollution, or an excessive number of access points in the area, can prevent access and interfere with other devices' use of other access points as well as with decreased signal-to-noise ratio SNR between access points.
These issues can become a problem in high-density areas, such as large apartment complexes or office buildings with many Wi-Fi access points. Other devices use the 2. It is also an issue when municipalities  or other large entities such as universities seek to provide large area coverage.
On some 5 GHz bands interference from radar systems can occur in some places. For base stations that support those bands they employ Dynamic Frequency Selection which listens for radar, and if it is found, it will not permit a network on that band. These bands can be used by low power transmitters without a licence, and with few restrictions. However, while unintended interference is common, users that have been found to cause deliberate interference particularly for attempting to locally monopolize these bands for commercial purposes have been issued large fines.
Various layer 2 variants of IEEE Across all flavours of This, however, does not apply to typical deployments in which data are transferred between two endpoints of which at least one is typically connected to a wired infrastructure, and the other is connected to an infrastructure via a wireless link. This means that typically data frames pass an Due to the difference in the frame header lengths of these two media, the packet size of an application determines the speed of the data transfer.
This means that an application that uses small packets e. Other factors that contribute to the overall application data rate are the speed with which the application transmits the packets i. The latter is determined by distance and by the configured output power of the communicating devices.
The same references apply to the attached throughput graphs, which show measurements of UDP throughput measurements. Markers for traffic profiles of common applications are included as well. This text and measurements do not cover packet errors but information about this can be found at the above references.
The table below shows the maximum achievable application-specific UDP throughput in the same scenarios same references again with various WLAN The measurement hosts have been 25 metres yards apart from each other; loss is again ignored. Wi-Fi allows wireless deployment of local area networks LANs. Also, spaces where cables cannot be run, such as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs.
However, building walls of certain materials, such as stone with high metal content, can block Wi-Fi signals. A Wi-Fi device is a short-range wireless device. Since the early s, manufacturers are building wireless network adapters into most laptops. The price of chipsets for Wi-Fi continues to drop, making it an economical networking option included in ever more devices.
Different competitive brands of access points and client network-interfaces can inter-operate at a basic level of service. Unlike mobile phones , any standard Wi-Fi device works anywhere in the world. An access point resembles a network hub , relaying data between connected wireless devices in addition to a usually single connected wired device, most often an Ethernet hub or switch, allowing wireless devices to communicate with other wired devices. Wireless adapters allow devices to connect to a wireless network.
As of , most newer laptop computers come equipped with built-in internal adapters. A wireless router allows all three devices, mainly the access point and router, to be configured through one central utility. This utility is usually an integrated web server that is accessible to wired and wireless LAN clients and often optionally to WAN clients.
Wireless network bridges can act to connect two networks to form a single network at the data-link layer over Wi-Fi. The main standard is the wireless distribution system WDS. Wireless bridging can connect a wired network to a wireless network.
A bridge differs from an access point: an access point typically connects wireless devices to one wired network. Two wireless bridge devices may be used to connect two wired networks over a wireless link, useful in situations where a wired connection may be unavailable, such as between two separate homes or for devices that have no wireless networking capability but have wired networking capability , such as consumer entertainment devices ; alternatively, a wireless bridge can be used to enable a device that supports a wired connection to operate at a wireless networking standard that is faster than supported by the wireless network connectivity feature external dongle or inbuilt supported by the device e.
A dual-band wireless bridge can also be used to enable 5 GHz wireless network operation on a device that only supports 2. Wireless range-extenders or wireless repeaters can extend the range of an existing wireless network. Strategically placed range-extenders can elongate a signal area or allow for the signal area to reach around barriers such as those pertaining in L-shaped corridors.
Wireless devices connected through repeaters suffer from an increased latency for each hop, and there may be a reduction in the maximum available data throughput. Besides, the effect of additional users using a network employing wireless range-extenders is to consume the available bandwidth faster than would be the case whereby a single user migrates around a network employing extenders.
For this reason, wireless range-extenders work best in networks supporting low traffic throughput requirements, such as for cases whereby a single user with a Wi-Fi-equipped tablet migrates around the combined extended and non-extended portions of the total connected network. Also, a wireless device connected to any of the repeaters in the chain has data throughput limited by the "weakest link" in the chain between the connection origin and connection end.
Networks using wireless extenders are more prone to degradation from interference from neighbouring access points that border portions of the extended network and that happen to occupy the same channel as the extended network. The security standard, Wi-Fi Protected Setup , allows embedded devices with a limited graphical user interface to connect to the Internet with ease. These embedded devices are also called The Internet of Things and are low-power, battery-operated embedded systems.
Increasingly in the last few years particularly as of [update] , embedded Wi-Fi modules have become available that incorporate a real-time operating system and provide a simple means of wirelessly enabling any device that can communicate via a serial port. An example is a portable ECG device monitoring a patient at home. This Wi-Fi-enabled device can communicate via the Internet. It makes embedded systems with Wi-Fi connectivity possible to build as single-chip devices, which reduces their cost and minimum size, making it more practical to build wireless-networked controllers into inexpensive ordinary objects.
The main issue with wireless network security is its simplified access to the network compared to traditional wired networks such as Ethernet. With wired networking, one must either gain access to a building physically connecting into the internal network , or break through an external firewall.
To access Wi-Fi, one must merely be within the range of the Wi-Fi network. Most business networks protect sensitive data and systems by attempting to disallow external access. Enabling wireless connectivity reduces security if the network uses inadequate or no encryption. An attacker who has gained access to a Wi-Fi network router can initiate a DNS spoofing attack against any other user of the network by forging a response before the queried DNS server has a chance to reply.
A common measure to deter unauthorized users involves hiding the access point's name by disabling the SSID broadcast. While effective against the casual user, it is ineffective as a security method because the SSID is broadcast in the clear in response to a client SSID query.
Another method is to only allow computers with known MAC addresses to join the network,  but determined eavesdroppers may be able to join the network by spoofing an authorized address. Wired Equivalent Privacy WEP encryption was designed to protect against casual snooping but it is no longer considered secure. WPA was specifically designed to work with older equipment usually through a firmware upgrade. The only remedy as of late was to turn off Wi-Fi Protected Setup,  which is not always possible.
Virtual Private Networks can be used to improve the confidentiality of data carried through Wi-Fi networks, especially public Wi-Fi networks. The older wireless encryption -standard, Wired Equivalent Privacy WEP , has been shown easily breakable even when correctly configured. Wi-Fi access points typically default to an encryption-free open mode. Novice users benefit from a zero-configuration device that works out-of-the-box, but this default does not enable any wireless security , providing open wireless access to a LAN.
To turn security on requires the user to configure the device, usually via a software graphical user interface GUI. On unencrypted Wi-Fi networks connecting devices can monitor and record data including personal information. Piggybacking refers to access to a wireless Internet connection by bringing one's computer within the range of another's wireless connection, and using that service without the subscriber's explicit permission or knowledge.
During the early popular adoption of Recreational logging and mapping of other people's access points have become known as wardriving. Indeed, many access points are intentionally installed without security turned on so that they can be used as a free service. Providing access to one's Internet connection in this fashion may breach the Terms of Service or contract with the ISP.
These activities do not result in sanctions in most jurisdictions; however, legislation and case law differ considerably across the world. A proposal to leave graffiti describing available services was called warchalking. Piggybacking often occurs unintentionally — a technically unfamiliar user might not change the default "unsecured" settings to their access point and operating systems can be configured to connect automatically to any available wireless network.
A user who happens to start up a laptop in the vicinity of an access point may find the computer has joined the network without any visible indication. Moreover, a user intending to join one network may instead end up on another one if the latter has a stronger signal.
In combination with automatic discovery of other network resources see DHCP and Zeroconf this could lead wireless users to send sensitive data to the wrong middle-man when seeking a destination see man-in-the-middle attack. For example, a user could inadvertently use an unsecured network to log into a website , thereby making the login credentials available to anyone listening, if the website uses an insecure protocol such as plain HTTP without TLS.
Wireless internet access has become much more embedded in society. It has thus changed how the society functions in many ways. Over half the world does not have access to the internet,  prominently rural areas in developing nations. Technology that has been implemented in more developed nations is often costly and low energy efficient.
This has led to developing nations using more low-tech networks, frequently implementing renewable power sources that can solely be maintained through solar power , creating a network that is resistant to disruptions such as power outages. For instance, in a km mile network between Cabo Pantoja and Iquitos in Peru was erected in which all equipment is powered only by solar panels. In the case of the aforementioned example, it connects the central hospital in Iquitos to 15 medical outposts which are intended for remote diagnosis.
Access to Wi-Fi in public spaces such as cafes or parks allows people, in particular freelancers, to work remotely. Sometimes though, you may connect to Wi-Fi but your internet may still not work. These vary from the accessibility of other resources, like books, the location of the workplace, and the social aspect of meeting other people in the same place.
Moreover, the increase of people working from public places results in more customers for local businesses thus providing an economic stimulus to the area. Additionally, in the same study it has been noted that wireless connection provides more freedom of movement while working. Both when working at home or from the office it allows the displacement between different rooms or areas. In some offices notably Cisco offices in New York the employees do not have assigned desks but can work from any office connecting their laptop to Wi-Fi hotspot.
The internet has become an integral part of living. Wi-Fi networks have also affected how the interior of homes and hotels are arranged. For instance, architects have described that their clients no longer wanted only one room as their home office, but would like to work near the fireplace or have the possibility to work in different rooms.
This contradicts architect's pre-existing ideas of the use of rooms that they designed. Additionally, some hotels have noted that guests prefer to stay in certain rooms since they receive a stronger Wi-Fi network. The World Health Organization WHO says, "no health effects are expected from exposure to RF fields from base stations and wireless networks", but notes that they promote research into effects from other RF sources.
The United Kingdom's Health Protection Agency reported in that exposure to Wi-Fi for a year results in the "same amount of radiation from a minute mobile phone call". A review of studies involving people who claimed electromagnetic hypersensitivity , " Several wired technologies for computer networking, which provide viable alternatives to Wi-Fi:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from WiFi, Wireless local area networks technology based on IEEE's Common types. Safety and regulation. Wireless device radiation and health Wireless electronic devices and health International Telecommunication Union Radio Regulations.
Beam steering Beam tilt Beamforming Small cell. Reconfiguration Spread spectrum. Main article: IEEE See also: Wi-Fi Alliance. Further information: Municipal wireless network. See also: Long-range Wi-Fi. Main article: MIMO. Further information: Electromagnetic interference at 2. Main article: Wireless security.
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