Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Formatting quotations using MLA style is covered in section 2. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper.
Short Quotations To indicate short quotations fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation in the case of verse, provide line numbers in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.
Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text. Long Quotations Place quotations longer than four typed lines in a free-standing block of text, and omit quotation marks.
Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.
For example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house.
If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or word by using ellipsis marks, which are three periods … preceded and followed by a space. MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes. MLA style does, however, allow you to use endnotes or footnotes for evaluative bibliographic comments, for example: 1 See Blackmur, especially chapters three and four, for an insightful analysis of this trend.
Numbering Endnotes and Footnotes Footnotes in MLA format are indicated by consecutively-numbered superscript arabic numbers in the main text after the punctuation of the phrase or clause the note refers to: Some have argued that such an investigation would be fruitless. However, note references appear before dashes: For years, scholars have failed to address this point8—a fact that suggests their cowardice more than their carelessness.
Do not use asterisks, daggers, or other symbols for note references. The list of endnotes and footnotes either of which, for papers submitted for publication, should be listed on a separate page, as indicated below should correspond to the note references in the text.
Formatting Endnotes and Footnotes The MLA recommends that all notes be listed on a separate page titled Notes no quotation marks or italics , which should appear before the Works Cited page. This is especially important for papers being submitted for publication. The notes themselves are listed by consecutive superscript arabic numbers and appear double-spaced in regular paragraph format a new paragraph for each note on a separate page under the word Notes centered, in plain text without quotation marks.
In the case that you need to format footnotes on the same page as the main text, footnotes should begin four lines two double-spaced lines below the main text. Single-space notes formatted as footnotes on the page, but double-space between individual notes. The pages included here walk you through the details of incorporating citations into the text of your paper as well as how to compose a works cited page of references at the end of your paper.
Read these guidelines carefully. It is important that you refer to your sources according to MLA Style so your readers can quickly follow the citations to the reference page and then, from there, locate any sources that might by of interest to them. They will expect this information to be presented in a particular style, and any deviations from that style could result in confusing your readers about where you obtained your information.
All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages through , list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as Author names are written last name first; middle names or middle initials follow the first name: Burke, Kenneth Levy, David M.
Wallace, David Foster Do not list titles Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. For additional information on handling names, consult section 3. A Grammar of Motives. A Rhetoric of Motives. When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group, list solo-author entries first: Heller, Steven, ed.
The Education of an E-Designer. Heller, Steven and Karen Pomeroy. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design. Work with No Known Author Alphabetize works with no known author by their title; use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper. Simulacra and Simulations. Boring Postcards USA. Burke, Kenneth. If your particular case is not covered here, use the basic forms to determine the correct format, consult one of the MLA books, visit the links in our additional resources section or talk to your instructor.
The basic form for a book citation is: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Book with One Author Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin Books, Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. Denver: MacMurray, Book with More Than One Author First author name is written last name first; subsequent author names are written first name, last name.
Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. Boston: Allyn, If there are more than three authors, you may list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Selfe, and Geoffrey Sirc. List books alphabetically by title. Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. New York: St. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, Book by a Corporate Author A corporate author may be a commission, a committee, or any group whose individual members are not identified on the title page: American Allergy Association.
Allergies in Children. New York: Random, Book with No Author List and alphabetize by the title of the book. Encyclopedia of Indiana. New York: Somerset, Use quotation marks and underlining as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: Encyclopedia Richard Howard. New York: Vintage-Random House, Republished Book Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition, which is usually a revision of the original.
For these books, insert the original publication date before the publication information. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge, Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. New York: Perennial-Harper, An Edition of a Book There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author typically an editor.
A Subsequent Edition Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title. Crowley, Sharon and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. A Work Prepared by an Editor Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title. Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Margaret Smith. Oxford: Oxford UP, Defining Visual Rhetorics. Peterson, Nancy J. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection Book parts include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book.
The basic form is: Lastname, First name. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Some actual examples: Harris, Muriel. Ben Rafoth. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Swanson, Gunnar. Steven Heller. New York: Allworth Press, Cross-referencing: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, the MLA indicates that it is optional to cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. You should should consider this option if you have many references from one text.
Peeples, Tim. Rose, Shirley K, and Irwin Weiser, eds. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. Philip Smith. New York: Dover, Kincaid, Jamaica. Tobias Wolff. New York: Vintage, Carter, Angela. New York: Penguin, Article in Reference Book: For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information.
Institutio Oratoria. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP, When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. When citing multivolume works in your text, always include the volume number followed by a colon, then the page number s : …as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.
Churchill, Winston. The Age of Revolution. New York: Dodd, New An Introduction, a Preface, a Foreword, or an Afterword When citing an introduction, a preface, a forward, or an afterword, write the name of the authors and then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized, underlined or enclosed in quotation marks. Farrell, Thomas B. Norms of Rhetorical Culture. By Farrell. New Haven: Yale UP, Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose.
By Kenneth Burke. The Bible Give the name of the specific edition, any editor s associated with it, followed by the publication information: The New Jerusalem Bible. Susan Jones, gen. New York: Doubleday, Your parenthetical citation will include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book and chapter:verse s , e. A Government Publication Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise start with the name of the government, followed by the agency and any subdivision that served as the corporate author.
For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed. GPO is the abbr. United States. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. Washington: GPO, Government Accountability Office.
A Pamphlet Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. Washington: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Sacramento, CA: California Dept. Cite the work as you would a book, but include the designation Diss. If the dissertation is published, treat the title as you would any book title and include the date it was published at the end.
Purdue University, Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT Bile, Jeffrey. Ohio University, If the work is not published, put the title in quotation marks and end with the date the degree was awarded: Graban, Tarez Samra. Stolley, Karl. Follow with the date with date and remember to abbreviate the month. Basic format: Author s. Poniewozik, James. Buchman, Dana. Article in a Newspaper Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article, but note the different pagination in a newspaper.
If there is more than one edition available for that date as in an early and late edition of a newspaper , identify the edition following the date e. Brubaker, Bill. Krugman, Andrew. If the newspaper is local, include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper. Behre, Robert. Trembacki, Paul. Title of Periodical day month year: page.
Seitz, Matt Zoller. Gary Burns and Jim Brown. New York Times 30 May late ed. Weiller, K. Linda K. Choice Apr. Wall Street Journal east. Hamer, John. American Journalism Review Dec. Anonymous Articles Cite the article title first, and finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical. An Article in a Scholarly Journal Author s. Issue Year : pages.
Actual example: Bagchi, Alaknanda. If the journal uses continuous pagination throughout a particular volume, only volume and year are needed, e. Modern Fiction Studies 40 : If each issue of the journal begins on page 1, however, you must also provide the issue number following the volume, e. Mosaic Journal with Continuous Pagination Allen, Emily. We have a complete list of style manuals on our resources for documenting sources in the disciplines page, which also provides links to general information about documenting print sources and in some cases, electronic sources.
Other ways to determine the style you should use are to ask your instructor for guidelines or resources, or to locate the official website for publications in your discipline and see if they have any guidelines or style manuals available. This resource contains links to sources that will help students, teachers, and anybody doing research on the Internet to cite electronic sources using different styles. Some Tips on Handling Electronic Sources It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information, when possible.
It is good practice to print or save Web pages or, better, using a program like Adobe Acrobat, to keep your own copies for future reference. Also learn to use the Bookmark function in your Web browser. When writing in electronic formats, be sure to properly encode your carets. Below are a variety of Web sites and pages you might need to cite. Date you accessed the site [electronic address]. It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later.
Be sure to include the complete address for the site. Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue University. Survey of the Literature of England. Course home page. Some Web sites have unusually long URLs that would be virtually impossible to retype; others use frames, so the URL appears the same for each page. Begin the path with the word Path followed by a colon, followed by the name of each link, separated by a semicolon.
For example, the Amazon. A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. Purdue University Writing Lab. The link will provide a stable URL that wikipedia recommends using when citing.
All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Our student content developers are at work reviewing and updating our MLA materials, which we hope to launch by Fall Please be patient with their progress. MLA Style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and citing research in writing. MLA Style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages.
Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material produced by other writers.
The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries. It is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site.