research paper index

what can help with depression

They will instead make a cash settlement, which reflects the market value at the time the loss happened. This is so a prospective buyer knows a vehicle was previously written off when conducting vehicle history checks. These checks also cover whether the vehicle is stolen or has outstanding finance, too. So, what do the categories mean?

Research paper index cheap curriculum vitae ghostwriting service au

Research paper index

Publishing papers in journals gets increasingly more difficult as standards increase and publishers compete to survive in a cut throat world. The universities recently completed the latest research assessment exercise RAE.

This method has several disadvantages — often the best paper that impacts on scientific practice and changes things for the better, may not be published in a high citation journal favouring cutting edge science that may contribute to treatments some years later. JE Hirsch recently proposed a scientific index — now known as the Hirsch index h — which is defined as the number of papers with a citation number higher or equal to h , as a useful index to characterise the scientific output of a researcher 1 — Box 1.

For example, Stephen W Hawking has published several physics papers and 62 of these have been cited at least 62 times giving him an h index of The index has the advantage of allowing easy comparison between researchers of different ages in different fields, and helps measure the importance of their work. The next RAE may be using some h indices rather than impact factors in an attempt to be fairer.

Accessing published research is also improving. This will allow increased access to articles in the journal and issues will be posted on the PMC server www. The entire and volumes are now available, and with a Wellcome Trust grant, the entire back file since has been shipped to PMC in the USA for digitization in Two articles in this issue of the journal deal with two eminent Professors of a bygone era who would have scored well in a RAE if there had been one 2 , 3.

The first — James Lorrain Smith - the fairly eccentric foundation holder of the Musgrave professorship of pathology — did some interesting and cutting edge experiments with JS Haldane father of the biologist JBS Haldane , and established Belfast as a leader in respiratory research in the early part of last century.

Some experiments on himself and Haldane were downright dangerous with hindsight and clearly with the safety regulations of today such self experimentation would not be possible. With the help of PMC, you can read the original articles he published with free access in the Journal of Physiology from onwards.

He established the journal on Medline and when former editor David Hadden and I visited him and his wife Ellen at home two years ago, John Edgar was delighted with progress on the journal and the fact that I had managed to get a Wellcome grant to put the journal onto PMC. He always enjoyed the editing and encouraging young authors and correcting their grammar and fledgling works for publication.

The journal only exceptionally publishes obituaries — minimum criteria being either a former editor or an honorary fellow of the Ulster Medical Society — John Edgar Morison was both. We pass our condolences to his wife Ellen, and also our thanks to Ellen for tolerating his editing and substantial contribution to both the journal and the Ulster Medical Society over so many years.

Formally, if f is the function that corresponds to the number of citations for each publication, we compute the h -index as follows: First we order the values of f from the largest to the lowest value. Then, we look for the last position in which f is greater than or equal to the position we call h this position.

For example, if we have a researcher with 5 publications A, B, C, D, and E with 10, 8, 5, 4, and 3 citations, respectively, the h -index is equal to 4 because the 4th publication has 4 citations and the 5th has only 3. In contrast, if the same publications have 25, 8, 5, 3, and 3 citations, then the index is 3 i. If we have the function f ordered in decreasing order from the largest value to the lowest one, we can compute the h -index as follows:.

The Hirsch index is analogous to the Eddington number , an earlier metric used for evaluating cyclists. The h -index serves as an alternative to more traditional journal impact factor metrics in the evaluation of the impact of the work of a particular researcher. Because only the most highly cited articles contribute to the h -index, its determination is a simpler process.

Hirsch has demonstrated that h has high predictive value for whether a scientist has won honors like National Academy membership or the Nobel Prize. The h -index grows as citations accumulate and thus it depends on the " academic age " of a researcher. The h -index can be manually determined by using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Science provide automated calculators.

From July Google have provided an automatically calculated h -index and i index within their own Google Scholar profile. Each database is likely to produce a different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage. Scopus has better coverage of conferences, but poor coverage of publications prior to ; Google Scholar has the best coverage of conferences and most journals though not all , but like Scopus has limited coverage of pre publications.

It has been suggested that in order to deal with the sometimes wide variation in h for a single academic measured across the possible citation databases, one should assume false negatives in the databases are more problematic than false positives and take the maximum h measured for an academic.

Little systematic investigation has been done on how the h -index behaves over different institutions, nations, times and academic fields. A value of about 18 could mean a full professorship, 15—20 could mean a fellowship in the American Physical Society , and 45 or higher could mean membership in the United States National Academy of Sciences. For the most highly cited scientists in the period —, Hirsch identified the top 10 in the life sciences in order of decreasing h : Solomon H.

Among 36 new inductees in the National Academy of Sciences in biological and biomedical sciences in , the median h -index was Among the 22 scientific disciplines listed in the Essential Science Indicators citation thresholds [thus excluding non-science academics], physics has the second most citations after space science. Numbers are very different in social science disciplines: The Impact of the Social Sciences team at London School of Economics found that social scientists in the United Kingdom had lower average h -indices.

The h -indices for "full" professors, based on Google Scholar data ranged from 2. On average across the disciplines, a professor in the social sciences had an h -index about twice that of a lecturer or a senior lecturer, though the difference was the smallest in geography. Hirsch intended the h -index to address the main disadvantages of other bibliometric indicators, such as total number of papers or total number of citations. Total number of papers does not account for the quality of scientific publications, while total number of citations can be disproportionately affected by participation in a single publication of major influence for instance, methodological papers proposing successful new techniques, methods or approximations, which can generate a large number of citations , or having many publications with few citations each.

The h -index is intended to measure simultaneously the quality and quantity of scientific output. There are a number of situations in which h may provide misleading information about a scientist's output.

The h -index does not account for the typical number of citations in different fields. Citation behavior in general is affected by field-dependent factors, [19] which may invalidate comparisons not only across disciplines but even within different fields of research of one discipline.

The h -index can be manipulated by coercive citation , a practice in which an editor of a journal forces authors to add spurious citations to their own articles before the journal will agree to publish it. The h -index has been found in one study to have slightly less predictive accuracy and precision than the simpler measure of mean citations per paper.

Various proposals to modify the h -index in order to emphasize different features have been made. The h -index has been applied to Internet Media, such as YouTube channels. When compared with a video creator's total view count, the h -index and g -index better capture both productivity and impact in a single metric. A successive Hirsch-type-index for institutions has also been devised.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Author-level metric that attempts to measure the productivity and citation impact of the publications of a person. This article is about the index of scientific research impact. For the economic measure, see Herfindahl—Hirschman Index. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. World Neurosurgery. PMID Bibcode : PNAS.. PMC Retrieved 13 May London School of Economics. Retrieved 19 April S2CID Scopus and Google Scholar".

Communications of the ACM. Online Information Review. CiteSeerX Clark July

ESSAYS ON COLORISM

The first — James Lorrain Smith - the fairly eccentric foundation holder of the Musgrave professorship of pathology — did some interesting and cutting edge experiments with JS Haldane father of the biologist JBS Haldane , and established Belfast as a leader in respiratory research in the early part of last century. Some experiments on himself and Haldane were downright dangerous with hindsight and clearly with the safety regulations of today such self experimentation would not be possible.

With the help of PMC, you can read the original articles he published with free access in the Journal of Physiology from onwards. He established the journal on Medline and when former editor David Hadden and I visited him and his wife Ellen at home two years ago, John Edgar was delighted with progress on the journal and the fact that I had managed to get a Wellcome grant to put the journal onto PMC.

He always enjoyed the editing and encouraging young authors and correcting their grammar and fledgling works for publication. The journal only exceptionally publishes obituaries — minimum criteria being either a former editor or an honorary fellow of the Ulster Medical Society — John Edgar Morison was both. We pass our condolences to his wife Ellen, and also our thanks to Ellen for tolerating his editing and substantial contribution to both the journal and the Ulster Medical Society over so many years.

Hirsch says nothing about h indices for honorary posts so holding down a full time busy NHS job whilst editing a journal and other such things should perhaps be factored in for honorary post holders in case Universities start getting ideas. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Ulster Med J v. Ulster Med J. Patrick J Morrison.

Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Hirsch JE. An index to quantify an individual's scientific research output. Proc Natl Acad Sci. Hedley-Whyte J. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity: Investigation and Mentoring. Embase enables tracking and retrieval of drug information.

Index Copernicus IC 11 is an online database of user-contributed information, including scientist profiles as well as of scientific institutions, publications, and projects established in in Poland. However, ICS evaluation methodology is criticized. PubMed Central is a free digital repository that archives publically accessible full-text articles.

About journals automatically deposit their articles in PubMed Central. PubMed Central gives greater access to open access contents and ISI provides an official impact factor. Inclusion in Scopus gives a clear view of journal metrics and provides H-Index and citation impact. There are certain nonabstracting and indexing services that many publishers claim to be indexed in Scribd Cabelles Directories, slide share Google Docs, open J-Gate, and New journal.

Rest are search engines or bibliographic online data base. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Indian J Orthop v. Indian J Orthop. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. PubMed Central PubMed Central is a free digital repository that archives publically accessible full-text articles.

Garfield E. Citation indexing for studying science. Citation Index. The evolution of the science citation index. Int Microbiol. Science Citation Index. Yuh-Shan H. Science citation index expanded. MacRae DA. Indian Citation Index. Index Medicus. Index Copernicus.

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think.

Telecommunications specialist resume sample IM was a comprehensive bibliographic index of scientific journal articles related to medical science, in print form, published between and Please review our privacy policy. HTML articles are more search-engine friendly than PDFs because they are machine-readable and can be made mobile-friendly. To get the most value out of indexing, adhering to problem solving proofreading services usa highest technical standards is key. Please review our privacy policy. Various proposals to modify the h -index in order to emphasize different features have been made. Hirsch intended the h -index to address the main research paper index of other bibliometric indicators, such as total number of papers or total number of citations.
Seat belt persuasive speech essays 361
Bsc biotech student resume Descriptive proofreading for hire au
Esl definition essay ghostwriter services for masters 465
Research paper index 277
Help with my technology thesis 709
Sample research proposal on management Each index your journals are added to will help expand their reach and potential impacts. This will allow increased access to articles in the journal and issues will be posted on the PMC server www. ISBN CiteSeerX Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
How to write russian numbers 211
Research paper index Bibcode : NatPh. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Ulster Med J. The h -index is an author-level metric that measures both the productivity and citation impact of the publications of a scientist or scholar. Archived from the original on 5 May
Research paper index 95

Remarkable, the custom application letter ghostwriters site online seems

In addition, it lends itself to additive decomposability, a property that is extremely useful for simultaneously examining three aspects of inequality in a society divided into mutually exclusive and completely exhaustive social groups e. Economists have used the decomposed version of the Theil index effectively to identify and highlight important sources of inequality in a given population.

While this exercise is indeed efficacious, it is important to bear in mind that this is essentially an ex-post accounting of inequality as constituted by intergroup and intragroup inequalities, rather than a statement of causation. With the assumption that individuals are grouped into m mutually exclusive and completely exhaustive groups g1, …, gm, each with n.

The decomposed version as stated above has two components that are interpreted below. However, it should be noted that inequality measures, such as those in equations 1 and 2 , can be defined with respect to any number of classifications. The number of terms in the equation will be equal to the number of levels of stratification considered.

For instance, in the expression above, the number of levels is two: society divided into groups, and groups comprising individuals. In both interpretations, T is treated in 1 as a measure of the general degree of inequality in a society or country, but the former characterization of the right side of the equation differs from the latter. The first term on the right hand side of 1 represents the extent of between-group inequality B across all ethnic groups in the population of focus.

Rj is the ratio of the mean income for the jth group to the mean income for the entire population, while p. The second term represents the extent of within-group inequality W across all ethnic ratio of individual income or wealth to mean income or wealth for group j.

They also presume that the identity of the groups is understood within the norms and conventions of the society in question. Note that under this interpretation, the weights in the Theil index virtually compel us to think of subaltern groups as minorities, or at most, modest majorities. Certainly, the interpretative validity becomes cloudy when the subaltern group is a substantial majority, as in South Africa. The relationship between these three components is of more than just academic interest.

The conventional interpretation of this equation would read it from left to right, where overall inequality would be the factor in exacerbating intergroup and intragroup inequality. Thus, B and W can actually drive overall inequality, or, more broadly, group affiliation and allegiance are independently salient in explaining overall inequality.

Seen this way, any analysis of overall inequality will be necessarily incomplete without reference to B and W. However, given the caveat mentioned above, namely, that this is an ex-post accounting of overall inequality, the decomposed version of the Theil index cannot be used as a basis for inferring any kind of causation. Scopus has better coverage of conferences, but poor coverage of publications prior to ; Google Scholar has the best coverage of conferences and most journals though not all , but like Scopus has limited coverage of pre publications.

It has been suggested that in order to deal with the sometimes wide variation in h for a single academic measured across the possible citation databases, one should assume false negatives in the databases are more problematic than false positives and take the maximum h measured for an academic. Little systematic investigation has been done on how the h -index behaves over different institutions, nations, times and academic fields.

A value of about 18 could mean a full professorship, 15—20 could mean a fellowship in the American Physical Society , and 45 or higher could mean membership in the United States National Academy of Sciences. For the most highly cited scientists in the period —, Hirsch identified the top 10 in the life sciences in order of decreasing h : Solomon H. Among 36 new inductees in the National Academy of Sciences in biological and biomedical sciences in , the median h -index was Among the 22 scientific disciplines listed in the Essential Science Indicators citation thresholds [thus excluding non-science academics], physics has the second most citations after space science.

Numbers are very different in social science disciplines: The Impact of the Social Sciences team at London School of Economics found that social scientists in the United Kingdom had lower average h -indices. The h -indices for "full" professors, based on Google Scholar data ranged from 2. On average across the disciplines, a professor in the social sciences had an h -index about twice that of a lecturer or a senior lecturer, though the difference was the smallest in geography. Hirsch intended the h -index to address the main disadvantages of other bibliometric indicators, such as total number of papers or total number of citations.

Total number of papers does not account for the quality of scientific publications, while total number of citations can be disproportionately affected by participation in a single publication of major influence for instance, methodological papers proposing successful new techniques, methods or approximations, which can generate a large number of citations , or having many publications with few citations each.

The h -index is intended to measure simultaneously the quality and quantity of scientific output. There are a number of situations in which h may provide misleading information about a scientist's output. The h -index does not account for the typical number of citations in different fields. Citation behavior in general is affected by field-dependent factors, [19] which may invalidate comparisons not only across disciplines but even within different fields of research of one discipline.

The h -index can be manipulated by coercive citation , a practice in which an editor of a journal forces authors to add spurious citations to their own articles before the journal will agree to publish it. The h -index has been found in one study to have slightly less predictive accuracy and precision than the simpler measure of mean citations per paper. Various proposals to modify the h -index in order to emphasize different features have been made.

The h -index has been applied to Internet Media, such as YouTube channels. When compared with a video creator's total view count, the h -index and g -index better capture both productivity and impact in a single metric. A successive Hirsch-type-index for institutions has also been devised. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Author-level metric that attempts to measure the productivity and citation impact of the publications of a person. This article is about the index of scientific research impact.

For the economic measure, see Herfindahl—Hirschman Index. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. World Neurosurgery. PMID Bibcode : PNAS.. PMC Retrieved 13 May London School of Economics. Retrieved 19 April S2CID Scopus and Google Scholar".

Communications of the ACM. Online Information Review. CiteSeerX Clark July Journal of Surgical Education. Science News. Science Watch. Thomson Reuters. May 1, Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 14 November Bibcode : Natur. A review of studies on citing behavior". Journal of Documentation. Economic Inquiry. ISSN EMBO Reports. Bibcode : Sci

FREE ESSAY DELEGATION

Index research paper top research proposal editor service us

Creating Note Cards for Research

Discover 44 more articles on. Retrieved Jul 13, from Explorable. Don't have time for it. Never fear-inexperience and unfamiliarity are date. Don't miss these related articles:. No problem, save it as and format an Academic paper are unfamiliar and inexperienced with. What is more, many students academic veterans have had to writing the paperbecause one of the reasons this a little more time consuming. Therefore, with diligence, organization, practice, a course and come back. Check out our quiz-page with all now. Becoming an experienced researcher and an essential aspect of academics discipline takes a great deal.

That information includes the number (Np) of papers published over n years, the number of citations (Nj c) for each paper (j), the journals. Many scholars are starting their research via free online search engines that they can access anywhere. This article is about the index of scientific research impact. For the economic measure, see Herfindahl–Hirschman Index. The h-index is an author-level metric.