APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: Field, For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: Field, , p. For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number.
More information on citing sources without pagination is given on the APA Style web page. Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al.
Derwing, T. Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 , Krech Thomas, H. Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech Doctoral dissertation. University of Colorado, Boulder. Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known.
If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying Kraiser, Kraizer, S. Preventing bullying. All things Nittany. Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma American Psychological Association [APA], n.
American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaster. In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation. Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
When you need to acknowledge the original publication date of a work consulted in a more recent edition, you can just add this at the very end of the reference entry, in parentheses and not followed by a period : Original work published Only the more recent date needs to be mentioned in the in-text citation; if you want to mentioned the original date in the text, you can do so outside of the citation, e. If you are assessing an article published by one author, and within that article they have cited sources by other works, do you need to cite the authors they have cited?
Generally no, you don't need to cite a source just because it's cited in something you already cite; otherwise you could end up with an infinitely expanding number of sources! The exception is if you quote or paraphrase a part of the text where the author is clearly quoting or paraphrasing another source.
In that case, it's best to seek out the original source and cite the information directly. If you can't access the original source, you can use an indirect citation, as explained in this FAQ. If I start out a sentence as, Chris Last name states "the quote".
Do I cite the author's name after this, since credit was given at the beginning of the sentence? No, if you've already mentioned the author's name in the sentence, you don't need to repeat it in the citation. Just include the year and page number, e. John Smith states "quote" , p. I wonder how to shorten a citation? Do I use the or is that from some other reference style?
All the best! You can find some guidance on shortening quotations in APA Style here. In general, you'd use an ellipsis … to omit something from the middle of a quotation. It's not necessary to use one to omit something at the start or end of a quote or to mark that a quote begins in mid-sentence. I want to cite two powerpoint presentations by the same teacher.
How do I differentiate them as in- text citations? When citing two sources with the same author, usually the year of publication differentiates them, e. Smith, vs. Smith, If both presentations in this case were in the same year, they should be differentiated with a letter after the year. The earlier presentation would be "a," the later one "b. Smith, b.
These letters should also appear in the reference list entries for the presentations. Feel free to check our article on citing PowerPoints if you need any more specific advice on this format. If the article is by one author, do we have to cite their name every time or just once and then just the year and page number after that? In the case of a single author, cite their name in every in-text citation, not just the first one.
I don't know where to say this so I will post it here. Your in-text help tool in the citation generator does not follow the APA 7th rules for 3 or more authors. As noted above in "APA in-text citations with multiple authors", in text citation of 3 or more authors should use the first author's last name followed by et al. While using the citation tool, I click on in-text citation, and it still follows the 6th edition rules of listing 3 authors names separately during the first in-text reference with all others using et al.
Our APA Generator supports both the 6th and 7th editions — are you sure you've switched to the 7th edition? You can find this option in the top right corner of your reference list next to the language selector. Ideally you should try to identify the author's full name — if this isn't possible, the source may not be reliable enough to use in an academic paper.
However, if an author only has one name, you may simply cite that name in both your in-text citation and reference entry. We have a separate article with examples of citing an online dictionary in APA. In most cases, you'll cite the name of the organization responsible for the dictionary e.
Hope that answers your question! Our article about APA journal citations includes some examples of how to cite unpublished research. Hope that helps :. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
What is your plagiarism score? Compare your paper with over 60 billion web pages and 30 million publications. Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women Perloff, The relation between media depictions and body image concerns is well-established; a meta-analysis by Grabe et al. What does an APA in-text citation for a website look like? How do I cite a source with an unknown author or publication date in APA?
When should I include a page number in an APA in-text citation? Parenthetical citation: Brown, , as cited in Mahone, Narrative citation: Brown , as cited in Mahone, states that… On the reference page , you only include the secondary source Mahone, Should I place the in-text citation before or after the period?
The company invested over 40, hours in optimizing its algorithm Davis, Is this article helpful? Raimo Streefkerk Raimo is an expert in explaining plagiarism and citing sources. He has been writing helpful articles since and is continuously improving Scribbr's Citation Generators. Other students also liked. When quoting in APA, you need to cite the author, year, and page number. Double-space all text and apply a hanging indent. How to paraphrase sources Paraphrasing means putting a passage of text in your own words without changing its meaning.
When you paraphrase, always cite the source. And how to refer to multiple equations at the same time? Kind regards. Hi Houssem, When referring to a numbered equation in the text, use the full word "Equation," capitalized, followed by the number. Hi Marie, You never mention the author's first name within a parenthetical citation.
For example: John Smith argues that. Thank you Reply. Hi Jordyn, The best approach when you need to include a shortened title in your in-text citation note that this is only necessary when no individual or organizational author can be listed is to shorten it to the initial noun phrase or to the first 2—4 words, omitting any articles "the," "a," or "an". Nicole March 14, at AM When quoting multiple lines of text, how for should it be indented?
Suchi March 12, at AM Hello, If I have two summary sentences from the different articles published in two different years but the first author of both the article is the same, how can I cite them? Also, should I cite them in a narrative or parenthetical manner? Hi Suchi, If the two articles are published in different years, that's enough to distinguish between them; you don't need to do anything special with the citations. Ethan March 9, at PM I use a printing of a book from a more recent date, say Hi Ethan, When you need to acknowledge the original publication date of a work consulted in a more recent edition, you can just add this at the very end of the reference entry, in parentheses and not followed by a period : Original work published Only the more recent date needs to be mentioned in the in-text citation; if you want to mentioned the original date in the text, you can do so outside of the citation, e.
A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
APA style calls for capitalizing important words in titles when they are written in the text but not when they are written in reference lists. Note : In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list viz. Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works from the same author, list the years of publication in sequence, with the earliest first.
Provide in-press citations last. Only list authors' surnames once for each list of dates. Following this pattern, multiple works from multiple authors can be contained within a single parenthetical. Separate authors' sources with a semicolon. Note, however, that the authors' names should be provided in the order they appear in the reference list regardless of when their sources were published. Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list.
Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual. Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
Do not include personal communication in the reference list. If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source. If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences.
In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation. Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Direct quote: include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote. For example:. This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension.
APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation.
Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Using In-text Citation Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source.
Example paragraph with in-text citation A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech Derwing et al. References Derwing, T. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.
Web page with author: In-text citation Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens Asmelash, Reference entry Asmelash, L. Reference entry World Health Organization. Reference entry American Psychological Association.
General Guidelines In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. Author's name part of narrative: Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
For example: This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. Subjects: Citation help.