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In-Text Citations: see pp. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:. Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts The reference for the Milgram article but not the Snow reference should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.
Writing Center. Writing Resources. Additional Navigation About Us. Tutoring Services Tutors. Seven Sins of Writing Passive Voice. Incorrect Punctuation of Two Independent Clauses. Misuse of the Apostrophe. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. Pronoun Problems. The Dreaded Pet Peeves. Faculty Resources. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections.
Title page see sample on p. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript.
Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. Abstract labeled, centered, not bold No more than words, one paragraph, block format i. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat.
Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin but not the only way is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when.
Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.
Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.
Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e.
Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order? Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found.
Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than.
Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually.
Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. Discussion labeled, centered, bold The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers.
Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation?
If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study?
Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?
References labeled, centered, not bold Provide an alphabetical listing of the references alphabetize by last name of first author. New York: Worth Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. If you are quoting directly which you should avoid , you also need to include the page number. If the seizure occurs in childhood, both the child and the family will need to be educated about epilepsy and the importance of following a medication regimen.
In some patient groups, the cessation of seizures under medication control for 2 to 5 years may mean that the medications can be safely stopped without a return to seizures stopping the medication too soon can lead to a resumption of seizures, which may now be harder to stop, possibly because of kindling effects as described earlier. The vast majority of seizures have an organic basis, and mental health workers should assume that a patient or client with seizures has no control over their frequency, duration, or form.
However, some seizures are nonorganic in origin and will need to be treated by nonmedical therapies. When the seizure is believed to be nonorganic in origin, it has been called a pseudoseizure or hysterical seizure, although these terms are generally discouraged because their pejorative connotations may interfere with effective communication with the individual and his or her family.
One should also be aware of the fact that the majority of nonepileptic seizures occur in individuals who also have organically determined seizures this probably explains why they are so good at mimicking the seizure behavior. Withdrawal symptoms from alcohol dependency may occur for several days after abstinence. The seizures in such cases are not expected to continue beyond the acute withdrawal period.
Of course, individuals with a history of frequent falls during intoxication are at increased risk of seizures from brain damage, and in such cases, seizures may occur as a consequence even without the added effect of withdrawal. Recurrent hospitalization and detoxification appears to lead to increased risk for seizures at a subsequent detoxification, suggesting a kindling effect. The performance of epilepsy patients on cognitive tests has been of great help in exploring the brain organization involved in perception, thinking, and reasoning.
Memory functions of patients who have a seizure focus in the temporal lobe or who have had an excision of part of their temporal lobe have been particularly informative in breaking down memory functions into their component parts. A small number of patients have focal motor seizures that leave consciousness and cognitive abilities intact, but the vast majority of persons with epilepsy lose consciousness and are subsequently amnesic for the events that occurred during the episode.
However, unlike the case of most psychiatric illnesses, these effects are discrete in time and the person can be entirely normal between seizures. Factors to be considered when deciding whether a person is showing effects of a time-related decline in abilities include age of onset, the site of the focus or foci, treatment side effects medication, surgery , effects of injuries sustained during a seizure especially head injuries , and effects of status epilepticus or prolonged seizures with inefficient breathing.
Age of onset has obvious effects on the acquisition of knowledge and on interpersonal relationships. Sometimes the effects of a seizure focus are direct lowered attentional abilities , sometimes indirect missing school for a schoolage child. Overall, significant brain reorganization is much more likely if the brain damage and seizures onset occurs before the age of 6 years than after that age, with puberty providing a likely upper limit for the period of useful plasticity.
Lennox and Lennox in their book, Epilepsy and Related Disorders, point out that many of the personality characteristics supposedly associated with epilepsy are actually frequently seen in many institutionalized patients suffering from a variety of debilitating chronic physical illnesses. Therefore they cautioned against an overarching assumption that the epilepsy itself may cause a personality disorder. Nevertheless, the particular characteristics of epilepsy sudden loss of consciousness and other bodily functions, uncertainty about when a seizure will occur and what danger it may engender, the attendant problems dealing with family and friends, etc.
Joseph A. Schwartz, a psychiatrist who often works with epilepsy patients, has found that consultation requests by neurologists mention personality disorders about 10 times more often for epilepsy patients than for patients with other neurological disorders. It is not uncommon to become fearful before, during, and after seizures. Interestingly, depressed mood is sometimes alleviated after a seizure in these patients, much as electroconvulsive shock has been shown to be helpful in cases of severe intractable depression.
Rarely, patients will experience a delayed psychotic episode 12 to 48 hours after a seizure. Psychological assessments of epilepsy patients will naturally be tailored to reflect the needs of the patient and referral question. If the patient is being considered for epilepsy surgery, the assessment will include a full neuropsychological battery, with a focus on memory functions, but also assessing frontal, parietal, and occipital functions prognosis for successful outcome is greatly improved if the neuropsychological findings point to a disturbance of functions of a single region of the brain.
Are you generally free from depression? Do you need vocational counseling? After scoring the responses, the clinician plots the scores on each of the clinical scales, noting where the major concerns are focused and taking appropriate action if indicated.
Certain foods were forbidden, as were particular kinds of clothing e. He concluded that the disease was hereditary as discussed earlier, a predisposing hereditary component is in fact present in some cases. His prescribed treatment was vague and appears internally inconsistent:. And in this disease as in all others, he [the physician] must strive not to feed the disease, but endeavor to wear it out by administering whatever is most opposed to each disease, and not that which favors and is allied to it.
For by that which is allied to it, it gains vigor and increases, but it wears out and disappears under the use of that which is opposed to it. But whoever is acquainted with such a change in men, and can render a man humid and dry, hot and cold by regimen, could also cure this disease, if he recognizes the proper season for administering his remedies, without minding purifications, spells, and all other illiberal practices of a like kind.
It is likely that further relevant details of treatment were passed from physician to student during medical apprenticeship some have even suggested that the Hippocratic writings were meant only for lay people and were therefore purposefully uninformative, with treatment secrets reserved for one-on-one training.
The prescription of treatments that are considered useless today continued well into this century. For reasons that are no longer clear, at the turn of the century even reputable physicians tried the so-called Corsican treatment, cauterization of the ears. This was at least in part the consequence of prejudice against the person with epilepsy, both by physicians and by the general public.
Anticonvulsant medications are numerous and trials of new medications are common. Bromides sedatives made of compounds of bromine and another element, such as potassium gained popularity in the second half of the nineteenth century and helped approximately half the patients, although side effects of long-term use mental torpor were unacceptable. The popularity of this drug was so great that around the turn of the century, over a ton of bromides were being delivered yearly to the main hospital treating epilepsy in London, England.
In , phenobarbital was found to control seizures better than any substance before it, and many of the current effective medications are variations on the molecular structure of this substance. All anticonvulsants will cause side effects if the dose is high enough, but none of these medications should have unacceptable side effects in the vast majority of patients if the serum levels are kept within the therapeutic range.
Surgical removal of brain tissue or the cutting of intrahemispheric commissures corpus callosotomy to eliminate a seizure disorder may seem an extraordinary treatment, but as it has become clear that the origin of the seizure lies in the brain, it has in some cases become the most viable option. Because in most cases epilepsy surgery is elective i.
Psychologists, social workers, and others in mental health provide essential input into the decision about whether or not to proceed to surgery. For surgery to be considered, the following six conditions should be met:.
When the first two conditions are met, the patient begins a lengthy process to establish the remaining four conditions. Psychologists usually neuropsychologists are involved in conditions 3, 5, and 6. Condition 4 is the province of the neurosurgeon or neurologist. Condition 6 usually requires contributions from a social worker as well as the psychologist and nurse clinician working with the individual. On occasion, a patient will be told that before he or she can progress further toward surgery, an improvement in mood or a strengthening of the support network is needed.
Different epilepsy surgery teams may differ in their threshold for this kind of problem. Condition 3 usually includes a neuropsychological evaluation designed to pinpoint which brain areas are functioning at levels below expectation. This is important because if the pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses indicates bilateral involvement or damage to areas outside the region thought to harbor the epileptogenic focus, the prognosis for seizure control after surgery is worse.
In the case of temporal lobe epilepsy, the memory functions for verbal and pictorial materials are tested tapping speech- and nonspeech-hemisphere functions, respectively. The ideal candidate for surgery has findings from all of these examinations that point to the same area of the brain as the probable origin of the seizures.
Magnetoencephalography MEG is being developed as an alternative to EEG; it is reported to have a localizing accuracy of approximately 8 mm, compared with 10 mm for EEG. If conditions 3 and 4 are satisfactorily answered, condition 5 is evaluated by using one or both of the following methods: 1 the Intracarotid Amobarbital Procedure IAP; sometimes called the Wada Test, after Juhn Wada, the neurologist who introduced the technique at the Montreal Neurological Institute in the s , or 2 speech mapping if the hemisphere to be operated on makes a contribution to normal language production and comprehension.
This test is designed to determine the hemispheric organization of speech abilities and to prevent postsurgery amnesia by eliminating candidates whose memory abilities depend on the tissue in the area to be respected. Typically, a small amount of sodium amobarbital Amytal is injected into the internal carotid artery, which serves most of the cerebral hemisphere on the same side.
After the injection, the neuropsychologist has approximately 5 minutes to test cognitive functions of the nonaffected hemisphere. Language abilities are tested and new information is presented to determine whether memory mechanisms of the noninjected hemisphere are capable of forming new memories. If the person can speak and learn new information after the injection, the noninjected hemisphere is considered able to support language and memory functions. If the epileptogenic focus is near regions of the brain that are required for language, the area near the proposed surgical removal needs to be mapped mapping may also be needed for motor and sensory functions if the removal is near the primary sensory or motor cortices.
Electrical stimulation is applied to the brain surface, usually during the surgery in the awake patient, although in some cases it may be preferable to stimulate the region using an implanted electrode array over an extended period before surgery. In the case of language functions, an interruption of speaking or comprehension during stimulation indicates that the underlying cortex should be left intact.
Physicians rely primarily on medication or surgery to treat their epilepsy patients, but nonmedical treatments of seizure disorders have played at least a peripheral role throughout the history of the illness. On the most superficial level, patients themselves often feel that something in their environment or a modification of their behavior can affect the frequency, duration, or severity of their seizures, both positively and negatively. This knowledge, either because it is accurate or through a superstitious process, leads to modifications in behavior.
Rarely, patients actually like the feeling of the aura or seizure and so find ways to trigger one. Visual stimulation, such as passing the fingers back and forth in front of the eyes, can elicit seizures, and flashing lights photic driving are used as part of the diagnostic workup, because they can frequently produce abnormalities in the EEG or actual seizures. Patients with visually evoked seizures learn to avoid visual conditions with flashing lights e.
Some people have their seizures elicited by any sudden stimulus that causes a mild startle reaction. Although it is difficult for a person to eliminate entirely the possibility of being startled, those around the patient can learn to reduce unexpected loud noises or sudden movements.
At the time of this writing, efforts are underway in a number of domains of importance to mental health workers concerned with epilepsy. Persons with epilepsy, after a long history of being fairly passive in their treatment, are beginning to be asked to play a more active or even a central role in the management of their illness. Toward this end, they and their family members are being asked about the impact of their illness with established questionnaires such a the WPSI and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory; similarly, families are being given a larger role when the physician considers the advisability of discontinuing antiepileptic medication after an interval without a seizure usually more than 2 years.