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They will instead make a cash settlement, which reflects the market value at the time the loss happened. This is so a prospective buyer knows a vehicle was previously written off when conducting vehicle history checks. These checks also cover whether the vehicle is stolen or has outstanding finance, too. So, what do the categories mean?

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Environmental law research paper



It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Latest Issue. Volume 33 Issue 1 March Impact Factor. About the journal Condensing essential information into just three issues a year, the Journal of Environmental Law has become an authoritative source of informed analysis for all those who have any dealings in this vital field of legal study … Find out more.

All articles are freely available to read online. Climate change in the courts: challenges and future directions "In this fast-moving field, legal academics and legal experts have an important task, now and ahead, in reflecting on how adjudicative processes are accommodating the disruption that climate change inevitably brings to legal systems.

What is climate change law? The Urgenda decision: balanced constitutionalism in the face of climate change? Email alerts Register to receive table of contents email alerts as soon as new issues of Journal of Environmental Law are published online. It is concluded that ecocide is the most effective way to address climate change as ecocide holds more polluters accountable, utilizes a more effective pre-emptive approach, contains stronger legal consequences and employs a narrative that emphasizes the protection of human rights.

As climate change continues to exacerbate, this paper provides valuable insight on how we can better address climate change at an Orford University of Georgia School of Law. This Article explores the development of the Clean Air Act of , the first law to allow the federal government to fight air pollution rather than study it.

The Article focuses on the postwar years and explores the rise of public health medical research, cooperative federalism, and the desire to harness the powers of the federal government for domestic social improvement, as key precursors to environmental law. It examines the origins of the idea that the federal government should "do something" about air pollution, and how that idea was translated, through drafting, lobbying, politicking, hearings, debate, influence, and votes CAFE standards are regulations first enacted nearly fifty years ago to promote greater fuel efficiency in car manufacturing through a system of incentives and penalties.

In the face of the climate crisis, people are increasingly interested in more sustainable and eco-conscious alternatives to fossil fuels. As a result, companies associated with fossil fuel industries are under pressure to conform to this trend among consumers by marketing themselves as leaders in developing sustainable alternatives.

The Clean Water Act has traveled a successful but tortuous path. From combustible beginnings on the Cuyahoga River; through the Lake St. With each bend, the nearly fifty-year-old Act has proven to be not just resilient, but among our most successful environmental laws. Much of that success stems from an effective enforcement structure that focuses more on treating pollutant sources rather than just impaired waters. The text creating that structure has largely remained untouched by Congress for decades.

But what about the environment Pursuant to Clean Water Act section , state water quality certification authority to regulate federally-licensed energy projects has been relatively well settled for decades. Long-standing precedents from the U. Supreme Court, other federal courts, the U. In recent years, however, state section certification authority has come Blumm, Zachary A. McKirgan University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.

While federal and state government regulations have become commonplace in almost every conceivable facet of the modem American lifestyle, the prison food system has inconspicuously remained underregulated despite the progress made by the prisoners' rights movement in other areas. Legislatures in most states generally leave prison food regulation to the sole discretion of prison administrators, resulting in a "laissez-faire approach" in the prison food system; an anachronism in contemporary America.

Some states' prison systems do in fact self regulate to an adequate degree despite this under-regulation, while others participate in voluntary, nongovernmental prison accreditation programs. However, many states and localities Since their introduction in the mid-twentieth century, antibiotics have become a mainstay of poultry production for purposes ranging from growth promotion to disease treatment and control.

Nevertheless, for almost as long, there have been concerns about the role that these agricultural uses play in the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The issue of antibiotic resistance in general is fast becoming a public health crisis and scrutiny of agriculture as a contributing cause continues.

Nevertheless, to date, neither regulatory efforts to curb agricultural usage nor private sector actions in response to consumer demand and public-interest campaigns have led to significant changes Seattle University School of Law.

Georgia State University College of Law. Maurer School of Law: Indiana University. Fordham Law School. Barry University School of Law. Georgetown University Law Center. Washington University in St. University of Washington School of Law. Hari Osofsky Penn State Law. Katharina Pistor Columbia Law School. Popular Articles Follow Based on downloads in June The Evolution Of International Environmental Law , Edith Brown Weiss Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works In the last forty years, international environmental law has evolved rapidly, as environmental risks have become more apparent and their assessment and management more complex.

This volume offers guidance for thinking about some the most pressing legal

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We invite you to browse through recently published special issues of Environmental Science and Pollution Research: Click on the following link to get an overview of ESPR issues! Rights and permissions. Springer policies. Our journal covers all areas of Environmental Science and related subjects, with emphasis on chemical compounds.

Through Springer Compact agreements , authors from participating institutions can publish Open Choice at no cost to the authors. Latest issue. Volume 28 Issue 27, July View all volumes and issues. Latest articles Immobilization of heavy metal loid s in acid paddy soil by soil replacement-biochar amendment technology under normal wet condition Authors first, second and last of 4 Shaojun Jiang Lianxin Duan Yuehong Shu Content type: Research Article Published: 19 July Agricultural and non-agricultural directions of bio-based sewage sludge valorization by chemical conditioning Authors first, second and last of 7 Grzegorz Izydorczyk Katarzyna Mikula Katarzyna Chojnacka Content type: Review Article Open Access Published: 19 July Distribution, source identification, and health risk assessment of heavy metals in the soil-rice system of a farmland protection area in Hubei Province, Central China Authors first, second and last of 6 Ting Huang Yuxia Deng Shan Huang Content type: Research Article Published: 19 July This journal has open access articles.

View all articles. Environmental product declarations or product scorecards are available to collect and evaluate the environmental and social performance of paper products, such as the Paper Calculator, [2] Environmental Paper Assessment Tool EPAT , [3] or Paper Profile. Both the U. Pulp and paper generates the third largest amount of industrial air, water, and land emissions in Canada and the sixth largest in the United States. Worldwide, the pulp and paper industry is the fifth largest consumer of energy, accounting for four percent of all the world's energy use.

The pulp and paper industry uses more water to produce a ton of product than any other industry. The de-inking process during paper recycling is also a source of emissions due to chemicals released in the effluent. Plantation forests , from where the majority of wood for pulping is obtained, is generally a monoculture and this raises concerns over the ecological effects of the practice. Much of the wood harvested in North America goes into lumber and other non-paper products.

In the U. Deforestation is often seen as a problem in developing countries but also occurs in the developed world. Woodchipping to produce paper pulp is a contentious environmental issue in Australia. Over 6. The National Emissions Inventory in the U. Several PBTs are emitted by the pulp and paper industry at measurable levels, including lead, hexachlorobenzene HCB , dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

There are other important releases to air by the pulp and paper industry. Fine particulate matter PM 2. The pulp and paper industry in the U. NOx and SOx are major contributors of acid rain and CO 2 is a greenhouse gas responsible for climate change. In , the pulp and paper industry in North America was responsible for about 0. Wastewater discharges for a pulp and paper mill contains solids, nutrients and dissolved organic matter such as lignin. It also contains alcohols , and chelating agents and inorganic materials like chlorates and transition metal compounds.

Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus can cause or exacerbate eutrophication of fresh water bodies such as lakes and rivers. Organic matter dissolved in fresh water, measured by biological oxygen demand BOD , changes ecological characteristics. Wastewater may also be polluted with organochlorine compounds. Some of these are naturally occurring in the wood, but chlorine bleaching of the pulp produces far larger amounts.

The pulp and paper industry is also associated with important emissions of heavy metals. In Canada, for example, this industry is the third source of lead Pb emissions to water [27] In the U. Levels of discharge have not changed significantly since that time.

Recycling the effluent see black liquor and burning it, using bioremediation ponds and employing less damaging agents in the pulping and bleaching processes can help reduce water pollution. Discharges can also discolour the water leading to reduced aesthetics. This has happened with the Tarawera River in New Zealand which subsequently became known as the "black drain".

Paper recycling mitigates this impact, but not the environmental and economic impact of the energy consumed by manufacturing, transporting and burying and or reprocessing paper products. Chlorine and compounds of chlorine are used in the bleaching of wood pulp , especially chemical pulps produced by the kraft process or sulfite process.

In the past, plants using elemental chlorine produced significant quantities of dioxins , [31] persistent and very toxic organic pollutants. As a result, dioxin production was also significantly reduced. Environmental Protection Agency EPA data concluded that "Studies of effluents from mills that use oxygen delignification and extended delignification to produce ECF elemental chlorine free and TCF pulps suggest that the environmental effects of these processes are low and similar.

TCF bleaching, by removing chlorine from the process, reduces chlorinated organic compounds to background levels in pulp mill effluent. On the one hand, paper and chemical industry-funded studies have generally found that there is no environmental difference between ECF and TCF effluents. Sulfur -based compounds are used in both the kraft process and the sulfite process for making wood pulp. Sulfur is generally recovered, with the exception of ammonia-based sulfite processes, but some is released as sulfur dioxide during combustion of black liquor , a byproduct of the kraft process, or "red liquor" from the sulfite process.

Sulfur dioxide is of particular concern because it is water-soluble and is a major cause of acid rain. A modern kraft pulp mill is more than self-sufficient in its electrical generation and normally will provide a net flow of energy to the local electrical grid. Air emissions of hydrogen sulfide , methyl mercaptan , dimethyl sulfide , dimethyl disulfide , and other volatile sulfur compounds are the cause of the odor characteristic of pulp mills utilizing the kraft process.

Other chemicals that are released into the air and water from most paper mills include the following: [42]. Bleaching mechanical pulp is not a major cause for environmental concern since most of the organic material is retained in the pulp, and the chemicals used hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite produce benign byproducts water and, eventually, sodium sulfate , respectively. However, the bleaching of chemical pulps has the potential to cause significant environmental damage, primarily through the release of organic materials into waterways.

Pulp mills are almost always located near large bodies of water because they require substantial quantities of water for their processes. An increased public awareness of environmental issues from the s and s, as evidenced by the formation of organizations like Greenpeace , influenced the pulping industry and governments to address the release of these materials into the environment.

Conventional bleaching using elemental chlorine produces and releases into the environment large amounts of chlorinated organic compounds , including chlorinated dioxins. Dioxins are highly toxic, and health effects on humans include reproductive, developmental, immune and hormonal problems.

They are known to be carcinogenic. Greenhouse gas emissions from the pulp and paper industry are generated from the combustion of fossil fuels required for raw material production and transportation, wastewater treatment facilities, purchased power, paper transportation, printed product transportation, disposal and recycling.

Disposing of paper in landfill sites, and subsequent breakdown and production of methane a potent greenhouse gas also adds to the carbon footprint of paper products. This is another reason why paper recycling is beneficial for the environment. At pulp and paper mills in the U. Clay or calcium carbonate are used as fillers for some papers. Kaolin is the most commonly used clay for coated papers. Trees particularly suited for pulp production have been introduced in various regions worldwide.

Some of those have now come to be recognized as aggressive invasive species. In Malaysia , the Acacia auriculaeformis and Acacia mangium are counted as invasive trees. Some of the environmental impacts of the pulp and paper industry have been addressed and there is movement towards sustainable practices.

Using wood from plantation forests addresses concerns about loss of old growth forests. Cutting down trees to make forest products such as pulp and paper creates temporary or long-term environmental disturbances in forest habitats depending on how carefully the harvest is carried out. There might be impacts on plant and animal biodiversity, soil fertility and water quality. However, sustainable forest management practices are a way of using and caring for forests so as to maintain their environmental, social and economic values and benefits over time.

Forest Service. In Canada, sustainable forest management is supported by a forest management planning process; a science-based approach to decision-making, assessment and planning as well as by regulations and policies. Promoting and supporting forest certification and the ability to trace the origin of wood fiber helps ensure sustainable forest management and legal logging. The forest certification systems that are currently the most used are:.

The move to non-elemental chlorine for the bleaching process reduced the emission of the carcinogenic organochlorines. Peracetic acid , ozone [64] and hydrogen peroxide and oxygen are used in bleaching sequences in the pulp industry to produce totally chlorine free TCF paper. There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.

Pre-consumer waste is material that was discarded before it was ready for consumer use. Post-consumer waste is material discarded after consumer use such as old magazines, old telephone directories, and residential mixed paper. One concern about recycling wood pulp paper is that the fibers are degraded with each and after being recycled four or five times the fibers become too short and weak to be useful in making paper.

Recycling paper decreases the demand for virgin pulp and thus reduces the overall amount of air and water pollution associated with paper manufacture. Recycled pulp can be bleached with the same chemicals used to bleach virgin pulp, but hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrosulfite are the most common bleaching agents. Recycled pulp, or paper made from it, is known as PCF process chlorine free if no chlorine-containing compounds were used in the recycling process.

Recycling as an alternative to the use of landfills and recycled paper is one of the less complicated procedures in the recycling industry. Virgin paper contains no recycled content and is made directly from the pulp of trees or cotton. Materials recovered after the initial paper manufacturing process are considered recycled paper. The collection and recycling industries have fixated on the scraps of paper that is thrown away by customers daily in order to increase the amount of recycled paper.

This type of mill detaches the ink from the paper fibers, along with any other excess materials which are also removed from the remaining paper. In the deinking mill, after all of the unwanted coatings of paper are stripped, the refurbished paper is sent to the paper machine. The old scraps are now constructed into new paper at the paper machine. Many papers mills have recycled business papers by transforming the old business papers into beneficial letters and envelopes.

The production process for recycled paper is more costly than the well-developed paper mills that create paper with the use of trees. This process in making recycled paper is also much more time-consuming. However, recycled paper has a multitude of benefits from an environmental perspective. Pulp and paper is a heavily regulated industry in North America.

EPA first issued national wastewater standards, known as effluent guidelines , for pulp and paper mills in , pursuant to the Clean Water Act. The agency established numeric limitations for several conventional pollutants. See United States regulation of point source water pollution. EPA's "Cluster Rule" CR addressed additional toxic wastewater pollutants, and regulated hazardous air pollutant emissions as well. Some of the requirements and technologies were designed to reduce toxic air pollutants also reduced toxic wastewater pollutants and vice versa.

EPA's intent in promulgating the CR was to provide a coordinated set of regulatory requirements, thereby improving clarity for industry as it worked to achieve compliance, and achieving a greater level of pollution prevention. The regulation also requires the industry to implement best management practices , such as process control monitoring. All air emissions in the U. Standards have been set for six principal pollutants: lead , carbon monoxide , nitrogen dioxide NO 2 , ozone O 3 , particulate matter PM and sulfur dioxide SO 2.

Laws, regulations, and policies directing forest management on U. In Canada, federal and provincial environmental law is the primary source of regulations for pulp and paper mills. The following three listed Federal regulations are related to emissions to water:. There are also regulations in place to control the releases of contaminants into the air, including particulate matter and ground-level ozone and these include the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards Regulations.

At the federal level, Environment and Climate Change Canada ECCC has a legislated, publicly accessible inventory of pollutant releases to air, water and land, as well as disposals and recycling, namely the National Pollutant Release Inventory, which companies are required to report each year.

Operators of facilities that meet the reporting criteria are required to report facility greenhouse gas GHG emissions to ECCC each year. These Guidelines for the environment, health and safety list out the specific rules for the paper mill industries that explains what they need to follow in order to limit the pollution that is consequently distributed and by the mills.

Wood pulp produced primarily by grinding wood is known as "mechanical pulp" and is used mainly for newsprint. These mechanical processes use fewer chemicals than either kraft or sulfite mills. The primary source of pollution from these mills is organic material such as resin acids released from the wood when it is processed. Mechanical wood pulp is " brightened ," as opposed to bleached, using less toxic chemicals than are needed for chemical pulps.

Three main issues with the environmental impact of printing inks is the use of volatile organic compounds , heavy metals and non-renewable oils. Standards for the amount of heavy metals in ink have been set by some regulatory bodies. Deinking recycled paper pulp results in a waste slurry which may go to landfill.

In the s federal regulations for inks in the United States governed the use of toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, selenium, mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chromium. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Environmental impact of paper.

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