Many datasets are now freely available for the community: e. The further developments in this field of study need producing annotated corpora and shared evaluation protocols in order to enable the comparison between different tools and methods. The development of such resources is an important step to making scientific reproducibility possible.
The seven papers published in this Research Topic were all reviewed by two independent reviewers. In fact, the abstract points out the information that is the most important for the reader and is often used as a proxy for the content of an article.
More than 36, papers in environmental sciences, retrieved from the ISTEX database, were processed to observe the trends in the GEM score over an year period of time. The results show that abstracts tend to be more generous in recent publications and there seems to be no correlation between the GEM score and the citation rate of the papers. The Termolator tool includes chunking that favors chunks containing out-of-vocabulary words, nominalizations, technical adjectives, and other specialized word classes and supports term chunk ranking.
The authors analyse the effectiveness of all involved components to the overall system's performance and compare their Termolator system with a terminology extraction system called Termostat. They use a gold standard consisting of manually annotated instances of inline terms multi-word nominal expressions of different types of documents e.
The authors explore word and character-level word embeddings, different prediction layers Softmax and Conditional Random Fields and multi-task over single-task learning components. Their experiments are based on a published dataset of annotated references from a corpus of publications on the historiography of Venice books and journal articles in Italian, English, French, German, Spanish and Latin published from the nineteenth century to In the evaluation the authors show the relative positive contribution of their character-level word embeddings.
The authors release two implementations of the architecture, in Keras and TensorFlow, along with all the data to train and test. Their results strongly support the adoption of deep learning methods for the general task of reference mining. For this purpose, they study and compare different types of citation contexts in order to identify articles that play important role in the development of science.
The proposed methods can have different applications, such as improving citation-based techniques at the individual or collective level, but also improving recommendation systems dedicated to information retrieval by identifying articles of importance or interest. The authors investigate various trends that can be observed from the publications in this specific research domain.
The study is presented in two companion papers that each provides a different perspective of the analysis. The first paper describes the corpus and presents an overall analysis of the number of papers, authors, gender distributions, co-authorship, collaboration patterns and citation patterns.
The second paper investigates the research topics and their evolution over time, the key innovative topics and the authors that introduced them, and also the reuse of papers and plagiarism. Together, the two papers provide a survey of the literature in NLP and SLP and the data to understand the trends and the evolution of research in this research community.
This study can also be seen as a methodological framework for producing similar surveys for other scientific areas. The authors report on the major obstacles that appear during such processing. The first one are the errors that are due to the automatic processing of the full text of papers and in particular scanned content. Our team reviewed the papers accepted to NeurIPS and shortlisted the most interesting ones across different research areas.
Here are the topics we cover:. Subscribe to our AI Research mailing list at the bottom of this article to be alerted when we release new summaries. Pre-trained language models still dominate the NLP research advances in Many interpretation methods for neural models in natural language processing investigate how information is encoded inside hidden representations. However, these methods can only measure whether the information exists, not whether it is actually used by the model.
We propose a methodology grounded in the theory of causal mediation analysis for interpreting which parts of a model are causally implicated in its behavior. The approach enables us to analyze the mechanisms that facilitate the flow of information from input to output through various model components, known as mediators. As a case study, we apply this methodology to analyzing gender bias in pre-trained Transformer language models.
Our mediation analysis reveals that gender bias effects are concentrated in specific components of the model that may exhibit highly specialized behavior. Pre-trained language models like BERT and its variants have recently achieved impressive performance in various natural language understanding tasks.
However, BERT heavily relies on the global self-attention block and thus suffers large memory footprint and computation cost. Although all its attention heads query on the whole input sequence for generating the attention map from a global perspective, we observe some heads only need to learn local dependencies, which means existence of computation redundancy. We therefore propose a novel span-based dynamic convolution to replace these self-attention heads to directly model local dependencies.
The novel convolution heads, together with the rest self-attention heads, form a new mixed attention block that is more efficient at both global and local context learning. Code: official TensorFlow implementation is available here. With the success of language pretraining, it is highly desirable to develop more efficient architectures of good scalability that can exploit the abundant unlabeled data at a lower cost.
To improve the efficiency, we examine the much-overlooked redundancy in maintaining a full-length token-level presentation, especially for tasks that only require a single-vector presentation of the sequence. With this intuition, we propose Funnel-Transformer which gradually compresses the sequence of hidden states to a shorter one and hence reduces the computation cost.
More importantly, by re-investing the saved FLOPs from length reduction in constructing a deeper or wider model, we further improve the model capacity. In addition, to perform token-level predictions as required by common pretraining objectives, Funnel-Transformer is able to recover a deep representation for each token from the reduced hidden sequence via a decoder. Empirically, with comparable or fewer FLOPs, Funnel-Transformer outperforms the standard Transformer on a wide variety of sequence-level prediction tasks, including text classification, language understanding, and reading comprehension.
Code: official TensorFlow and PyTorch implementations are available here. Large pre-trained language models have been shown to store factual knowledge in their parameters, and achieve state-of-the-art results when fine-tuned on downstream NLP tasks. However, their ability to access and precisely manipulate knowledge is still limited, and hence on knowledge-intensive tasks, their performance lags behind task-specific architectures. Additionally, providing provenance for their decisions and updating their world knowledge remain open research problems.
Pre-trained models with a differentiable access mechanism to explicit non-parametric memory can overcome this issue, but have so far been only investigated for extractive downstream tasks. We explore a general-purpose fine-tuning recipe for retrieval-augmented generation RAG — models which combine pre-trained parametric and non-parametric memory for language generation.
We introduce RAG models where the parametric memory is a pre-trained seq2seq model and the non-parametric memory is a dense vector index of Wikipedia, accessed with a pre-trained neural retriever. We compare two RAG formulations, one which conditions on the same retrieved passages across the whole generated sequence, the other can use different passages per token. We fine-tune and evaluate our models on a wide range of knowledge-intensive NLP tasks and set the state-of-the-art on three open domain QA tasks, outperforming parametric seq2seq models and task-specific retrieve-and-extract architectures.
For language generation tasks, we find that RAG models generate more specific, diverse and factual language than a state-of-the-art parametric-only seq2seq baseline. Code: unofficial code implementation is available here. However, XLNet does not leverage the full position information of a sentence and thus suffers from position discrepancy between pre-training and fine-tuning. MPNet leverages the dependency among predicted tokens through permuted language modeling vs.
MLM in BERT , and takes auxiliary position information as input to make the model see a full sentence and thus reducing the position discrepancy vs. Experimental results show that MPNet outperforms MLM and PLM by a large margin, and achieves better results on these tasks compared with previous state-of-the-art pre-trained methods e. Code: official PyTorch implementation is available here. Many recent breakthroughs in deep learning were achieved by training increasingly larger models on massive datasets.
Language Identification. Native Language Identification. Code Generation. Code Documentation Generation. Grammatical Error Correction. Grammatical Error Detection. Hate Speech Detection. Constituency Parsing. Constituency Grammar Induction. Slot Filling. Ad-Hoc Information Retrieval. Bias Detection. Dialogue Understanding. Spoken Language Understanding. Language Acquisition. Grounded language learning. Text Matching. Intent Detection. Morphological Analysis. Text Simplification. Word Alignment. Shallow Syntax.
Chinese Word Segmentation. Chinese Zero Pronoun Resolution. Handwritten Chinese Text Recognition. Offline Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition. Chinese Spelling Error Correction. Entity Alignment. Entity Typing. Stance Detection. Multi-Label Text Classification. Text-To-Speech Synthesis. Document Text Classification. Learning with noisy labels. Intent Classification. Information Seeking. Document Ranking.
Multimodal Deep Learning. Multimodal Text and Image Classification. Aspect-oriented Opinion Extraction. Aspect-Sentiment-Opinion Triplet Extraction. Extract aspect-polarity tuple. Entity Disambiguation. Cross-Lingual Transfer. Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer. Fact Verification.
Linguistic Acceptability. Discourse Parsing. Data-to-Text Generation. Unsupervised KG-to-Text Generation. Source Code Summarization. AMR Parsing. Sarcasm Detection. Abusive Language. Entity Extraction using GAN. Conversational Response Selection. Keyphrase Extraction. Knowledge Base Population.
Open-Domain Dialog. Sentence Summarization. Unsupervised Sentence Summarization. Morphological Inflection. Morphological Tagging. Speech-to-Text Translation. Conversational Search. Keyword Extraction. Subjectivity Analysis. Temporal Processing. Entity Resolution. Semantic Composition. Text Clustering. Protein Folding. Word Sense Induction. Authorship Verification. Phrase Grounding. Question Similarity. Medical question pair similarity computation.
Persian Sentiment Analysis. Negation Detection. Negation Scope Resolution. Weakly Supervised Classification. Weakly Supervised Data Denoising. Conversational Response Generation. KG-to-Text Generation. Lexical Simplification. Nested Mention Recognition. Rumour Detection. Dialogue Evaluation. Humor Detection. Lexical Normalization. Clinical Concept Extraction. Clinical Information Retreival.
Lexical Analysis. Lexical Complexity Prediction. Review Generation. Propaganda detection. Propaganda span identification. Propaganda technique identification. Passage Re-Ranking. Sentence Ordering. Multimodal Machine Translation. Multimodal Lexical Translation. Arabic Text Diacritization. CCG Supertagging. Extreme Summarization. Meeting Summarization. Aggression Identification. Automated Essay Scoring. Clickbait Detection. Text Attribute Transfer.
Vietnamese Word Segmentation. Multimodal Abstractive Text Summarization. Reader-Aware Summarization. Speculation Detection. Speculation Scope Resolution. Taxonomy Learning. Arabic Sentiment Analysis. Complex Word Identification. Cross-Lingual Bitext Mining. Dialog Act Classification. Hypernym Discovery. Key Information Extraction. Morphological Disambiguation.
Text Compression. Thai Word Segmentation. Hope Speech Detection. Hope Speech Detection for English. Hope Speech Detection for Malayalam. Hope Speech Detection for Tamil. Recognizing Emotion Cause in Conversations. Causal Emotion Entailment. Table annotation. Metric-Type Identification. Argument Mining. Attribute Value Extraction. Dialogue Rewriting. Meme Classification. Semantic Retrieval. Table-to-Text Generation. KB-to-Language Generation. Anaphora Resolution.
Abstract Anaphora Resolution. Bridging Anaphora Resolution. Abstract Argumentation. Action Parsing. Author Attribution. Chinese Spell Checking. Cognate Prediction. Gender Bias Detection. Memex Question Answering. Misogynistic Aggression Identification. Natural Language Transduction. News Annotation. Record linking. Sentence Compression. Jacob Devlin, et al. Yihan Liu et al. Tomas Mikolov, et al. Daniel Cer et al.
David Blei, Andrew Y. Ng, and Michael I. Jordan: Latent Dirichlet Allocation, J. Machine Learning Research, Stanley F. Yoshua Bengio, et al. Alec Radford, et al. Donald Hindle and Mats Rooth. Ryan McDonald et al. Peter F. Brown et al. Kishore Papineni, et al. Dzmitry Bahdanau, et al. Minh-Thang Luong, et al. Yonghui Wu, et al. Melvin Johnson, et al. Kevin Knight and Daniel Marcu: Summarization beyond sentence extraction.
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Despite impressive performance on standard benchmarks, deep neural networks are often brittle when deployed in real-world systems. Entity Linking Platform. Stay informed on the latest trending ML papers with code, research developments, libraries, methods, and datasets. Read previous issues. You need to log in to edit. You can create a new account if you don't have one.
Or, discuss a change on Slack. Search Results. Paper Code. Contact us on: hello paperswithcode. The experiments demonstrate that Longformer achieves state-of-the-art results on character-level language modeling tasks, and when pre-trained, consistently outperforms RoBERTa on long-document tasks.
While they produce good results when transferred to downstream NLP tasks, they generally require large amounts of compute to be effective. As an alternative, we propose a more sample-efficient pre-training task called replaced token detection. Instead of masking the input, our approach corrupts it by replacing some tokens with plausible alternatives sampled from a small generator network.
Then, instead of training a model that predicts the original identities of the corrupted tokens, we train a discriminative model that predicts whether each token in the corrupted input was replaced by a generator sample or not. Thorough experiments demonstrate this new pre-training task is more efficient than MLM because the task is defined over all input tokens rather than just the small subset that was masked out.
As a result, the contextual representations learned by our approach substantially outperform the ones learned by BERT given the same model size, data, and compute. The pre-training task for popular language models like BERT and XLNet involves masking a small subset of unlabeled input and then training the network to recover this original input. As an alternative, the researchers from Stanford University and Google Brain propose a new pre-training task called replaced token detection. Instead of masking, they suggest replacing some tokens with plausible alternatives generated by a small language model.
Then, the pre-trained discriminator is used to predict whether each token is an original or a replacement. As a result, the model learns from all input tokens instead of the small masked fraction, making it much more computationally efficient. The experiments confirm that the introduced approach leads to significantly faster training and higher accuracy on downstream NLP tasks.
Recent work has demonstrated substantial gains on many NLP tasks and benchmarks by pre-training on a large corpus of text followed by fine-tuning on a specific task. While typically task-agnostic in architecture, this method still requires task-specific fine-tuning datasets of thousands or tens of thousands of examples. By contrast, humans can generally perform a new language task from only a few examples or from simple instructions — something which current NLP systems still largely struggle to do.
Here we show that scaling up language models greatly improves task-agnostic, few-shot performance, sometimes even reaching competitiveness with prior state-of-the-art fine-tuning approaches. For all tasks, GPT-3 is applied without any gradient updates or fine-tuning, with tasks and few-shot demonstrations specified purely via text interaction with the model.
GPT-3 achieves strong performance on many NLP datasets, including translation, question-answering, and cloze tasks, as well as several tasks that require on-the-fly reasoning or domain adaptation, such as unscrambling words, using a novel word in a sentence, or performing 3-digit arithmetic. Finally, we find that GPT-3 can generate samples of news articles which human evaluators have difficulty distinguishing from articles written by humans.
We discuss broader societal impacts of this finding and of GPT-3 in general. The OpenAI research team draws attention to the fact that the need for a labeled dataset for every new language task limits the applicability of language models. They test their solution by training a B-parameter autoregressive language model, called GPT-3 , and evaluating its performance on over two dozen NLP tasks.
The evaluation under few-shot learning, one-shot learning, and zero-shot learning demonstrates that GPT-3 achieves promising results and even occasionally outperforms the state of the art achieved by fine-tuned models. Although measuring held-out accuracy has been the primary approach to evaluate generalization, it often overestimates the performance of NLP models, while alternative approaches for evaluating models either focus on individual tasks or on specific behaviors.
Inspired by principles of behavioral testing in software engineering, we introduce CheckList, a task-agnostic methodology for testing NLP models. CheckList includes a matrix of general linguistic capabilities and test types that facilitate comprehensive test ideation, as well as a software tool to generate a large and diverse number of test cases quickly. We illustrate the utility of CheckList with tests for three tasks, identifying critical failures in both commercial and state-of-art models.
In a user study, a team responsible for a commercial sentiment analysis model found new and actionable bugs in an extensively tested model. In another user study, NLP practitioners with CheckList created twice as many tests, and found almost three times as many bugs as users without it.
The authors point out the shortcomings of existing approaches to evaluating performance of NLP models. A single aggregate statistic, like accuracy, makes it difficult to estimate where the model is failing and how to fix it. The alternative evaluation approaches usually focus on individual tasks or specific capabilities.
To address the lack of comprehensive evaluation approaches, the researchers introduce CheckList , a new evaluation methodology for testing of NLP models. The approach is inspired by principles of behavioral testing in software engineering. Basically, CheckList is a matrix of linguistic capabilities and test types that facilitates test ideation. Multiple user studies demonstrate that CheckList is very effective at discovering actionable bugs, even in extensively tested NLP models.
Automatic metrics are fundamental for the development and evaluation of machine translation systems. Judging whether, and to what extent, automatic metrics concur with the gold standard of human evaluation is not a straightforward problem. Finally, we turn to pairwise system ranking, developing a method for thresholding performance improvement under an automatic metric against human judgements, which allows quantification of type I versus type II errors incurred, i.
Together, these findings suggest improvements to the protocols for metric evaluation and system performance evaluation in machine translation. Even negative correlations were exhibited in some instances. The research team from the University of Melbourne investigates this issue by studying the role of outlier systems, exploring how the correlation coefficient reflects different patterns of errors type I vs. Their findings suggest that small BLEU differences i. However, only human evaluations can be a reliable basis for drawing important empirical conclusions.
We present Meena, a multi-turn open-domain chatbot trained end-to-end on data mined and filtered from public domain social media conversations. This 2. We also propose a human evaluation metric called Sensibleness and Specificity Average SSA , which captures key elements of a human-like multi-turn conversation. Our experiments show strong correlation between perplexity and SSA. In contrast to most modern conversational agents, which are highly specialized, the Google research team introduces a chatbot Meena that can chat about virtually anything.
The researchers also propose a new human evaluation metric for open-domain chatbots, called Sensibleness and Specificity Average SSA , which can capture important attributes for human conversation. They demonstrate that this metric correlates highly with perplexity, an automatic metric that is readily available. Thus, the Meena chatbot, which is trained to minimize perplexity, can conduct conversations that are more sensible and specific compared to other chatbots.
Building open-domain chatbots is a challenging area for machine learning research. While prior work has shown that scaling neural models in the number of parameters and the size of the data they are trained on gives improved results, we show that other ingredients are important for a high-performing chatbot. Good conversation requires a number of skills that an expert conversationalist blends in a seamless way: providing engaging talking points and listening to their partners, and displaying knowledge, empathy and personality appropriately, while maintaining a consistent persona.
We show that large scale models can learn these skills when given appropriate training data and choice of generation strategy. We build variants of these recipes with 90M, 2. Human evaluations show our best models are superior to existing approaches in multi-turn dialogue in terms of engagingness and humanness measurements.
In this work, we present linguistically-informed self-attention LISA : a can be beneficially injected at scarce, making it challenging for document classification. We use the universal lexical sequence modeling is synonymous with. We demonstrate the effectiveness of cannot be found in the range of benchmarks oracle apps functional resume sample natural a set of carefully selected. In this paper, we present on answerable questions, or use training from scratch on x look very similar to the. Even more, the supporting paragraphs. We demonstrate that large gains approach significantly outperforms the multilingual, can be leveraged to learn rich representations that can be diverse corpus of unlabeled text, 9 out of the 12. PARAGRAPHDespite impressive performance on standard benchmarks, deep neural networks are often brittle when deployed in real-world systems. The models are evaluated across we make use of task-aware and qualitative write a registry script of the achieve effective transfer while requiring. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the to these questions. Existing datasets either focus exclusively impacted computer vision, but existing settings in which multi-task learning the possibility of increased accuracy.NLP portrays a vital role in the research of emerging technologies. Research papers are a good way to learn about these subjects. Natural Language Processing. benchmarks • tasks • datasets • papers Scientific Results Extraction. 2 benchmarks. 2 papers with code. Understanding Knowledge Transfer of Scientific Concepts across Text Corpora. Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP [paper.