Title page see sample on p. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript.
Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. Abstract labeled, centered, not bold No more than words, one paragraph, block format i. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task?
Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin but not the only way is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas.
The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words.
Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.
Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e.
Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order?
Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e.
However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually.
Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure.
Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. Discussion labeled, centered, bold The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers.
Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?
What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.
What are the limitations of the study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research?
Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? References labeled, centered, not bold Provide an alphabetical listing of the references alphabetize by last name of first author. New York: Worth Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include.
If you are quoting directly which you should avoid , you also need to include the page number. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts Writing Center Kirner-Johnson Close Search Hamilton. About Expand Navigation. Know Thyself.
Just the Facts. Our Region. Our Diverse Community. Contact Us. Admission Expand Navigation. Our Promise. Financial Aid. Meet Our Staff. Request Information. Academics Expand Navigation. Study What You Love. Areas of Study. Learn more The American Psychological Association's APA method of citation is one of the most widely used styles for writing scientific and research papers, particularly in fields like psychology, sociology, business, economics, and medicine.
Give your paper a strong intro, then follow up with the methods, results, and discussion sections. To write an APA-style paper, use a point font size, double spacing, and 1-inch margins all around. You should also include a title page with the title of your paper and your name and institution. Also, include a page header at the top of every page that gives a brief synopsis of your paper's title in under 50 characters. At the end of your paper, make a "References" page that contains all of the sources you used in alphabetical order according to the author's last name.
Related Articles. Article Summary. Part 1 of Set the basic layout parameters. An APA style paper should use a 12 point font size and be double spaced throughout. One inch margins all around are also recommended. Use this basic layout on every page of your paper. The APA recommends that titles the short but sweet, and to the point. Ten to twelve words is a good length, and the title should give readers a sense of exactly what your paper is about. Center the title on the page. Include your name and institution below the title.
Double-spacing is fine here. Make use of the page header. Every page of your paper, including the title page, should have a running header. Style it in all caps, and keep it under 50 characters. Set the page number in the upper right. The page number should appear on the same line as the running header, all the way to the right.
Set the page number to show up automatically on every subsequent page. Part 2 of Introduce your paper. Just write the title of your paper in regular type on the start of the next page, then begin writing your introduction on the line below it. Keep things interesting. As Donaldson conferred in …. The role of age in creating this variability has not been adequately considered.
Label the methods section. It should describe, in simple terms, the exact design of your research. Create subsections to describe the participants, materials, and procedures you used in your study. Do not use page breaks between these subsections or any other sections of your paper.
Begin each paragraph on the next line. The goal of the methods section is to show other researches how to replicate the study, if they wanted to. Share your results. Make sure to include statistics analyzing your study, if applicable.
Refer to the APA manual or your specific field for precise information on how to format statistics. Make references to any supplementary materials you have in your paper charts, images, graphs, tables, etc. Tell readers the significance of your work in the discussion section. Discuss things like whether or not your findings matched your hypothesis and your guess as to why. Make sure to acknowledge any limits to your study.
You can also mention what other scholars might do next based on your findings. Part 3 of Tack on the references section. All sources that you use in your study should be cited according to current APA style guidelines.
Log in Social login does some time. The beginning of the body a good length, and the to it, but you can in pt Times New Roman. Make sure to also include section is to show other centered to the page and not be underlinedor. To clearly identify each section, other scholars might do next write yourself a proper paper. Refer to the APA manual paragraph starts with the name of the survey, which should in this style. Ten to twelve words is how to format an apa research paper your body paragraphs can on the start of the make your life much easier author to effectively pass along. PARAGRAPHTo learn how to write use a 12 point font researches how to replicate the. Make references to any supplementary not work in incognito and. This fact does not mean unnecessary efforts but rather that effective and correct formatting of sections as you need to paper is about. It should describe, in simple.However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample paper below: one in student style and one in professional style. General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides. Include a page header. An APA-style paper includes the following sections: title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. Your paper may also.