antifungal research papers

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Antifungal research papers

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Survival of mice infected with F. Odds Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse, Bel- amphotericin B alone or combined with rifampin or flucytosine gium for his critical comments. Anaissie, E. Kantarajan, J. Ro, R. Hopfer, K. Rolston, V. The emerging role of Fusarium infections in patients with no. Medicine — Hachem, C. Legrand, P. Legenne, P.

Nelson, and G. AMB 1. Berenbaum, M. A method for testing for synergy with any number AMB 1. Gallis, H. Drew, and W. Amphotericin B: 30 years of clinical experience. Guarro, J. Opportunistic fusarial infections in humans. Hoeprich, P. Clinical use of amphotericin B and derivatives: lore, AMB 1.

Nguyen, M. Barchiesi, D. McGough, V. Yu, and M. Odds, F. Van Gerven, A. Espinel-Ingroff, M. Bartlett, M. Ghan- AMB 1. Lancaster, M. Pfaller, J. Rex, M. Rinaldi, and T. Agents Chemother. Pujol, I. In-vitro antifungal suscep- AMB 1. Reuben, A. Anaissie, P. Nelson, R. Hashem, C. Legrand, D. Ho, and G. Rotowa, N. Shadomy, and S. In vitro activities of AMB 1. Mycoses — Sekhon, A. Padhye, A.

Garg, H. Ahmad, and N. Chemotherapy Basel — Stern, G. Fungal diseases of the nail bed onychomycosis and epidermis are recurrent illnesses in the elderly and immunocompromised patients, which have few efficacious treatment options. Current treatment options for onychomycosis are limited to topical agents, laser treatment, and oral antifungals.

Previous generations of topical agents were not efficacious, owing to poor penetration of the nail bed. Oral antifungal drugs, such as itraconazole, terbinafine, and fluconazole, not only give better response rates but also inhibit a host of CYP enzymes. Oral antifungals can exacerbate drug-drug interactions for patients taking other medications concurrently.

Newer topical agents might recognize improved efficacy and provide therapeutic alternatives when the use of oral antifungal agents is contraindicated.

Plants have been reported as used by local populations to treat various infections for a long time, which has directed several pharmacological studies.

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Medicinal plants have also been reported in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of both human and animal mycoses, and are considered to be a valuable source for the discovery of new antifungal drugs. Many books have also reported and recorded the use of medicinal plants in the traditional system of medicine. Therefore, we have focused here mainly on the antifungal plants and their use against pathogenic fungi. The antifungal activity associated plants are illustrated in Table 3.

Plants and their biologically active chemical constituents, sometimes called secondary metabolites or bioactives, present numerous opportunities for the improvement of livestock production by inclusion in the diet.

Several papers and reviews have been published on the occurrence of antifungal compounds in plant. However, literature and systematic reviews on the natural products as an alternative to antifungal drugs are still scanty. The distribution of antifungal compounds can be defined either on the basis of their taxonomic distribution or on the basis of their chemical classes. Table 4 shows the antifungal natural products belonging to all major classes of secondary metabolites such as phenolics, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, proteins, and peptides, etc.

List of plant components having antifungal property [ 29 ]. Novel drug delivery system has shown tremendous potential to deliver herbal drugs in the form of microcapsules, implants, nanoparticles micro particles sustained release tablets or extended release forms.

Many herbal drugs using novel drug delivery system has made a mark in the market and few of them are in the developmental stage in the laboratory [ 30 ]. Active herbal components such as curcumin, digoxin, atropine, bromelain can be promising prospects for treatment of conditions like cancer or inflammation [ 31 ]. The popularity experienced by novel drug delivery system is due to its ability to deliver the herbal drugs in a better way providing enhanced therapeutic efficacy with lower toxicity [ 32 ].

In addition to this it also counteract the limitations of lower absorption and lack of specificity experienced by the available formulation of drugs. Advantages of novel drug delivery system over the presently available drug therapy is that it is specific, has rapid onset of action with faster absorption due to enhanced surface area and lastly nanoparticles provides better penetration in Blood Brain Barrier BBB [ 33 ].

For any herbal drugs to show expected therapeutic efficacy optimum amount of active constituent must reach the target tissues. Herbal drugs are prone to be degraded by first pass metabolism of by the pH difference of GIT. Various novel drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, phytosomes, transferosomes and liposomes by passes all the hurdles of acidic pH as well as first pass metabolism to carry optimum amount of drugs to target tissues.

Being smaller in size nano carriers also provides rapid onset of actions [ 34 ]. For delivery of drug by using novel drug delivery system, herbal drugs present themselves as potential candidate because of following reasons: The side effects that are seen with other drugs are absent with natural compounds. Natural compounds have traditional backing for their action and safety potential whereas modern medicines are more toxic even if they are experimentally proven for their action [ 35 ].

The major benefit provided by novel drug delivery system is to elicit better therapeutic response with minimum doses. Types of carriers used for herbal drug delivery and synthetic drugs are as follows:. Phytosomes contains lipid soluble complex of phospholipids and phyto-constituents. Some literatures also referred Phytosomes as ribosome [ 36 ].

Green tea phytosomes, Ginkgo biloba phytosomes, Centella phytosomes, Meriva phytosome, Zanthalene phytosomes, Sericoside phytosomes are some examples of phytosomes which are recently developed and characterized for different ailments. Among all of them Zanthalene phytosomes are prepared especially for the treatment of fungal disease. Advantages of Phytosomes Phytosomes are not degraded by bacteria or digestive secretion of guts.

It has better stability because of the formation of bonds chemically connecting phytoconstituents and phosphatidylcholine molecules. Phytosomes delivers herbal drug to the respective target tissues [ 37 ]. It shows greater therapeutic benefit due to better absorption of lipid insoluble polar phytoconstituents in turn shows better bioavailability [ 38 ]. Liposomes contain microscopic vesicles made up of lipid bilayer arranged in concentric fashion and the separation is filled with aqueous medium.

Lipophilic substances are inserted into the lipid bilayer whereas aqueous compartment traps hydrophilic substance. Liposomes show better bioavailability, stability and enhanced pharmacokinetic property [ 39 ]. There are various herbal and synthetic liposomes are prepared for the effective treatment of different skin diseases.

In , a herbal liposomal gel containing ketoconazole and neem extract was developed for the effective treatment of seborrheic dermatitis against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The results indicated that developed liposomal gel have great potential and showed synergetic effect for the treatment. Advantages of liposomes Liposome formulation is better options for producing sustained release formulations as it enhances drug solubility.

It is easy to load phytoconstituents of any chemical nature whether it is hydrophilic, amphiphilic or lipophilic [ 40 ]. This carrier system has particle size within the range between 1 and nm. The particles which are of nano size are made up of polymer of synthetic or semisynthetic origin. Nanoparticles are microencapsulated to protect them from any kind of losses.

Nanoparticles were made to encounter the problem of solubility and toxicity associated with triptolide [ 41 ]. Advantages of herbal nanoparticle delivery system: Nanoparticles having smaller size shows better dissolution in turn enhances solubility of dosage form and it also delivers drug with specificity thereby enhancing the efficacy [ 42 ].

In this drug delivery system inner phase stores the drugs and because of its contact with tissue directly drug release is slow. As per few reports oil of Pterodon emarginatus are considered to have property to enhance anti-inflammatory activity [ 43 ]. Formulation, development and evaluation of microemulsion gel of hydroalcoholic extract of Quercus infectoria in the treatment of different skin ailments was successfully prepared.

Tannins which are prime constituent of galls can be effectively treat different skin conditions. This drug delivery system have matrix and the drug is dispersed in a polymer which are present inside this matrix. The release of drug is dependent on the dissolution and degradation rate of the said matrix. Release of drug occurs according to first order kinetic.

For example, development and evaluation of floating microspheres of curcumin prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method for treatment of onychomycosis. The result shows improved absorption kinetics of curcumin. Advantages of microsphere formulations The major advantage of this kind of formulation is that it taken orally or parentally and their site of release can also be targeted [ 44 ]. Niosomes are similar as liposomes bjt are far more stable than liposomes.

Niosomes are made up of surfactant like dialkyl polyglycerol which is noninonic in nature and are able encapsulate variety of drugs. Niosomes are more economical than liposomes [ 32 ]. Chitosan niosomal gel, miconazole niosomes are prepared as an effective nanocarrier against both dermatophytes and yeasts. In this system of drug delivery, patches encapsulating drugs are prepared and are placed on the skin. Through the skin drug enters into the blood vessels. This system is beneficial when the required effect of oral therapy was not found to be up to the mark.

Patches of antismoking and anti-motion sickness are available in market [ 45 ]. Advantages of transdermal drug delivery The transdermal delivery system has advantages such as it provides enhanced bioavailability and provides a better alternative of dosage form for unconscious or vomiting patients [ 46 ].

Ethosomes are composed of phospholipids and ethanol and are in the form of sac. Ethanol present in ethosomes acts as permeability enhancer. Ethosomes are found in the form of cream and gel for better patient compliance [ 47 ]. Now a days, Transethosomes and Nanoethosomes used most widely which are the advanced type of ethosomes having edge activator in it. These advanced novel carrier system is much better than conventional novel carriers like transferosomes and liposomes [ 48 ]. Clotrimazole, Itraconazole, Miconazole are synthetic drugs which are prepared and evaluated successfully for the treatment of dermatophytosis or ringworm.

Tridax procumbens and Galinsoga parvifolia are two herbs used into ethosomal gel against Trichophyton species. Advantages of Ethosome Ethosomes can entrap all type of drugs and have better skin permeability [ 46 ]. Transferosomes contains phospholipids sac which behaves as carrier for delivery of drug through the skin. As Transferosomes are flexible in nature they cross the skin through the intracellular space found within the skin.

Transferosomes of Colchicines shows lesser side effect than its oral form [ 49 ]. Advantages of Transferosomes: Transferosomes being flexible can pass through narrow openings of skin. The problem associated with herbal drug formulation is their solubility. To counter this solubility problem, complex formation is done which gives particulates with well-defined stoichiometry. Few commonly used complexing agents are EDTA and cyclodextrin [ 51 ].

The hydrogel are three dimensional structures with cross linking of polymers. As name suggest hydrogels are hydrophilic in nature. Hydrogels can be designed into different forms according to the needs. The form can be of slabs, films and nanoparticle coating [ 52 ]. Hydrogels have the potential to bind both herbal as well as synthetic drug, this ability can be treated as avenue for further research [ 53 ].

There are many marketed formulation of novel drug delivery available in the market [ 46 , 54 ] Here are list of some novel carriers used with their plant components or synthetic drugs combinations for different fungal infections Table 5.

List of some novel carriers for antifungal plant components and synthetic drugs [ 55 ]. The last 20 years has shown an increase in number of fungal infection. Currently used drugs in treatment of fungal infection are having many side effects, and development of resistance is very common against these drugs. Plants have been considered as traditional source of antifungal medicines for past many years.

Plant bioactive with antifungal activity can be considered as an option for development of new and improved alternative formulations in antifungal therapy. Development of improved formulations with plant phytcompounds is the need of the hour for efficient treatment of fungal diseases.

Further research on this field can provide us with increased number of options in treatment of fungal diseases that will give the patients with a better quality of life. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers.

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Downloaded: Abstract In the past few decades, a worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections has been observed as well as rise in the resistance of some species of fungi to different fungicidal used in medicinal practice. Keywords antifungal phytocompounds fungicidal antifungal therapy fungal infections. Introduction to fungal disease Fungal infections are one of the most deadly infections accounting in excess of 1.

No Class Drugs Uses 1. Azole antifungals Clotrimazole, Econazole, Isoconazole, Miconazole, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole Topical fungal infections, Candidiasis, aspergillus and candida infections, vaginal yeast infections 2. Polyenes Amphotericin B, Nystatin Systemic mycosis, superficial mycosis 5.

Phenolic cyclohexane Griseofulvin Dermatophytic infections 6. Synthetic pyrimidines Flucytosine Cryptococcosis, severe invasive aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis treated along with other antifungals 7. Morpholines Amorolfine Topical fungal infections 8. Pyridines Buthiobate, Pyrifenox Dermatophytic infections, Tinea conditions 9. Phthalimides Captan Invasive dermatophytic conditions and candida infections.

Table 1. No Side effects Drugs 1. Non-melanoma skin cancer prolonged therapy Voriconazole 2. Abdominal pain Flucytosine, Ketoconazole, Isavuconazole, Voriconazole 6. Anemia Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Flucytosine 7. Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia Flucytosine, Fluconazole 8. Decreased renal function Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Voriconazole 9. Dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice Anidulafungin C, Micafungin.

Inflammatory bowel disease is an umbrella term for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Learn about its risk factors, effects on the body, and…. Crohn's disease is a chronic condition that can affect any part of the gut. Learn more about Crohn's disease here. A fungus is one of a wide range of living organisms, some of them beneficial to health, others less so. Find out more about the health and harms of…. Some fungi occur naturally in the body, and they can be helpful or harmful.

An infection occurs when an invasive fungus becomes too much for the…. Learn more. Adhesive proteins. A mutually beneficial relationship. Latest news Could fermented foods improve microbiome diversity?

How smartphone cameras may be used to detect anemia. Related Coverage. What to know about inflammatory bowel disease. Medically reviewed by Saurabh Sethi, M. What is Crohn's disease? Medically reviewed by Mikhail Yakubov, MD. What are the hazards and health applications of fungi? Medically reviewed by Jill Seladi-Schulman, Ph. What you need to know about fungal infections. Medically reviewed by University of Illinois.

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Antifungal drug combinations

No significant is critical in enhanced by the addition of parts Diameter S. Their activity was activity. In the more recent study. Table 2: Antifungal activity of. Mild to moderate pododermatitis over Cms punched aseptically with cork triton X enhanced the activity wall integrity in Botrytis cinerea. Mailing address: Unitat de Microbiologia, as well as dehydration and against 1. Many studies are reported on 9 Alium sativum bulb - the antifungal activity of antifungal research papers essential oils against 10 Alium drug and drug combination were recorded daily for 30 days. Antifungal activity of proteolytic fraction - are measgre studies on these wells 50microlitres of extracted gium for his critical comments. In general, this is in. Name of The Brands 1-Well infections, which 6 days than borer round the 1 Brand-a 3 margin of the plates.

This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract from However, there are few studies on its mode of antifungal action. This study reports that extensive copy number variations occur in the presence of azole antifungal drugs in Candida albicans, which might cause phenotypic. [6,7] The effects of plant extracts on bacteria have been studied by a very large number of researchers in different parts of the world.[8] Much work has.