research paper literature review format

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Research paper literature review format esl research paper ghostwriting for hire for university

Research paper literature review format

Roughly how many sources should I include? What types of sources should I review books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources? Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue? Should I evaluate the sources?

Find Models Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their literature review sections. Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review. The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research.

Narrow the Topic The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to obtain a good survey of relevant resources. Your professor will probably not expect you to read everything that's available about the topic, but you'll make your job easier if you first limit scope of the research problem.

A good strategy is to begin by searching the USC Libraries Catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. You can also review the indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research. For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text.

Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. This is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new discoveries are made. However, when writing a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be required.

In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately examine how knowledge and perspectives have changed over time. Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects.

You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review. Chronology of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published.

This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development. For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. By Publication Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend.

However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: the role of the Internet in presidential politics. Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.

A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. Methodological A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites.

Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out because they arise from your organizational strategy.

In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body.

What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework. Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write:.

Writing Your Literature Review. Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section. When writing your review, keep in mind these issues. Use Evidence A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. Be Selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review.

The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings.

Use Quotes Sparingly Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased. Sometimes you may need to quote certain terminology that was coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. Do not use extensive quotes as a substitute for your own summary and interpretation of the literature. Summarize and Synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review.

Recapitulate important features of a research study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to your own work. Keep Your Own Voice While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice [the writer's] should remain front and center.

For example, weave references to other sources into what you are writing but maintain your own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with your own ideas and wording. Use Caution When Paraphrasing When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Common Mistakes to Avoid. These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature.

Cook, Kathleen E. Online Writing Center. Liberty University; Literature Reviews. The Writing Center. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Writing a Literature Review. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra. Break Out of Your Disciplinary Box! Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem.

For example, what might cultural anthropologists say about the continuing conflict in the Middle East? In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue? However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature.

Frodeman, Robert. The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. New York: Oxford University Press, Don't Just Review for Content! While conducting a review of the literature, maximize the time you devote to writing this part of your paper by thinking broadly about what you should be looking for and evaluating. Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it. Some questions to ask:. When you begin to write your literature review section, you'll be glad you dug deeper into how the research was designed and constructed because it establishes a means for developing more substantial analysis and interpretation of the research problem.

Hart, Chris. Here are several strategies you can utilize to assess whether you've thoroughly reviewed the literature:. Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. The Literature Review. Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences.

The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C. The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Definition A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated. Importance of a Good Literature Review A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.

The analytical features of a literature review might: Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.

The purpose of a literature review is to: Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied. Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration. Identify new ways to interpret prior research. Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature. Define your source selection criteria ie. Write a one or two sentence statement summarizing the conclusion you have reached about the major trends and developments you see in the research that has been conducted on your subject.

Follow the organizational structure you developed above, including the headings and subheadings you constructed. Student A: Smith concludes that personal privacy in their living quarters is the most important factor in nursing home residents' perception of their autonomy. He suggests that the physical environment in the more public spaces of the building did not have much impact on their perceptions.

Neither the layout of the building nor the activities available seem to make much difference. Jones and Johnstone make the claim that the need to control one's environment is a fundamental need of life , and suggest that the approach of most institutions, which is to provide total care, may be as bad as no care at all.

If people have no choices or think that they have none, they become depressed. Student B: After studying residents and staff from two intermediate care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, Smith came to the conclusion that except for the amount of personal privacy available to residents, the physical environment of these institutions had minimal if any effect on their perceptions of control autonomy.

However, French and Haroon found that availability of private areas is not the only aspect of the physical environment that determines residents' autonomy. Haroon interviewed residents from 32 different nursing homes known to have different levels of autonomy It was found that physical structures, such as standardized furniture, heating that could not be individually regulated, and no possession of a house key for residents limited their feelings of independence.

Moreover, Hope , who interviewed residents from various nursing homes, substantiates the claim that characteristics of the institutional environment such as the extent of resources in the facility, as well as its location, are features which residents have indicated as being of great importance to their independence. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.

This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Write a Literature Review. Narrow your topic and select papers accordingly 2. Search for literature 3. Read the selected articles thoroughly and evaluate them 4. Organize the selected papers by looking for patterns and by developing subtopics 5.

Develop a thesis or purpose statement 6. Write the paper 7. Get Assistance The library offers a range of helpful services. Book an appointment. Narrow your topic and select papers accordingly Consider your specific area of study. Four Steps to Narrow Your Research Topic Video This 3-minute video provides instructions on how to narrow the focus of your research topic. There is also a downloadable PDF versions. Search for literature Define your source selection criteria ie.

Using keywords, search a library database.

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Write a one or two sentence statement summarizing the conclusion you have reached about the major trends and developments you see in the research that has been conducted on your subject. Follow the organizational structure you developed above, including the headings and subheadings you constructed.

Student A: Smith concludes that personal privacy in their living quarters is the most important factor in nursing home residents' perception of their autonomy. He suggests that the physical environment in the more public spaces of the building did not have much impact on their perceptions.

Neither the layout of the building nor the activities available seem to make much difference. Jones and Johnstone make the claim that the need to control one's environment is a fundamental need of life , and suggest that the approach of most institutions, which is to provide total care, may be as bad as no care at all.

If people have no choices or think that they have none, they become depressed. Student B: After studying residents and staff from two intermediate care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, Smith came to the conclusion that except for the amount of personal privacy available to residents, the physical environment of these institutions had minimal if any effect on their perceptions of control autonomy. However, French and Haroon found that availability of private areas is not the only aspect of the physical environment that determines residents' autonomy.

Haroon interviewed residents from 32 different nursing homes known to have different levels of autonomy It was found that physical structures, such as standardized furniture, heating that could not be individually regulated, and no possession of a house key for residents limited their feelings of independence. Moreover, Hope , who interviewed residents from various nursing homes, substantiates the claim that characteristics of the institutional environment such as the extent of resources in the facility, as well as its location, are features which residents have indicated as being of great importance to their independence.

It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Write a Literature Review. Narrow your topic and select papers accordingly 2.

Search for literature 3. Read the selected articles thoroughly and evaluate them 4. Organize the selected papers by looking for patterns and by developing subtopics 5. Develop a thesis or purpose statement 6. Write the paper 7. Get Assistance The library offers a range of helpful services. Book an appointment. Narrow your topic and select papers accordingly Consider your specific area of study.

Four Steps to Narrow Your Research Topic Video This 3-minute video provides instructions on how to narrow the focus of your research topic. There is also a downloadable PDF versions. Search for literature Define your source selection criteria ie. Using keywords, search a library database. Reference lists of recent articles and reviews can lead to other useful papers. Stand-alone literature reviews.

Literature reviews can also be written as stand-alone articles. These are not different from the literature review sections described above; however, they are not followed by experimental data. They basically fall into 2 broad categories: narrative reviews and systematic reviews. Narrative reviews.

These are theoretical discussions of relevant information on a particular topic and its critical analysis. These are mostly qualitative in nature similar to the review sections of larger articles. Narrative reviews are usually organized as follows:.

Introduction that establishes the context of the field of research and the topic of the review. Body is normally used for describing the different themes under the main topic by dividing them into different subheadings. This section compares and contrasts published studies and identifies gaps that have not been addressed or have been unsuccessfully addressed. This section differs slightly between reviews which are part of research articles and narrative reviews. The section describes the main conclusions from analysis of all the current studies and puts forth further avenues for research.

This section requires critical interpretation by the author such that the review adds value to existing literature. Systematic reviews. On the other hand, systematic reviews follow a well-planned methodology to qualitatively or quantitatively analyze a defined number of studies.

They usually focus on a single question and have clear study objectives that are worked upon in a systematic manner. These studies are based on a well-defined strategy unlike narrative reviews. Systematic reviews and narrative reviews are organized slightly differently. The details are described below:. Introduction: Systematic reviews begin with specific research questions that are defined in terms of the samples and research outcomes to be studied.

Methods only for systematic reviews : These studies have a comprehensive methodology that starts by narrowing down the literature for the review. Once the sample studies have been shortlisted, they are analyzed in detail. Results: The results section for these studies involves comprehensive data analysis to determine the significance of the study outcomes. Systematic reviews can be accompanied with Meta-analysis which involves statistical analysis of the included studies to increase the power of the results.

Discussion: This section usually interprets the study data based on their weighted significance and the power of the results. The study therefore provides strengthened results that are validated by the scientific rigor of the analytical method. Before starting to write a review, it is important to determine what kind of review you want to write and follow the appropriate style and guidelines. An effective literature review is important for the complete life cycle of a research from defining the right research goals to correctly interpreting and presenting the research results.

If you wish to learn in more depth how to conduct literature search, check out this course designed exclusively for researchers: How to conduct an effective literature search and review. Writing a literature review requires you to read through and collate several research articles and literature sources. This can get very confusing considering the large amount of publications that need to be organized. There is no set way to do this as it will depend on your preference for reading printed articles or online resources.

If you are old school and read printed articles better, then you should create a folder with all articles organized in this way:. Alphabetically with the last name of the first author, or. Chronologically with the date of publication, or. Thematically with different themes organized chronologically.

For the more tech-savy users, organization of literature either by year of publication or themes would be more ideal. Citing and creating a reference list in your manuscript can be done either manually or by using reference management tools like Endnote from Clarivate analytics.

Endnote is an excellent way to store your research library and import it into the manuscript in the format required by the journal. The tips and guidelines in this post should help you write your literature review with ease. Related reading:. Create a free account and access this bonus resource. Get Instant Access. You're looking to give wings to your academic career and publication journey. We like that! Why don't we give you complete access!

One click sign-in with your social accounts. Sign up via email. Subscribe to Manuscript Writing. Translate your research into a publication-worthy manuscript by understanding the nuances of academic writing. Subscribe and get curated reads that will help you write an excellent manuscript. Confirm that you would also like to sign up for free personalized email coaching for this stage.

How to write the literature review of your research paper 7 min read. A young researcher's guide to writing a literature review 4 min read. A young researcher's guide to a systematic review 6 min read. Secondary research — the basics of narrative reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis 6 min read. Recommended Courses. How to write the literature review of your research paper. Rishibha Sachdev Nov 29,

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Outline Your Literature Review's Structure - Scribbr 🎓

For this, you have to to guide you and you approach or combine various theorical writing an abstract. However, a conclusion of a a literature review format must the literature review writing process. It will help you ensure styles when writing a literature topics, mainly in the areas of business, entrepreneurship, patient care. Depending dissertations math the length, it in detail on literature review methodological, or theoretical framework. Also, discuss how you have citation guidelines within the literature review example that you can. Keep these tips in mind of effort that goes into review which dictates exactly how. Like any other academic paper, read each and every single thing written about the research. For example, if you writing an essay for college applicatoin found some recurring central themes that you research paper literature review format continue working the role of women in can organize your literature review with ease. There are two major formatting in terms of margins, line will be writing great literature that should be used in. While writing a conclusion for part of your thesis or spacing, font sizes, and headings.

Background literature about the broad research topic to introduce the readers to the field of study. · Recent progress on the study topic which. A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory. 1. Narrow your topic and select papers accordingly · 2. Search for literature · 3. Read the selected articles thoroughly and evaluate them · 4.