how to write pl sql program

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They will instead make a cash settlement, which reflects the market value at the time the loss happened. This is so a prospective buyer knows a vehicle was previously written off when conducting vehicle history checks. These checks also cover whether the vehicle is stolen or has outstanding finance, too. So, what do the categories mean?

How to write pl sql program how to write an essay outline video

How to write pl sql program

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This data line is specified by a cursor. By moving the cursor, we can extract the whole data of a current line. There are two types of cursor: Explicit cursor Implicit cursor. The concept of explicit means when using it you need to write the statement of opening and closing cursor distinctly. To implicit cursor, you needn't write opening and closing statements. Declare -- Declaring a Cursor with 2 parameters. Use the 'for loop' to fetch the cursor, with the syntax:.

A group of statements performing some function can be gathered in a procedure for the purpose of increasing the capability of handling, Reuse, security, data safety, and utility in development. Procedure can be saved on database as a object of database and ready for reuse. Procedure then is called Stored procedure. For procedure, after procedure is saved, it is translated into p-code so its performing capability is raised.

End; -- For example a procedure with parameters -- input parameters, and output parameters. This example will be a model helping you both programme and check error if there is any problem. Enter the name of procedure, and parameters will be written later:. However, you need to correct the list of parameters and write code to this procedure. Click Execute or F8 to compile the procedure. Test different case with:. This makes it easy find out positions of arising errors.

You can watch the instruction at:. Unlike procedure, a function will return a value right on its call. Functions are also saved on database in form of Stored procedure. Select Emp. A package is structured with two parts. Specification part defines potential interactions between the package with outsides. The Body part has the codes for various methods declared in the package specification and other private declarations, which are hidden from code outside the package.

The structure of package includes 5 components:. Public variable: is a variable that outside applications can make reference to. Public procedure: include functions and procedures of package that can be called by outside applications. Private procedure: is functions and procedures available in package and they only can be called by other functions or procedures in the package.

Global variable: is a variable that is declared and used in the whole package; outside applications can make reference to this variable. Private variable: is a variable that is declared in a function or procedure of the package. Only these functions or procedures can make reference to it. You can delete all of them. This helps you detect errors during programming process.

Using only a web browser and limited programming experience, you can develop and deploy professional applications that are both fast and secure. Oracle application express combines the qualities of a personal database, productivity, ease of use, and flexibility with the qualities of an enterprise database, security, integrity, scalability, availability and built for the web.

Labeling loops also help in taking the control outside a loop. Click the following links to check their details. Causes the loop to skip the remainder of its body and immediately retest its condition prior to reiterating. Transfers control to the labeled statement. Though it is not advised to use the GOTO statement in your program. The characters could be numeric, letters, blank, special characters or a combination of all.

The string is right-padded with spaces to the length so specified. A string literal is enclosed within quotation marks. For example,. To include a single quote inside a string literal, you need to type two single quotes next to one another. The datatypes prefixed with an 'N' are 'national character set' datatypes, that store Unicode character data. If you need to declare a variable-length string, you must provide the maximum length of that string. To declare a fixed-length string, use the CHAR datatype.

Here you do not have to specify a maximum length for a fixed-length variable. If you leave off the length constraint, Oracle Database automatically uses a maximum length required. Pads x with spaces to the left, to bring the total length of the string up to width characters. Changes the method of sorting the characters. Must be specified before any NLS function; otherwise, the default sort will be used.

Returns a substring of x that begins at the position specified by start. An optional length for the substring may be supplied. Same as SUBSTR except that the parameters are expressed in bytes instead of characters for the single-byte character systems.

A varray is used to store an ordered collection of data, however it is often better to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type. All varrays consist of contiguous memory locations. The lowest address corresponds to the first element and the highest address to the last element.

An array is a part of collection type data and it stands for variable-size arrays. Each element in a varray has an index associated with it. It also has a maximum size that can be changed dynamically. You must specify the maximum size and the type of elements stored in the varray. You can initialize the varray elements using the constructor method of the varray type, which has the same name as the varray.

A varray is automatically NULL when it is declared and must be initialized before its elements can be referenced. Following example makes the use of cursor , which you will study in detail in a separate chapter. These subprograms are combined to form larger programs. This is basically called the 'Modular design'. A subprogram can be invoked by another subprogram or program which is called the calling program.

At the schema level, subprogram is a standalone subprogram. A subprogram created inside a package is a packaged subprogram. It is an optional part. It contains declarations of types, cursors, constants, variables, exceptions, and nested subprograms. These items are local to the subprogram and cease to exist when the subprogram completes execution. The optional parameter list contains name, mode and types of the parameters.

IN represents the value that will be passed from outside and OUT represents the parameter that will be used to return a value outside of the procedure. The following example creates a simple procedure that displays the string 'Hello World! An IN parameter lets you pass a value to the subprogram. It is a read-only parameter.

Inside the subprogram, an IN parameter acts like a constant. It cannot be assigned a value. You can pass a constant, literal, initialized variable, or expression as an IN parameter. You can also initialize it to a default value; however, in that case, it is omitted from the subprogram call.

It is the default mode of parameter passing. Parameters are passed by reference. An OUT parameter returns a value to the calling program. Inside the subprogram, an OUT parameter acts like a variable. You can change its value and reference the value after assigning it. The actual parameter must be variable and it is passed by value.

An IN OUT parameter passes an initial value to a subprogram and returns an updated value to the caller. It can be assigned a value and the value can be read. The actual parameter corresponding to an IN OUT formal parameter must be a variable, not a constant or an expression.

Formal parameter must be assigned a value. Actual parameter is passed by value. This program finds the minimum of two values. Here, the procedure takes two numbers using the IN mode and returns their minimum using the OUT parameters. This procedure computes the square of value of a passed value.

This example shows how we can use the same parameter to accept a value and then return another result. In positional notation, the first actual parameter is substituted for the first formal parameter; the second actual parameter is substituted for the second formal parameter, and so on. So, a is substituted for x, b is substituted for y, c is substituted for z and d is substituted for m. In mixed notation, you can mix both notations in procedure call; however, the positional notation should precede the named notation.

A function is same as a procedure except that it returns a value. Therefore, all the discussions of the previous chapter are true for functions too. The following example illustrates how to create and call a standalone function. While creating a function, you give a definition of what the function has to do.

To use a function, you will have to call that function to perform the defined task. When a program calls a function, the program control is transferred to the called function. A called function performs the defined task and when its return statement is executed or when the last end statement is reached, it returns the program control back to the main program. To call a function, you simply need to pass the required parameters along with the function name and if the function returns a value, then you can store the returned value.

We have seen that a program or subprogram may call another subprogram. When a subprogram calls itself, it is referred to as a recursive call and the process is known as recursion. To illustrate the concept, let us calculate the factorial of a number.

Oracle creates a memory area, known as the context area, for processing an SQL statement, which contains all the information needed for processing the statement; for example, the number of rows processed, etc. A cursor is a pointer to this context area. A cursor holds the rows one or more returned by a SQL statement. The set of rows the cursor holds is referred to as the active set. You can name a cursor so that it could be referred to in a program to fetch and process the rows returned by the SQL statement, one at a time.

Implicit cursors are automatically created by Oracle whenever an SQL statement is executed, when there is no explicit cursor for the statement. Programmers cannot control the implicit cursors and the information in it. Explicit cursors are programmer-defined cursors for gaining more control over the context area. Opening the cursor allocates the memory for the cursor and makes it ready for fetching the rows returned by the SQL statement into it.

Fetching the cursor involves accessing one row at a time. Closing the cursor means releasing the allocated memory. A record is a data structure that can hold data items of different kinds. Records consist of different fields, similar to a row of a database table. For example, you want to keep track of your books in a library. A record containing a field for each of these items allows treating a BOOK as a logical unit and allows you to organize and represent its information in a better way.

The following example illustrates the concept of table-based records. The following example illustrates the concept of cursor-based records. These records consist of different fields. Suppose you want to keep track of your books in a library. To access any field of a record, we use the dot. The member access operator is coded as a period between the record variable name and the field that we wish to access. You can pass a record as a subprogram parameter just as you pass any other variable.

An exception is an error condition during a program execution. The general syntax for exception handling is as follows. Here you can list down as many exceptions as you can handle. Let us write a code to illustrate the concept. The above program displays the name and address of a customer whose ID is given. Exceptions are raised by the database server automatically whenever there is any internal database error, but exceptions can be raised explicitly by the programmer by using the command RAISE.

You can use the above syntax in raising the Oracle standard exception or any user-defined exception. In the next section, we will give you an example on raising a user-defined exception. You can raise the Oracle standard exceptions in a similar way. Triggers are stored programs, which are automatically executed or fired when some events occur. Triggers can be defined on the table, view, schema, or database with which the event is associated. Otherwise the trigger will execute just once when the SQL statement is executed, which is called a table level trigger.

This clause is valid only for row-level triggers. OLD and NEW references are not available for table-level triggers, rather you can use them for record-level triggers. If you want to query the table in the same trigger, then you should use the AFTER keyword, because triggers can query the table or change it again only after the initial changes are applied and the table is back in a consistent state.

Because this is a new record, old salary is not available and the above result comes as null. The specification is the interface to the package. In other words, it contains all information about the content of the package, but excludes the code for the subprograms. All objects placed in the specification are called public objects. Any subprogram not in the package specification but coded in the package body is called a private object. The following code snippet shows a package specification having a single procedure.

You can have many global variables defined and multiple procedures or functions inside a package. The package body has the codes for various methods declared in the package specification and other private declarations, which are hidden from the code outside the package.

The following program provides a more complete package. The above example makes use of the nested table. We will discuss the concept of nested table in the next chapter. A collection is an ordered group of elements having the same data type. Each element is identified by a unique subscript that represents its position in the collection. However, these two types of tables differ in one aspect; the nested tables can be stored in a database column and the index-by tables cannot.

An index-by table also called an associative array is a set of key-value pairs. Each key is unique and is used to locate the corresponding value. The key can be either an integer or a string. An index-by table is created using the following syntax. Following example shows how to create a table to store integer values along with names and later it prints the same list of names. A nested table is like a one-dimensional array with an arbitrary number of elements. An array has a declared number of elements, but a nested table does not.

The size of a nested table can increase dynamically. An array is always dense, i. A nested array is dense initially, but it can become sparse when elements are deleted from it. A nested table can be stored in a database column. It can further be used for simplifying SQL operations where you join a single-column table with a larger table. An associative array cannot be stored in the database. Removes the n th element from an associative array with a numeric key or a nested table.

If the associative array has a string key, the element corresponding to the key value is deleted. Removes all elements in the range m.. A database transaction is an atomic unit of work that may consist of one or more related SQL statements. It is called atomic because the database modifications brought about by the SQL statements that constitute a transaction can collectively be either committed, i.

A successfully executed SQL statement and a committed transaction are not same. Even if an SQL statement is executed successfully, unless the transaction containing the statement is committed, it can be rolled back and all changes made by the statement s can be undone. A transaction has a beginning and an end.

When a transaction is aborted due to some unprecedented situation, like system failure, the entire transaction since a commit is automatically rolled back. Savepoints are sort of markers that help in splitting a long transaction into smaller units by setting some checkpoints. By setting savepoints within a long transaction, you can roll back to a checkpoint if required. Both datetime and interval data types consist of fields. The values of these fields determine the value of the data type.

The following table lists the fields and their possible values for datetimes and intervals. It stores date and time information in both character and number datatypes. It is made of information on century, year, month, date, hour, minute, and second. It is an extension of the DATE data type. It stores the year, month, and day of the DATE datatype, along with hour, minute, and second values. It is useful for storing precise time values.

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A literal is a particular numeric, character, string, or Boolean value which is not represented by an identifier. An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform some specific mathematical or logical operations. Following types of operators:.

Suppose we have two variables a and b with the values 2 and 40 respectively. We will perform the arithmetic operation on both the variables. Relational operators are used to perform comparison between two expressions or values and provide a Boolean value as a result. Comparison operators are used for comparing one expression to a different one. Comparison operator is mainly in SQL statements. Logical operators are used to perform comparison between two expressions or values and provide a Boolean value as a result.

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You have entered an incorrect email address! What is Artificial Intelligence? What is Machine Learning? What is Data Science? It is a signed integer in the range of -2,,, through 2,,,, represented in 32 bits memory. This datatype is a Fixed-point or floating-point number with fixed value in the range of 1E to not inclusive 1. It is an ANSI specified floating-point type with maximum precision of binary digits i.

It is a Floating-point type with maximum precision of 63 binary digits i. This is a variable-length national character string data type with a maximum size of 32, bytes. This is a physical row identifier. This data type stores the address of a row in an ordinary table. This datatype is used to store large binary objects in operating system files outside the database. It is system-dependent and cannot exceed 4 gigabytes GB.

This datatype is used to store large binary objects in the database and in the range of 8 to terabytes TB. This datatype is used to store large blocks of character data in the database in the range of 8 to TB. This operator is used to check if the values of two operands here, a and b are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true and returns also true.

These all three operators perform the same type of task. They check whether the values of operands here a and b are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true and returns also true. This operator is used to check whether the value of operand a is greater than the value of operand b.

If a is greater than b then condition becomes true and returns also true. This operator is used to check whether the value of operand a is less than the value of operand b. If a is less than b then condition becomes true and returns also true. This operator is used to check whether the value of operand a is greater than equal to the value of operand b.

If a is greater than equal to b then condition becomes true and returns also true. This operator is used to check whether the value of operand a is less than equal to the value of operand b. If a is less than equal to b then condition becomes true and returns also true. This operator is used to check for any null or not null value in the table. This is logical AND operator. It lies between two conditions to check both the conditions at the same time. Finally, just press Enter to execute the code, if it is not already executed.

It is an optional section and defines all variables, cursors, subprograms, and other elements to be used in the program. It should have at least one executable line of code, which may be just a NULL command to indicate that nothing should be executed. This optional section contains exception s that handle errors in the program. The identifiers consist of a letter optionally followed by more letters, numerals, dollar signs, underscores, and number signs and should not exceed 30 characters.

By default, identifiers are not case-sensitive. You cannot use a reserved keyword as an identifier. A delimiter is a symbol with a special meaning. All programming languages allow some form of comments. The other two data types will be covered in other chapters. Pointers to large objects that are stored separately from other data items, such as text, graphic images, video clips, and sound waveforms.

Data items that have internal components that can be accessed individually. For example, collections and records. Fixed-point or floating-point number with absolute value in range 1E to but not including 1. ANSI specific floating-point type with maximum precision of binary digits approximately 38 decimal digits. ANSI and IBM specific floating-point type with maximum precision of binary digits approximately 38 decimal digits.

The DATE datatype is used to store fixed-length datetimes, which include the time of day in seconds since midnight. For example, the default might be 'DD-MON-YY', which includes a two-digit number for the day of the month, an abbreviation of the month name, and the last two digits of the year. For example, OCT Each DATE includes the century, year, month, day, hour, minute, and second.

Large Object LOB data types refer to large data items such as text, graphic images, video clips, and sound waveforms. LOB data types allow efficient, random, piecewise access to this data. A subtype is a subset of another data type, which is called its base type. A subtype has the same valid operations as its base type, but only a subset of its valid values. You can define and use your own subtypes.

A null can be assigned but it cannot be equated with anything, including itself. A variable is nothing but a name given to a storage area that our programs can manipulate. By default, variable names are not case-sensitive. For this chapter, let us study only basic variable types. When you provide a size, scale or precision limit with the data type, it is called a constrained declaration. Constrained declarations require less memory than unconstrained declarations.

It is a good programming practice to initialize variables properly otherwise, sometimes programs would produce unexpected results. If a variable is declared within an inner block, it is not accessible to the outer block. However, if a variable is declared and accessible to an outer block, it is also accessible to all nested inner blocks. The following example illustrates the concept. A constant holds a value that once declared, does not change in the program.

A constant declaration specifies its name, data type, and value, and allocates storage for it. It requires an initial value and does not allow that value to be changed. A literal is an explicit numeric, character, string, or Boolean value not represented by an identifier. An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulation. Here, we will understand the arithmetic, relational, comparison and logical operators one by one.

Show Examples. Relational operators compare two expressions or values and return a Boolean result. Comparison operators are used for comparing one expression to another. All these operators work on Boolean operands and produce Boolean results. Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression. This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator.

Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators will be evaluated first. Decision-making structures require that the programmer specify one or more conditions to be evaluated or tested by the program, along with a statement or statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be true, and optionally, other statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be false.

Following is the general form of a typical conditional i. Click the following links to check their detail. If the condition is true, the statements get executed and if the condition is false or NULL then the IF statement does nothing. If the condition is false or NULL, then only the alternative sequence of statements get executed. It ensures that either of the sequence of statements is executed. However, to select the sequence, the CASE statement uses a selector rather than multiple Boolean expressions.

A selector is an expression whose value is used to select one of several alternatives. There may be a situation when you need to execute a block of code several number of times. In general, statements are executed sequentially: The first statement in a function is executed first, followed by the second, and so on. Programming languages provide various control structures that allow for more complicated execution paths.

At each iteration, the sequence of statements is executed and then control resumes at the top of the loop. Repeats a statement or group of statements while a given condition is true. It tests the condition before executing the loop body. Execute a sequence of statements multiple times and abbreviates the code that manages the loop variable.

The label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement. You may use the label in the EXIT statement to exit from the loop. Loop control statements change execution from its normal sequence. When execution leaves a scope, all automatic objects that were created in that scope are destroyed.

Labeling loops also help in taking the control outside a loop. Click the following links to check their details. Causes the loop to skip the remainder of its body and immediately retest its condition prior to reiterating. Transfers control to the labeled statement. Though it is not advised to use the GOTO statement in your program. The characters could be numeric, letters, blank, special characters or a combination of all. The string is right-padded with spaces to the length so specified.

A string literal is enclosed within quotation marks. For example,. To include a single quote inside a string literal, you need to type two single quotes next to one another. The datatypes prefixed with an 'N' are 'national character set' datatypes, that store Unicode character data.

If you need to declare a variable-length string, you must provide the maximum length of that string. To declare a fixed-length string, use the CHAR datatype. Here you do not have to specify a maximum length for a fixed-length variable. If you leave off the length constraint, Oracle Database automatically uses a maximum length required. Pads x with spaces to the left, to bring the total length of the string up to width characters. Changes the method of sorting the characters.

Must be specified before any NLS function; otherwise, the default sort will be used. Returns a substring of x that begins at the position specified by start. An optional length for the substring may be supplied. Same as SUBSTR except that the parameters are expressed in bytes instead of characters for the single-byte character systems. A varray is used to store an ordered collection of data, however it is often better to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type.

All varrays consist of contiguous memory locations. The lowest address corresponds to the first element and the highest address to the last element. An array is a part of collection type data and it stands for variable-size arrays. Each element in a varray has an index associated with it. It also has a maximum size that can be changed dynamically. You must specify the maximum size and the type of elements stored in the varray.

You can initialize the varray elements using the constructor method of the varray type, which has the same name as the varray. A varray is automatically NULL when it is declared and must be initialized before its elements can be referenced. Following example makes the use of cursor , which you will study in detail in a separate chapter. These subprograms are combined to form larger programs.

This is basically called the 'Modular design'. A subprogram can be invoked by another subprogram or program which is called the calling program. At the schema level, subprogram is a standalone subprogram. A subprogram created inside a package is a packaged subprogram. It is an optional part. It contains declarations of types, cursors, constants, variables, exceptions, and nested subprograms. These items are local to the subprogram and cease to exist when the subprogram completes execution.

The optional parameter list contains name, mode and types of the parameters. IN represents the value that will be passed from outside and OUT represents the parameter that will be used to return a value outside of the procedure. The following example creates a simple procedure that displays the string 'Hello World! An IN parameter lets you pass a value to the subprogram. It is a read-only parameter. Inside the subprogram, an IN parameter acts like a constant.

It cannot be assigned a value. You can pass a constant, literal, initialized variable, or expression as an IN parameter. You can also initialize it to a default value; however, in that case, it is omitted from the subprogram call. It is the default mode of parameter passing. Parameters are passed by reference. An OUT parameter returns a value to the calling program.

Inside the subprogram, an OUT parameter acts like a variable. You can change its value and reference the value after assigning it. The actual parameter must be variable and it is passed by value. An IN OUT parameter passes an initial value to a subprogram and returns an updated value to the caller.

It can be assigned a value and the value can be read. The actual parameter corresponding to an IN OUT formal parameter must be a variable, not a constant or an expression. Formal parameter must be assigned a value. Actual parameter is passed by value.

This program finds the minimum of two values. Here, the procedure takes two numbers using the IN mode and returns their minimum using the OUT parameters. This procedure computes the square of value of a passed value. This example shows how we can use the same parameter to accept a value and then return another result. In positional notation, the first actual parameter is substituted for the first formal parameter; the second actual parameter is substituted for the second formal parameter, and so on.

So, a is substituted for x, b is substituted for y, c is substituted for z and d is substituted for m. In mixed notation, you can mix both notations in procedure call; however, the positional notation should precede the named notation. A function is same as a procedure except that it returns a value. Therefore, all the discussions of the previous chapter are true for functions too.

The following example illustrates how to create and call a standalone function. While creating a function, you give a definition of what the function has to do. To use a function, you will have to call that function to perform the defined task. When a program calls a function, the program control is transferred to the called function. A called function performs the defined task and when its return statement is executed or when the last end statement is reached, it returns the program control back to the main program.

To call a function, you simply need to pass the required parameters along with the function name and if the function returns a value, then you can store the returned value. We have seen that a program or subprogram may call another subprogram. When a subprogram calls itself, it is referred to as a recursive call and the process is known as recursion. To illustrate the concept, let us calculate the factorial of a number.

Oracle creates a memory area, known as the context area, for processing an SQL statement, which contains all the information needed for processing the statement; for example, the number of rows processed, etc. A cursor is a pointer to this context area. A cursor holds the rows one or more returned by a SQL statement.

The set of rows the cursor holds is referred to as the active set. You can name a cursor so that it could be referred to in a program to fetch and process the rows returned by the SQL statement, one at a time. Implicit cursors are automatically created by Oracle whenever an SQL statement is executed, when there is no explicit cursor for the statement. Programmers cannot control the implicit cursors and the information in it.

Explicit cursors are programmer-defined cursors for gaining more control over the context area. Opening the cursor allocates the memory for the cursor and makes it ready for fetching the rows returned by the SQL statement into it. Fetching the cursor involves accessing one row at a time. Closing the cursor means releasing the allocated memory.

A record is a data structure that can hold data items of different kinds. Records consist of different fields, similar to a row of a database table. For example, you want to keep track of your books in a library.

All the sample programs in this appendix and several others throughout this guide are available online.

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How to write pl sql program Constrained declarations occupy less memory than unconstrained declarations. A nested array is dense initially, but it can become sparse when elements are deleted from it. Create it. After providing the commands to the prompt, the commands are then sent to the database for processing. At the schema level, subprogram is a standalone subprogram. You will understand it through examples in the next sections.
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Learn more. Ask Question. Asked 3 years, 11 months ago. Active 8 months ago. Viewed 13k times. Improve this question. I'm confused as far as I know mysql workbench only works with mysql but the code looks like plsql. Salmon Aug 11 '17 at Show 2 more comments. Active Oldest Votes. From the doc : By default, mysql itself recognizes the semicolon as a statement delimiter, so you must redefine the delimiter temporarily to cause mysql to pass the entire stored program definition to the server.

Improve this answer. Add a comment. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. While creating a function, you give a definition of what the function has to do.

To use a function, you will have to call that function to perform the defined task. When a program calls a function, the program control is transferred to the called function. A called function performs the defined task and when its return statement is executed or when the last end statement is reached, it returns the program control back to the main program.

To call a function, you simply need to pass the required parameters along with the function name and if the function returns a value, then you can store the returned value. We have seen that a program or subprogram may call another subprogram. When a subprogram calls itself, it is referred to as a recursive call and the process is known as recursion.

To illustrate the concept, let us calculate the factorial of a number.