free research papers on phytochemicals

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Free research papers on phytochemicals

A: Polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins contents. Results for crude extract CE of C. Figure 1. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the crude extract of C. Figure 2. Different letters represent statistical differences according to the Tukey test. Table 3. Results of antimicrobial activity for hexane fraction of C. Table 4. Figure 3. Figure 4. LC 50 The test was effected in quadruplicate. Figure 5. PQ poisoning control trial represented by mortality number of dead individuals per group.

Figure 6. Effect of C. References V. View at: Google Scholar X. Tian, J. Feng, Z. Ma et al. Egamberdieva, N. Mamedov, E. Ovidi, A. Tiezzi, and L. View at: Google Scholar S. Pradeepa, S. Subramanian, and V. View at: Google Scholar M. Ayres, M. Chaves, D. Rinaldo, W. Vilegas, and G. Ulewicz-Magulska and M. Vasconcelos, M. Goulart, J. Moura, V. Manfredini, M. Benfato, and L. Clarke, S. Rates, and R. View at: Google Scholar G. View at: Google Scholar K. Kissmann and D.

Lorenzi and F. Cabrera and R. Reitz, Ed. View at: Google Scholar E. Pasini, L. Katinas, and M. Empinotti and M. View at: Google Scholar B. Badilla, G. Mora, and L. Souza, A. Haas, G. Schapoval, and E. Truiti and M. Truiti, M. Sarragiotto, B. Abreu Filho, C. Nakamura, and B. Osafo, K. Mensah, and O. Chandra and E. Woisky and A. Morrison, E. Asiedu, T. Stuchbury, and A. Vieira, R. Grayer, A. Paton, and J. Choi, S. Kim, S. Hwang et al. Rufino, R. Alves, E.

Brito et al. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, and K. Levine, D. Garland, C. Oliver et al. Myrhe, J. Andersen, H. Aarnes, and F. Silva, C. Heldwein, L. Reetz, R. Mallmann, and B. Tedesco and H. Srivastava, Ed. Guerra and M. Soares, M. Gayer et al. Rzezniczak, L. Douglas, J. Watterson, and T. Jahromi, M. Haddadi, T. Shivanandappa, and S. Soares, D. Rodrigues, M. Pretti, A. Luz, C. Jamal, and M. Oliveira and D. Pero, H. Lund, and T. Xiang, Q. Xiong, A. Ketut et al. Inbathamizh and E. View at: Google Scholar H.

Wei, S. Kim, Z. Zhang et al. Yang, Y. Dong, H. Du, H. Shi, Y. Peng, and X. Azadbakht, A. Marston, K. Hostettmann, M. Ramezani, and M. View at: Google Scholar J. Quintus, K. Kovar, P. Link, and H. Gruz, O. Magee, F. Liebel, and M. View at: Google Scholar C. Schenkel, G. Gosmann, J. Mello, L. Mentz, and P.

Santos, W. Costa, J. Ribeiro et al. Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, A. Pliszko, J. Nazaruk, E. Barszczewska, and W. Johari and H. Granato, M. Gerenutti, G. Silva, H. Ferraz, and M. View at: Google Scholar L. Cuervo, N. Salazar, P. Ruas-Madiedo, M. Gueimonde, and S. Omes, P. Nogueira, and S. Ghani, C. Barril, D. Bedgood, and P. Fabri, M. Nogueira, L. Dutra, M. Bouzada, and E. Gindri, L. Cruz, A. Boligon, M. Machado, and M. Bahramikia, A. Ardestani, and R.

Lima and D. Barbosa, N. Costa, R. Alfenas, S. Minim, and J. Dias, E. Junn, and M. Budni, F. Petronilho, V. Citadini-Zanette et al. Santana, O. Silva, M. View at: Google Scholar R. Azevedo, V. Almeida, E. Silva et al. Santi, F. Sanches, J. Silva, and P. Zadra, M. Piana et al.

Paula, V. Canteli, M. Verdam et al. Lund, M. Heinonen, C. Baron, and M. Alkaya, and E. Maddila and K. Heinrich, M. Kunhnt, C. Wright, H. Rimpler, J. Phillipson, and A. Nurtjahja, T. Kelana, D. Suryanto et al. Janovik, A. Boligon, A. Feltrin, D. Pereira, J. Frohlich, and M. Sarmento, T. Barbosa, J. Amarante, A.

Nguta, J. Mbaria, D. Gakuya, P. Gathumbi, J. Kabasa, and S. Mayorga, K. Caceres, and A. Nayeem, A. Khatun, M. Rahman, and M. Bagatini, A. Silva, and S. Chukwujekwu and J. Prajitha and J. Hister, M. Pasqualli, K.

Trapp et al. View at: Google Scholar V. Frescura, H. Laughinghouse, and S. Yuet Ping, I. Darah, U. Yusuf, C. Yeng, and S. Timothy, M. Idu, D. Olorunfemi, and O. Kim, J. Jung, Y. Ahn, L. Restifo, and H. Sudati, F. Vieira, S. Pavin et al. Panchal and A. Macedo, A.

Zemolin et al. However, sulphur compounds were only detected in HF. Quantitative estimation of thiosulphinates, phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in ethanolic extracts of calli EC and flowers EF showed much higher contents in EF. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic screening of extracts dem Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya Annona cherimola Mill.

The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes Kaurenoic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between and mgkg -1 of dry material. The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavanols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds.

Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, epi catechin- epi gallocatechin, epi gallocatechin, epi afzelechin- epi catechin and procyanidin tetramer. These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders.

Ipomoea batatas L. The lipophilic extracts from the storage root of 13 cultivars of sweet potato Ipomoea batatas L. The amount of lipophilic extractives ranged from 0. Fatty acids and sterols were the major families of compounds identified. The results suggest that sweet potato should be considered as an important dietary source of lipophilic phytochemicals. Morinda citrifolia, also known as noni, is commonly used in popular medicine in Brazil. Many parts of the noni tree are utilized in such practices, including the roots, leaves and seeds.

Through a search of online databases, the present Through a search of online databases, the present article reviews 92 research studies on the biological actions of M. The paper will discuss the therapeutic effects of noni and its compounds in a variety of forms of presentation, focusing on studies that support its traditional use. A large and diverse number of properties were identified, which were divided into immunostimulatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antibacterial and anti-septic, antifungal, antiviral, leishmanicidal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and analgesic, antioxidant, neuroprotective, wound healing, antiallergic, antiangiogenic, antiemetic and anti-nausea, anti-gastric ulcer and oesophagitis, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antipsychotic, anxiolytic, photoprotective, anti-wrinkle and periodontal tissue regeneration activities.

While it was concluded that although M. Betacyanin-inhibited biofilm formation of co-culture of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on different polymer surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are bacteria that cause biofilm-associated infections.

The aim of this study was to determine the activity of combined betacyanin fractions from Amaranthus dubius red spinach and The aim of this study was to determine the activity of combined betacyanin fractions from Amaranthus dubius red spinach and Hylocereus polyrhizus red pitahaya against biofilms formed by co-culture of S. Various formulations containing different concentrations of the betacyanin fractions were investigated for biofilm-inhibiting activity on polystyrene surfaces using crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy.

A combination of each betacyanin fraction 0. These combined fractions also significantly inhibited dual-species biofilms by 2. Biofilm formation by staphylococci in health-related environments and recent reports on their control using natural compounds. Staphylococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and able to form biofilms on a range of surfaces. They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, localized skin infection, or direct infection caused by toxin production.

The extracellular material produced by these bacteria resists antibiotics and host defence mechanism which complicates the treatment process. The commonly reported Staphylococcus species are Staphylococcus aureus and S. However, the emergence of other staphylococci, such as S. This review critically assesses recent cases on the biofilm formation by S. The control of biofilm formation by staphylococci using natural compounds is specifically discussed as they represent potential anti-biofilm agents which may reduce the burden of antibiotic resistance.

Extraction methods of butterfly pea Clitoria ternatea flower and biological activities of its phytochemicals. The flowers of C. This paper reviews the recent advances in the extraction and biological activities of phytochemicals from C. Various phyto-chemicals such as kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin glycosides as well as anthocyanins have been isolated from C.

Clitoria ternatea flower extracts were found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflam-matory, cytotoxic and antidiabetic activities which are beneficial to human health. Clitoria ternatea flower is a promising candidate for functional food applications owing to its wide range of pharmacotherapeutic properties as well as its safety and effectiveness.

Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya Hylocereus polyrhizus and red spinach Amaranthus dubius. This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation solvent partitioning on betacyanin content This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation solvent partitioning on betacyanin content in both plants.

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Thus, it can be said that the A. Additionally, the fractionation of these extracts can help in their safety evaluation in order to confirm the safety of the use of this plant by the population. As the first model to evaluate the toxicity of the extract was the LC 50 assay with A. It was demonstrated that the concentration required to kill half of the individuals was 6 times in relation to positive control concentration, demonstrating that the extract has low toxicity against this model. Thus, searching a more complex experimental model, D.

In addition to having its genome sequenced [ 96 ] and its well-studied CNS, it is composed of about neurons, making it a great model for evaluating plant extract toxicities, neurotoxicity, and neurodegenerative diseases [ 40 , 97 , 98 ]. Brito Junior et al. In this way, the effect of methanolic extract of C. In the last decade, the toxicity of PQ has been described after this herbicide is responsible for significant brain damage and death of individuals following acute exposure [ ] being very useful for evaluating neuroprotective compounds against movement disorders and PQ-induced neurodegeneration [ ].

The extract of C. Soares et al. Also, it was found that Decalepis hamiltonii root extracts were able to protect flies from mortality and PQ-induced locomotor impairment [ 39 ]. Different results for Croton campestris hydroalcolic extract were observed and it was toxic when administered concomitantly with PQ, increasing the mortality rate, as well as changing the locomotor behavior of flies [ 99 ].

Exposure to PQ herbicide is recognized as a major risk factor for the manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases. PQ neurotoxicity is attributed to its cyclic redox effect that generates a significant amount of reactive oxygen species ROS leading to oxidative stress [ 40 ]. Results show that the three concentrations used to prevent PQ damage were effective in reducing fly mortality Figure 5 and improving locomotor capacity Figure 6 , as it is known that these effects caused by PQ come from oxidative stress, several studies that consider oxidative stress as the main mechanism of PQ-induced toxicity [ 96 ].

These results show that the good in vitro antioxidant activity may be related to this protective effect of PQ damage in in vivo models. This is justified by the presence of antioxidant compounds identified in the extract, since phenolic compounds present in plants have redox properties, which act as antioxidants [ 59 ], and their protective effects against PQ alone have been proven [ 39 ]. In addition, further investigation is needed to reveal whether the extract can reduce other dysfunctional factors involved in the neurodegeneration process.

This study demonstrates in an unprecedented way that the crude extract of C. Thus, it is suggested that there is a synergism between the chemical composition of the extract, especially phenolic compounds, with the high antioxidant capacity demonstrated through different analysis techniques and the neuroprotective action of the extract where it was able to protect against oxidative damage and locomotor in D.

Therefore, our results open the way for the possible development of natural antioxidants after further studies for the isolation of compounds and more specific investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of action of the extract at more complex cellular and organism levels, as well as its pharmacological evaluation.

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors.

Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Srinivas Mutalik. Received 14 Oct Accepted 09 Mar Published 01 May Abstract Context. Introduction The interest of the scientific class in the study of compounds of plant origin is increasing worldwide, especially in developing countries where the use of herbal medicines is widely used for their basic health needs [ 1 ].

Thus, the importance of the search for natural products with antioxidant effect is emphasized, as they are able to prevent, stabilize, or disable free radicals before they attack biological targets in cells DNA, proteins, and lipids [ 7 ]. Materials and Methods 2. Plant Material C. Phytochemical Analysis The plant extract was assessed for the existence of cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenoids, saponins, resins, alkaloids, and quaternary bases by the phytochemical analysis screening using typical standard methods [ 21 ].

Total Polyphenols, Flavonoids, and Condensed Tannins Assay The total phenolic compounds in the leaf extract were determined according to the Folin—Ciocalteu method [ 22 ]. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity 2. Determination of the Protein Content of Carbonyl Groups The determination of oxidized protein content carbonyl grouping was performed by the reaction of carbonyl groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine DNPH , as previously described by Levine et al.

Antimicrobial Activity Assay Crude extracts and fractions were individually evaluated against P. Toxicity Assay 2. Toxicity to the Nauplii of Artemia Salina The toxicity test with Artemia salina Leach nauplii was performed according to the methodology adapted by Silva et al [ 34 ].. The determination of the Mitotic Index MI was performed according to the following equation: Determination of the percentage of Abnormalities AN was performed according to equation 2 : 2.

Fly Behavior Assay 2. Paraquat Exposure and C. Negative Geotaxis Assay Traditional adult flies climbing assays were effected using a negative geotaxis assay [ 37 ]. Results 3. Phytochemical Analysis The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the C. Table 1. Table 2. A: Polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins contents.

Results for crude extract CE of C. Figure 1. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the crude extract of C. Figure 2. Different letters represent statistical differences according to the Tukey test. Table 3. Results of antimicrobial activity for hexane fraction of C. Table 4. Figure 3. Figure 4. LC 50 The test was effected in quadruplicate. Figure 5. PQ poisoning control trial represented by mortality number of dead individuals per group.

Figure 6. Effect of C. References V. View at: Google Scholar X. Tian, J. Feng, Z. Ma et al. Egamberdieva, N. Mamedov, E. Ovidi, A. Tiezzi, and L. View at: Google Scholar S. Pradeepa, S. Subramanian, and V. View at: Google Scholar M. Ayres, M. Chaves, D. Rinaldo, W. Vilegas, and G. Ulewicz-Magulska and M. Vasconcelos, M. Goulart, J. Moura, V.

Manfredini, M. Benfato, and L. Clarke, S. Rates, and R. View at: Google Scholar G. View at: Google Scholar K. Kissmann and D. Lorenzi and F. Cabrera and R. Reitz, Ed. View at: Google Scholar E. Pasini, L. Katinas, and M. Empinotti and M. View at: Google Scholar B. Badilla, G. Mora, and L. Souza, A. Haas, G. Schapoval, and E. Truiti and M. Truiti, M. Sarragiotto, B. Abreu Filho, C. Nakamura, and B. Osafo, K. Mensah, and O.

Chandra and E. Woisky and A. Morrison, E. Asiedu, T. Stuchbury, and A. Vieira, R. Grayer, A. Paton, and J. Choi, S. Kim, S. Hwang et al. Rufino, R. Alves, E. Brito et al. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, and K. Levine, D.

Garland, C. Oliver et al. Myrhe, J. Andersen, H. Aarnes, and F. Silva, C. Heldwein, L. Reetz, R. Mallmann, and B. Tedesco and H. Srivastava, Ed. Guerra and M. Soares, M. Gayer et al. Rzezniczak, L. Douglas, J. Watterson, and T. Jahromi, M. Haddadi, T. Shivanandappa, and S. Soares, D. Rodrigues, M. Pretti, A. Luz, C. Jamal, and M.

Oliveira and D. Pero, H. Lund, and T. Xiang, Q. Xiong, A. Ketut et al. Inbathamizh and E. View at: Google Scholar H. Wei, S. Kim, Z. Zhang et al. Yang, Y. Dong, H. Du, H. Shi, Y. Peng, and X. Azadbakht, A. Marston, K. Hostettmann, M. Ramezani, and M. View at: Google Scholar J. Quintus, K. Kovar, P. Link, and H. Gruz, O.

Magee, F. Liebel, and M. View at: Google Scholar C. Schenkel, G. Gosmann, J. Mello, L. Mentz, and P. Santos, W. Costa, J. Ribeiro et al. Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, A. Pliszko, J. Nazaruk, E. Barszczewska, and W.

Johari and H. Granato, M. Gerenutti, G. Silva, H. Ferraz, and M. View at: Google Scholar L. Cuervo, N. Salazar, P. Ruas-Madiedo, M. Gueimonde, and S. Omes, P. Nogueira, and S. Ghani, C. Barril, D. Bedgood, and P. Fabri, M. Nogueira, L. Dutra, M. Bouzada, and E. Gindri, L. Cruz, A. Boligon, M. Machado, and M. Bahramikia, A.

Ardestani, and R. Lima and D. Barbosa, N. Costa, R. Alfenas, S. Minim, and J. Dias, E. Junn, and M. Budni, F. Petronilho, V. Citadini-Zanette et al. Santana, O. Silva, M. View at: Google Scholar R. Azevedo, V. Almeida, E. Silva et al. Santi, F. Sanches, J. Silva, and P. Zadra, M. Piana et al. Paula, V. Canteli, M. Verdam et al. Lund, M. Heinonen, C. Baron, and M.

Alkaya, and E. Maddila and K. Hydrocarbons were predominant in HC Trans E -anethole However, sulphur compounds were only detected in HF. Quantitative estimation of thiosulphinates, phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in ethanolic extracts of calli EC and flowers EF showed much higher contents in EF.

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic screening of extracts dem Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya Annona cherimola Mill. The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes Kaurenoic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between and mgkg -1 of dry material.

The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavanols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds. Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, epi catechin- epi gallocatechin, epi gallocatechin, epi afzelechin- epi catechin and procyanidin tetramer.

These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders. Ipomoea batatas L. The lipophilic extracts from the storage root of 13 cultivars of sweet potato Ipomoea batatas L.

The amount of lipophilic extractives ranged from 0. Fatty acids and sterols were the major families of compounds identified. The results suggest that sweet potato should be considered as an important dietary source of lipophilic phytochemicals. Morinda citrifolia, also known as noni, is commonly used in popular medicine in Brazil. Many parts of the noni tree are utilized in such practices, including the roots, leaves and seeds. Through a search of online databases, the present Through a search of online databases, the present article reviews 92 research studies on the biological actions of M.

The paper will discuss the therapeutic effects of noni and its compounds in a variety of forms of presentation, focusing on studies that support its traditional use. A large and diverse number of properties were identified, which were divided into immunostimulatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antibacterial and anti-septic, antifungal, antiviral, leishmanicidal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and analgesic, antioxidant, neuroprotective, wound healing, antiallergic, antiangiogenic, antiemetic and anti-nausea, anti-gastric ulcer and oesophagitis, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antipsychotic, anxiolytic, photoprotective, anti-wrinkle and periodontal tissue regeneration activities.

While it was concluded that although M. Betacyanin-inhibited biofilm formation of co-culture of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on different polymer surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are bacteria that cause biofilm-associated infections.

The aim of this study was to determine the activity of combined betacyanin fractions from Amaranthus dubius red spinach and The aim of this study was to determine the activity of combined betacyanin fractions from Amaranthus dubius red spinach and Hylocereus polyrhizus red pitahaya against biofilms formed by co-culture of S. Various formulations containing different concentrations of the betacyanin fractions were investigated for biofilm-inhibiting activity on polystyrene surfaces using crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy.

A combination of each betacyanin fraction 0. These combined fractions also significantly inhibited dual-species biofilms by 2. Biofilm formation by staphylococci in health-related environments and recent reports on their control using natural compounds. Staphylococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and able to form biofilms on a range of surfaces. They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, localized skin infection, or direct infection caused by toxin production.

The extracellular material produced by these bacteria resists antibiotics and host defence mechanism which complicates the treatment process. The commonly reported Staphylococcus species are Staphylococcus aureus and S. However, the emergence of other staphylococci, such as S. This review critically assesses recent cases on the biofilm formation by S.

The control of biofilm formation by staphylococci using natural compounds is specifically discussed as they represent potential anti-biofilm agents which may reduce the burden of antibiotic resistance. Extraction methods of butterfly pea Clitoria ternatea flower and biological activities of its phytochemicals.

The flowers of C. This paper reviews the recent advances in the extraction and biological activities of phytochemicals from C. Various phyto-chemicals such as kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin glycosides as well as anthocyanins have been isolated from C. Clitoria ternatea flower extracts were found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflam-matory, cytotoxic and antidiabetic activities which are beneficial to human health.

Clitoria ternatea flower is a promising candidate for functional food applications owing to its wide range of pharmacotherapeutic properties as well as its safety and effectiveness. Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya Hylocereus polyrhizus and red spinach Amaranthus dubius.

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Extracts of plants with high toxicity against A. In this sense, the LC 50 Similar results were found for the methanolic extract of Callicarpa candicans Verbenaceae leaves with LC 50 Due to its reliability and agreement with other genotoxicity assays, the Allium cepa A. The effects of medicinal plant infusions on the A.

The extract of the leaves of C. Using the same methodology, Frescura et al. Regarding the ability to prevent glyphosate damage, the species under study was not promising, but did not cause chromosomal anomalies, demonstrating that its popular use will not cause cellular damage. Thus, it can be said that the A. Additionally, the fractionation of these extracts can help in their safety evaluation in order to confirm the safety of the use of this plant by the population.

As the first model to evaluate the toxicity of the extract was the LC 50 assay with A. It was demonstrated that the concentration required to kill half of the individuals was 6 times in relation to positive control concentration, demonstrating that the extract has low toxicity against this model. Thus, searching a more complex experimental model, D. In addition to having its genome sequenced [ 96 ] and its well-studied CNS, it is composed of about neurons, making it a great model for evaluating plant extract toxicities, neurotoxicity, and neurodegenerative diseases [ 40 , 97 , 98 ].

Brito Junior et al. In this way, the effect of methanolic extract of C. In the last decade, the toxicity of PQ has been described after this herbicide is responsible for significant brain damage and death of individuals following acute exposure [ ] being very useful for evaluating neuroprotective compounds against movement disorders and PQ-induced neurodegeneration [ ].

The extract of C. Soares et al. Also, it was found that Decalepis hamiltonii root extracts were able to protect flies from mortality and PQ-induced locomotor impairment [ 39 ]. Different results for Croton campestris hydroalcolic extract were observed and it was toxic when administered concomitantly with PQ, increasing the mortality rate, as well as changing the locomotor behavior of flies [ 99 ]. Exposure to PQ herbicide is recognized as a major risk factor for the manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases.

PQ neurotoxicity is attributed to its cyclic redox effect that generates a significant amount of reactive oxygen species ROS leading to oxidative stress [ 40 ]. Results show that the three concentrations used to prevent PQ damage were effective in reducing fly mortality Figure 5 and improving locomotor capacity Figure 6 , as it is known that these effects caused by PQ come from oxidative stress, several studies that consider oxidative stress as the main mechanism of PQ-induced toxicity [ 96 ].

These results show that the good in vitro antioxidant activity may be related to this protective effect of PQ damage in in vivo models. This is justified by the presence of antioxidant compounds identified in the extract, since phenolic compounds present in plants have redox properties, which act as antioxidants [ 59 ], and their protective effects against PQ alone have been proven [ 39 ].

In addition, further investigation is needed to reveal whether the extract can reduce other dysfunctional factors involved in the neurodegeneration process. This study demonstrates in an unprecedented way that the crude extract of C. Thus, it is suggested that there is a synergism between the chemical composition of the extract, especially phenolic compounds, with the high antioxidant capacity demonstrated through different analysis techniques and the neuroprotective action of the extract where it was able to protect against oxidative damage and locomotor in D.

Therefore, our results open the way for the possible development of natural antioxidants after further studies for the isolation of compounds and more specific investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of action of the extract at more complex cellular and organism levels, as well as its pharmacological evaluation.

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors.

Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Srinivas Mutalik. Received 14 Oct Accepted 09 Mar Published 01 May Abstract Context. Introduction The interest of the scientific class in the study of compounds of plant origin is increasing worldwide, especially in developing countries where the use of herbal medicines is widely used for their basic health needs [ 1 ].

Thus, the importance of the search for natural products with antioxidant effect is emphasized, as they are able to prevent, stabilize, or disable free radicals before they attack biological targets in cells DNA, proteins, and lipids [ 7 ]. Materials and Methods 2. Plant Material C. Phytochemical Analysis The plant extract was assessed for the existence of cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenoids, saponins, resins, alkaloids, and quaternary bases by the phytochemical analysis screening using typical standard methods [ 21 ].

Total Polyphenols, Flavonoids, and Condensed Tannins Assay The total phenolic compounds in the leaf extract were determined according to the Folin—Ciocalteu method [ 22 ]. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity 2. Determination of the Protein Content of Carbonyl Groups The determination of oxidized protein content carbonyl grouping was performed by the reaction of carbonyl groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine DNPH , as previously described by Levine et al.

Antimicrobial Activity Assay Crude extracts and fractions were individually evaluated against P. Toxicity Assay 2. Toxicity to the Nauplii of Artemia Salina The toxicity test with Artemia salina Leach nauplii was performed according to the methodology adapted by Silva et al [ 34 ].. The determination of the Mitotic Index MI was performed according to the following equation: Determination of the percentage of Abnormalities AN was performed according to equation 2 : 2.

Fly Behavior Assay 2. Paraquat Exposure and C. Negative Geotaxis Assay Traditional adult flies climbing assays were effected using a negative geotaxis assay [ 37 ]. Results 3. Phytochemical Analysis The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the C. Table 1. Table 2. A: Polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins contents. Results for crude extract CE of C. Figure 1. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the crude extract of C. Figure 2. Different letters represent statistical differences according to the Tukey test.

Table 3. Results of antimicrobial activity for hexane fraction of C. Table 4. Figure 3. Figure 4. LC 50 The test was effected in quadruplicate. Figure 5. PQ poisoning control trial represented by mortality number of dead individuals per group. Figure 6. Effect of C. References V. View at: Google Scholar X. Tian, J. Feng, Z. Ma et al. Egamberdieva, N. Mamedov, E. Ovidi, A. Tiezzi, and L.

View at: Google Scholar S. Pradeepa, S. Subramanian, and V. View at: Google Scholar M. Ayres, M. Chaves, D. Rinaldo, W. Vilegas, and G. Ulewicz-Magulska and M. Vasconcelos, M. Goulart, J. Moura, V. Manfredini, M. Benfato, and L. Clarke, S. Rates, and R. View at: Google Scholar G. View at: Google Scholar K. Kissmann and D. Lorenzi and F. Cabrera and R.

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Dias, E. Junn, and M. Budni, F. Petronilho, V. Citadini-Zanette et al. Santana, O. Silva, M. View at: Google Scholar R. Azevedo, V. Almeida, E. Silva et al. Santi, F. Sanches, J. Silva, and P. Zadra, M. Piana et al. Various formulations containing different concentrations of the betacyanin fractions were investigated for biofilm-inhibiting activity on polystyrene surfaces using crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy.

A combination of each betacyanin fraction 0. These combined fractions also significantly inhibited dual-species biofilms by 2. Biofilm formation by staphylococci in health-related environments and recent reports on their control using natural compounds. Staphylococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and able to form biofilms on a range of surfaces.

They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, localized skin infection, or direct infection caused by toxin production. The extracellular material produced by these bacteria resists antibiotics and host defence mechanism which complicates the treatment process.

The commonly reported Staphylococcus species are Staphylococcus aureus and S. However, the emergence of other staphylococci, such as S. This review critically assesses recent cases on the biofilm formation by S. The control of biofilm formation by staphylococci using natural compounds is specifically discussed as they represent potential anti-biofilm agents which may reduce the burden of antibiotic resistance.

Extraction methods of butterfly pea Clitoria ternatea flower and biological activities of its phytochemicals. The flowers of C. This paper reviews the recent advances in the extraction and biological activities of phytochemicals from C. Various phyto-chemicals such as kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin glycosides as well as anthocyanins have been isolated from C. Clitoria ternatea flower extracts were found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflam-matory, cytotoxic and antidiabetic activities which are beneficial to human health.

Clitoria ternatea flower is a promising candidate for functional food applications owing to its wide range of pharmacotherapeutic properties as well as its safety and effectiveness. Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya Hylocereus polyrhizus and red spinach Amaranthus dubius. This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation solvent partitioning on betacyanin content This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation solvent partitioning on betacyanin content in both plants.

Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach.

Sub-fractionated red pitahaya and red spinach had Sub-fractionation increased the betanin and decarboxy-amaranthine content in red pitahaya and red spinach, respectively. The betacyanin fraction from red spinach minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values: 0. A triterpenoid from wild bitter gourd inhibits breast cancer cells.

Pharmacological activities of selected South African medicinal plants. Proximate and Phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of indigenous landraces of omani fenugreek seeds. Phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of six diverse varieties of whole wheat.

Dried Raspberries: Phytochemicals and Health Effects. Identification of compounds with anti-proliferative activity from the wood of Ficus elastica Roxb. Genetic transformation of a hepatoprotective plant, Phyllanthus amarus. Page 1. Related Topics. Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants. Follow Following. Antioxidant Activity. Antibacterial activity. Phytochemical charecterization.

Wild edible plants. Natural Products Chemistry. Ads help cover our server costs. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account?

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Phytochemical screening was carried out on the fruit of A. The effect of the extract on the histology of the liver tissues was also investigated. Group 1 served as the control and was administered 2mL distilled water. The animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after administration on the fifty sixth day. Liver and blood samples were collected and biochemical indices such as alanine transaminase-ALT, aspartate transaminaseAST, alkaline phosphatase-ALP, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and globulin assays were determined in the serum using standard techniques.

However, a significant decreased was observed in the serum level of albumin, globulin, and total protein in all treated groups except in group 2 animals. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins triterpenoids. Routine H and E histological study revealed features of hepatotoxicity.

The study suggests that ethanolic extract of A. Objective: To screen the bioactive compound of Bixa orellana L. Methods: Bixa orellana L. Rapid free radical antioxidant screening and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay were done by DPPH Dot blot method and by using safranin respectively. Reducing power assay was done by ferric chloride method.

DNA damage protective ability was evaluated by Fenton reagent method and anti-proliferative ability against Hep3B cells were carried out by MTT Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. Results: The screening of bioactive compound shows the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols, diterpenes, carotenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds.

All extracts scavenged the DPPH free radicals indicated by discoloration of purple color background to yellow-white spot. All extract showed the reducing power ability in a dose dependent manner by reducing the ferric chloride. PE extract shows the anti-proliferative activity against Hep3B cell line and IC50 values were found to be Conclusions: These results suggest that Bixa orellana seeds have a good antioxidant potential, DNA protective ability and anti-proliferative effect.

Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and better understanding of their biological activities of the most active ingredients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical activity of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Albizia procera Roxb. The aerial parts were collected and extract prepared from The aerial parts were collected and extract prepared from ethanol by hot continuous percolation method in Soxhlet apparatus for 24 hrs and found triterpenoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins and flavonoids.

Each active compound shows different activities against different type of diseases like cancer, liver disorders, diabetes, atherosclerosis and inflammatory diseases etc. It also possesses antioxidant properties. According to their characteristics, they can be involved into medicinal plant category. Shade dried flowers of Plumeria rubra f. The extracts were subjected to The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening using standard procedures and the data obtained from the flowers of both the species was comparatively evaluated.

Oral administration of methanolic extracts of Plumeria rubra f. There was a significant dose-dependent inhibition in both the methods. The results obtained in all the animal models were highly significant and comparable to that of standard drugs. Hence, from the above findings, it can be concluded that Plumeria rubra possesses potent analgesic and moderate antipyretic properties.

However the methanolic extract of flowers of Plumeria rubra f. According to a recent report nearly 42 per cent Indian kids are malnourished and stunted. The aim of our project was to develop nutraceutical products using alfalfa as one of the components to overcome undernourishment particularly The aim of our project was to develop nutraceutical products using alfalfa as one of the components to overcome undernourishment particularly among women and children. The seeds of alfalfa Medicago sativa contain more nutritional property when compared with other leguminous seeds.

It contains This paper reports the investigation results of phytochemical analysis of alfalfa seed extracts using the procedure of Sadasivam and Manickam The presence of proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids etc. The presences of proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids etc were confirmed by the present investigation. Thus the cost effective nutraceutical product containing alfalfa along with other cereals and pulses would serve the humanity to fight undernourishment in an easy and economical way.

The present work offers a review addressing the chemistry and pharmacology of Limnophila aromatica Lamk. Belonging to Scrophulariaceae family regarded as one of the most significant plant species in traditional system of Belonging to Scrophulariaceae family regarded as one of the most significant plant species in traditional system of medicine and is established as a source of flavonoids, terpenoids etc.

The isolated phytochemicals as well as different extracts exhibited significant biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, vascular protective activities. Exhaustive research regarding isolation of more phytochemicals and pharmacology study on this medicinal plant is still necessary so as to explore the plant regarding its medicinal importance.

Therefore, the aim of this review is to boost up present day researchers in this direction to undertake further investigation of this plant for searching new drugs. The present review covers literature up to January and enlists 24 references. Present study aims to evaluate antibacterial efficacy of Bakuchi Psoralea corylifolia seed extracts prepared in two different solvents.

Antibacterial assay was performed by agar well diffusion method against Gram positive skin Antibacterial assay was performed by agar well diffusion method against Gram positive skin pathogens, like Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram negative skin pathogens, which included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

Bakuchi seed extract in methanol and diethyl ether exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity against skin pathogens, however comparatively bakuchi seed extract in methanol was found to be more promising with maximum zone of inhibition against K. These results confirmed the potential of the Bakuchi seed extract in the development of ayurvedic topical skin formulations. Related Topics. Follow Following. Open Source Drug Discovery. Gross National Happiness in Bhutan. Drug Discovery, Marine Pharmaceuticals.

Natural products, Phytotherapy, Phytochemistry. Medicinal Plants, Traditional Knowledge. Drug discovery from natural products. Aromatic plants. Anti-Malaria Drug Discovery. Ads help cover our server costs. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

Need an account? To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Phytochemicals 5, Followers. Papers People. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Picralima nitida Apocynaceae in tropical diseases: A review. Picralima nitida Durand and Hook, fam. Apocynaceae is a West African plant with varied applications in African folk medicine. Various parts of the plant have been employed ethnomedicinally as remedy for fever, hypertension, jaundice, Various parts of the plant have been employed ethnomedicinally as remedy for fever, hypertension, jaundice, dysmenorrheal, gastrointestinal disorders and malaria.

In order to reveal its full pharmacological and therapeutic potentials, the present review focuses on the current medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological activities of this species. Literature survey on scientific journals, books as well as electronic sources have shown the isolation of alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols and steroids from different parts of the plant, pharmacological studies revealed that the extract or isolated compounds from this species posses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglyceamic, hypotensive, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, antiulcer and antitumorigenic activities.

Results from various scientific investigations to date have revealed the potential of the extract from the plant or isolated compounds for use in the treatment and prevention of various kinds of human diseases. However, further studies on the extracts and pure compounds from this species is required to completely assess its phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the mechanism of action behind these pharmacological activities exhibited by the compounds isolated from this species.

Save to Library. Phytochemical and biological study of callus cultures of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. Cultivated in Egypt. As in vitro plant cultures are used extensively to produce bioactive metabolites, our goal was to establish calli from Tulbaghia violacea Harv. Hydrocarbons were predominant in HC Trans E -anethole However, sulphur compounds were only detected in HF. Quantitative estimation of thiosulphinates, phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in ethanolic extracts of calli EC and flowers EF showed much higher contents in EF.

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic screening of extracts dem Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya Annona cherimola Mill. The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes Kaurenoic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between and mgkg -1 of dry material. The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavanols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds.

Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, epi catechin- epi gallocatechin, epi gallocatechin, epi afzelechin- epi catechin and procyanidin tetramer. These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders.

Ipomoea batatas L. The lipophilic extracts from the storage root of 13 cultivars of sweet potato Ipomoea batatas L. The amount of lipophilic extractives ranged from 0. Fatty acids and sterols were the major families of compounds identified. The results suggest that sweet potato should be considered as an important dietary source of lipophilic phytochemicals. Morinda citrifolia, also known as noni, is commonly used in popular medicine in Brazil. Many parts of the noni tree are utilized in such practices, including the roots, leaves and seeds.

Through a search of online databases, the present Through a search of online databases, the present article reviews 92 research studies on the biological actions of M. The paper will discuss the therapeutic effects of noni and its compounds in a variety of forms of presentation, focusing on studies that support its traditional use.

A large and diverse number of properties were identified, which were divided into immunostimulatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antibacterial and anti-septic, antifungal, antiviral, leishmanicidal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and analgesic, antioxidant, neuroprotective, wound healing, antiallergic, antiangiogenic, antiemetic and anti-nausea, anti-gastric ulcer and oesophagitis, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antipsychotic, anxiolytic, photoprotective, anti-wrinkle and periodontal tissue regeneration activities.

While it was concluded that although M. Betacyanin-inhibited biofilm formation of co-culture of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on different polymer surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are bacteria that cause biofilm-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of combined betacyanin fractions from Amaranthus dubius red spinach and The aim of this study was to determine the activity of combined betacyanin fractions from Amaranthus dubius red spinach and Hylocereus polyrhizus red pitahaya against biofilms formed by co-culture of S.

Various formulations containing different concentrations of the betacyanin fractions were investigated for biofilm-inhibiting activity on polystyrene surfaces using crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy.

BoxUruguaiana, RSBrazil.

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Pay for custom university essay Dutra, M. However, further studies on the extracts and pure compounds from this species hamlet literary essays required to completely assess its phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the mechanism of action behind these pharmacological activities exhibited by the compounds isolated from this species. Vieira, S. Introduction The interest of the scientific class in the study of compounds of plant origin is increasing worldwide, especially in developing countries where the use of herbal medicines is widely used for their basic health needs [ 1 ]. Barbosa, J.
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