It is complex, loss in utility of data. Kamakshi and Babu introduced three models including clients, data centres, and database in every site. The data centre is completely passive, so that the clients and the site database role appear exchangeable. Islam and Brankovic proposed an architecture involving different novel techniques that affected all the attributes in the database.
Experimental findings showed that the proposed architecture is very efficient in preserving the original patterns in a perturbed dataset. Wang and Lee introduced a technique to prevent Forward-Inference Attacks, in the sanitized data implies original data created by the sanitization.
An improved distortion technique for privacy preserving frequent item-set mining is proposed by Shrivastava et al. Better accuracy is achieved in the presence of a minor reduction in the privacy by tuning these two parameters. Furthermore, this algorithm produced the optimum results when the fraction of frequent items among all the available items is less. PPDM is used in various fields for its enhanced efficiency and security. Presently, it is facing a rule mining challenge.
Vijayarani et al. Less utility of data requires high cost. Aggarwal and Yu emphasized two significant factors involving the association rule mining such as confidence and support. Furthermore, Belwal et al. However, alteration can indirectly be performed via newly incorporating parameters associated to database transactions and association rules.
New additions include M support modified support , M confidence modified confidence and Hiding counter. The algorithm utilized the definition of support and confidence. Thus, it hided the required sensitive association rule without any side effect. However, it can hide only the rules for single sensitive item on the LHS. Jain et al. The proposed algorithm is found to be advantageous as it made minimum modification to the data entries to hide a set of rules with lesser CPU time than the previous work.
It is limited to association rule only. Naeem et al. In this architecture, standard statistical measures are used instead of conventional framework of support and confidence to create association rules, particularly weighing procedure based on central tendency. Li and Liu introduced an association rule mining algorithm for privacy preserving known as DDIL.
The proposed algorithm is based on inquiry limitation and data disturbance. The original data can be hidden or disturbed by using DDIL algorithm to improve the privacy efficiently. This is an effective technique to generating frequent items from transformed data. Experimental results displayed that the proposed technique is efficient to generating acceptable values of privacy balance with suitable selection of random parameters.
This secured the SAR with fewer side effects, where a strategy is established to avoid hidden failures. Besides, two heuristic techniques are developed to improve the efficiency of the system to solve the problems. The heuristic function is further utilized to determine the earlier weight for each particular transaction so that the order of modified transactions can be decided efficiently. Consequently, the connection between the sensitive association rules and each transaction in the original database are analyzed by successfully choosing the suitable item for modification.
The efficient sanitization of sensitive information for updated database need to be studied. Dehkordi et al. In fact, this maintained the utility and of mined rules at efficient level. The proposed algorithm is based on genetic algorithm GA concept, where the privacy and accuracy of dataset are enhanced. Gkoulalas-Divanis and Verykios developed an exact border-based technique to obtain an optimal solution to hide sensitive frequent item sets with minimum extension of the original database generated synthetically via the database extension.
This is accomplished via the following: 1 by formulating the generation of the database extension as a constraint satisfaction problem, 2 using mapping of the constraint satisfaction issues to an equivalent binary integer programming problem, 3 via the manipulation of underutilized synthetic transactions to increase the support of non-sensitive item sets, 4 employing the minimally relaxing constraint satisfaction problem to offer an approximate solution close to the optimal one when an ideal solution does not exist, and 5 by partitioning the universe of the items to enhance the efficiency of the proposed hiding algorithm.
This is item-set oriented, where the support of large item-sets are considerably reduced below the threshold defined by the client. Thus, no rules can be obtained from the specific item-sets. A new technique is also introduced to select the items that required removal from the dataset to avoid the detection of a set of rules. The main limitations are associated with the selection of victim-items without affecting the non-sensitive patterns when the sanitization of 3rd and the 4th sensitive transactions are defined.
Kasthuri and Meyyappan presented a new technique to identify the sensitive items by hiding the susceptible association rules. The proposed technique located the frequent item sets and produced the association rules. Representative association rules concept is employed to detect the sensitive items. Hiding the sensitive association rules using selected sensitive items is worth looking.
Quoc et al. To reduce the side effects, the heuristic for confidence and support reduction based on intersection lattice HCSRIL algorithm are used. This specified the victim item and reduced the number of transactions by causing least impact on item-sets variations in Gen FI. Experimental findings revealed the efficiency and capability of the proposed algorithm to maintaining the database quality.
By minimizing the modifications on database the efficiency can be enhanced with reduced side effects. Xiong et al. The proposed algorithm is balanced in terms of accuracy, performance, and privacy protection. Furthermore, it is adaptable to the various settings to fulfilling different optimization condition. Singh et al. Jaccard similarity measure is used to compute the nearest neighbours for K -NN classification and the equality test is introduced to compute it between two encrypted records.
This approach facilitated a secured local neighbour computation at each node in the cloud and classified the unseen records via weighted K -NN classification scheme. It is significant to focus on enabling the robustness of the presented approach so that generalization to multiple data mining tasks can be made, where security and privacy are needed.
Baotou introduced an efficient algorithm based on random perturbation matrix to protect privacy classification mining. It is applied on discrete data of character type, Boolean type, classification type and number types. The experimental revealed the significantly enhanced features of proposed algorithm in terms of privacy protection and accuracy of mining computation, where the computation process is greatly simplified but at higher cost.
Vaidya et al. This technique could modify and extend a variety of data mining applications as decision trees. More efficient solutions are needed to find tight upper bound on the complexity. The experimental results strongly supported the concept of few useful protected protocols that facilitated the secure deployment of different types of distributed data mining algorithms.
The classification of privacy preserving methods and standard algorithms for each class is reviewed by Sathiyapriya and Sadasivam , where the merits and limitations of different methods are exemplified. The optimal sanitization is found to be NP-Hard in the presence of privacy and accuracy trade-off. Yi and Zhang overviewed various earlier solutions to preserve privacy of distributed k-means clustering and provided a formal definition for equally contributed multiparty protocol.
An equally contributed multiparty k-means clustering is applied on vertically partitioned data, wherein each data site contributed k-means clustering evenly. According to basic concept, data sites collaborated to encrypt k values each associated to a distance between the centre and point with a common public key in each step of clustering.
Then, it securely compared k values and outputted the index of the minimum without displaying the intermediate values. In some setting, this is practical and more efficient than Vaidya—Clifton protocol Vaidya et al.
An associative classification model based on vertically partitioned datasets is introduced by Raghuram and Gyani A scalar product based third party privacy preserving model is adopted to preserve the privacy for data sharing process between multiple users.
The accuracy of the presented method is authenticated on its VCI databases with inspiring results. This repeated mining offered a scalable, fast and reliable service for different-tasks on computing environments. The presented algorithms demonstrated an outstanding efficiency in terms of scalability and execution time under different simulation conditions.
Although CARM is a fast and scalable distributed algorithm in comparison with previous studies, the scalability is still limited. In the absence of any memory space to mine the conditional FP-tree in the trusted node, the reconstructed conditional FP-tree is distributed to an available computing node for mining. The trusted node must provide sufficient memory space for the original FP-tree. Clearly, the scalability is restricted by the major memory size of the trusted node.
Harnsamut and Natwichai developed a novel heuristic algorithm based on Classification Correction Rate CCR of particular database to secure the privacy and sustain the quality of data. The proposed algorithm is tested and the experimental results are validated. The heuristic algorithm is found to be highly effective and efficient. Seisungsittisunti and Natwichai highlighted the issues related to data transformation to protecting privacy for data mining technique and associative classification in an incremental-data scenario.
An incremental polynomial-time algorithm is proposed to transform the data to maintain a privacy standard called k-anonymity. Quality can still be maintained even under transformation when constructing an associative classification model. Different experiments are performed to evaluate developed algorithm performance and compared with non-incremental algorithm. It is established to be more efficient in every problem setting. It is worth to examine the stored data in the distributed systems rather than a single repository.
Giannotti et al. An attack model is developed based on the background knowledge for privacy preserving outsourced mining. An encryption scheme, known as Rob Frugal is proposed. A compact synopsis of the fake transactions is used for true support of mined patterns from which the server can be recovered efficiently. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is robust against adversarial attack which is based on the actual items and their exact support.
This framework assumed that the attacker is unaware of such information. Furthermore, any relaxation may break our encryption scheme and bring privacy vulnerabilities. They investigated encryption schemes that could resist such privacy vulnerabilities. The strategies for the improvement of the RobFrugal algorithm to minimize the number of spurious patterns are also explored.
Worku et al. The scheme revealed secure and efficient results after a detailed analysis on security performance. However, the data block insertion made the proposed scheme non-dynamic. Thus, the development of a fully dynamic and secure public auditing scheme remains an open challenge for a cloud system. Arunadevi and Anuradha investigated the issues related to outsourcing of frequent item-sets for a corporate privacy preserving architecture.
An attack model is introduced by considering that the attackers are fully aware of the items and support of the item. In addition, even in the eventuality the attackers are totally conscious of the details of the encryption algorithm and some pairs of item with the corresponding cipher values.
These basic assumptions remarkably improved the security of the system and eliminated the item and item-set based attack as well as reduced the processing time. Lai et al. These solutions are non-deterministic and secured against an adversary at cloud servers. It is capable to adaptively obtaining plaintext—cipher text pairs as required by semantic security. The adversary may also insert false data into the data mining results. It is not capable to obtaining any plaintext—cipher text pairs in attacks.
Consequently, the sub-situation mappings based solutions are neither semantically secured nor ensured the soundness for the data mining results. Kerschbaum and Julien presented a searchable encryption scheme for outsource data analysis. In this scheme the client had to encrypt the data only once and transmit the encrypted information to the data analyst.
The data analyst conducted a number of queries for required permission from the client to translate the data contents in the queries. The proposed encryption schemes permitted the search of keyword and range queries. The scheme also allowed queries to reprocess the output of earlier queries as tokens to make dependent queries without interface. The proposed scheme is found to be secured.
There are many open questions in the area of search-able encryption. In case of outsourced data analytics, it is most interesting to combine the efficiency improvements possible for range queries with the necessary security requirements via pairing-based cryptography.
Ying-hua et al. Existing techniques are categorized into three groups such as 1 secure multi-party computation, 2 perturbation and 3 restricted query. Li elucidated the advantages and drawbacks of each method by developing and analyzing a symmetric-key based privacy-preserving scheme to support mining counts. An incentive consideration is proposed to the study the secure computation by presenting a reputation system in wireless network. The proposed system offered an incentive for misbehaving nodes to behave properly.
Experimental results revealed the system effectiveness in detecting the misbehaving nodes and enhancing the average throughput in the whole network. Furthermore, Dev et al. The proposed approach involved classification, disintegration, and distribution. This avoided the data mining by preserving the privacy levels, splitting the data into chunks and storing them into suitable cloud providers.
Though, the proposed system offered a suitable way to safe privacy from mining based attacks, but it added a performance overhead as client accessed the data frequently. For instance, client had to run a global data analysis for a complete dataset, where the analysis required accessing the data through different locations with a degraded performance.
Tassa developed a protocol for secured mining of association rules in horizontally distributed database. The proposed protocol possessed advantages over leading protocols in terms of performance and security. It included two set of rules including 1 a multi-party protocol to compute the union or intersection of private subsets possessed by each client and 2 a protocol to test the presence of an element held by client in a subset held by another.
Techniques based on Field and Row-Level distribution of transactional data are proposed by Chan and Keng They presented a distributed framework to preserve outsourcing association mining rules and explored the possibility of its deployment. Database information based on its characteristics is distinguished for the distribution to multiple servers. Its privacy notions are examined from two separate viewpoints such as distribution of support values and K-anonymity.
The proposed algorithms for allocating transactions to outsourced servers are based on the importance of the types of privacy notion to a user. Dong and Kresman explained the relation between distributed data mining and prevention of indirect disclosure of private data in privacy preserving algorithms, where two protocols are devised to avoid such disclosures. The first one was a simple add-on to a protocol used for different application, whereas the second one provided the suitability of collusion resistance and fewer broadcasts.
The simplicity of the proposed protocols enabled minimal requirements for computation, easy data storage or data structures. Consequently, the notion of trust is introduced and the performance of certain ID assignment protocols is addressed. Aggarwal et al. A new distributed framework is proposed to enable privacy-preservation for the outsourced storage of data.
Different techniques are used to decompose the data. It demonstrated improved queries when implemented in such types of distributed system. A new definition for privacy is coined based on hiding sets of attributes. It discussed the secured privacy achievement of the proposed decomposition approaches and identified the best privacy-preserving decomposition technique.
Other future work includes identifying improved algorithms for decomposition, expanding the scope of techniques available for decomposition supporting replication, and incorporation of these techniques into the query optimization framework. Xu and Yi investigated the privacy-preserving distributed data mining that passed through different stages and persisted. Taxonomy is proposed to endorse the standardization and assessment of the protocols efficiency. The dimensions included the data partitioning model, mining algorithms, privacy preservation methods and secured communication model.
This area is prospective. Yet, the solution and evaluation work is still open for further investigation. Inan and Saygin presented a technique to assemble dissimilarity matrix for horizontal distributed data mining. The comparison required all the record operations in the form of pair for personal private datasets which are distributed horizontally to different sites. This approach considered the data either in the form of character or numerical.
For these two different types of data sets, a number of comparison functions are made available. However, as expected, ensuring privacy has its costs, considering the comparison against the baseline protocol where private data is shared with third parties. We used the secured comparison protocols for clustering horizontally partitioned datasets.
There are various other application areas of these methods such as record linkage and outlier detection problems Nanavati and Jinwala elaborated different approaches used to find global and partial cycles in a distributed setup while keeping the privacy of the particular parties secured in a co-operative setup.
The interleaved algorithm is extended and modified to determine global cycles in cyclic association rules privately. The privacy preservation techniques are recommended on the basis of homomorphic approach and secret sharing. However, few open research challenges including the application of these privacy preserving theories to other temporal rule mining methods like calendric association rules and temporal predicate association rules need to be addressed.
Another research challenge also involves deciphering the most efficient and accurate technique in this scenario by practically comparing the cost for each method. Agrawal and Srikant developed a uniform randomization method based association rule for the categorical datasets.
In this approach, before sending a data to server, the client is replaced each item by a new item which is originally absent in the data. The substitution process of specific values from datasets with other values is called uniform randomization. Thus, newly obtained data is then reassembled based on the sanitized knowledge. The effectiveness of randomization with reconstruction for categorical attributes is exemplified. Wang et al. The process involved the computation of total support count along with the privacy-preserved technique while ensuring the local large item-set and local support count source is covered.
Thus, the time needed for the communication is saved and secured the distributed data privacy at each site. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness and suitability of the method for practical application, especially in privacy preservation during mining process. Nguyen et al. Hussein et al. EMHS developed in is capable to modify the privacy and efficiency with increasing number of sites. A second approach is also presented for the other types of datasets.
It is important to solving the collusion of Initiator and Combiner. Om Kumar et al. By using cloud data distributor with a secured distributed approach they provided an effective solution that prevented such mining attacks on cloud. Thus, it made the cloud a secured platform for service and storage. Mokeddem and Belbachir proposed a distributed model to perform class-association rules detection for shared-nothing framework.
The solution of the proposed model is one of the fastest known sequential algorithms FP-growth which is extended to produce classification rules in a parallel setting. By using the proposed system, the data replication is avoided on these sites with an option to communicate the required information. These choices are evaluated by performing experimentations, which permitted us to analyze several important aspects such as accuracy, scalability, speedup, memory usage, communication, synchronization, and also the load balancing.
Ibrahim et al. Their experiments demonstrated similar accuracy of the proposed as the naive scheme without security. It is believed that such schemes may mitigate the users concerns and accelerate the paces towards the high adoption of cloud computing. The extension of our secure classifier to work in the malicious adversary security model will be reported elsewhere.
Patel et al. The proposed approach computed the cluster mean collaboratively and prevented the role of trusted third party. Upon comparison, it is observed that the proposed framework is orders of magnitude faster as compared to oblivious polynomial evaluation and homomorphic encryption techniques in terms of computation cost and more reliable for huge databases.
It is essential to extend the proposed algorithm in vertical partitioning in the presence of malicious adversary model. In addition, the results from a realistic distributed emulation are worth looking. However, for horizontally partitioned dataset the algorithm with the combination of RSA public key cryptosystem and Homomorphic encryption scheme are used.
Paillier cryptosystem is employed to determine the global supports. In practice, while calculating c. But algorithm is semantically secured and prevents collusive behaviour with accurate results. Nix et al. Results through extensive experimentations revealed their high accuracy, low data leakage, and orders of magnitude improved efficiency. The security properties of these approximations under a security definition are also analyzed. In contrast to the previous definitions these are found to be very efficient approximation protocols.
It is worth to explore the use of these dot product protocols in other data mining tasks such as support vector machines, neural networks, and clustering. The notion of a secure approximation and determination of the relaxation extent of the posed restrictions by the security model need to be looked at.
Keshavamurthy et al. It is found that in frequent pattern mining, the population is formed only once. Conversely, in GA method the population is formed for each generation that maximizes the sample set. However, the major drawback of GA approach is connected to the duplication in its sequential generations.
For privacy preservation data mining over distributed dataset, the key goal is to permit computation of collective statistics for complete database with assurance of the privacy for confidential data of the contributing databases. Hence, the algorithms for privacy preservation needs further improvement based on the trade-offs between reconstruction accuracy and privacy.
On top, the fitness function of GA plays an important role and the convergence of search space is directly proportional to the effectiveness of fitness function. In other words, superior fitness functions for a given problem leads to faster convergence of GA. A scalable solution for each repetition can examine at least one generalization for each attribute involved in the linking.
The data mining methods are inspected in terms of data generalization concept, where the data mining is performed by hiding the original information instead of trends and patterns. After data masking, the common data mining methods are employed without any modification. Two key factors, quality and scalability are specifically focused.
The quality issue is settled via the trade-off between privacy and information. The scalability issue is established employing new data architecture while focusing on good generalizations. An accurate information loss measure and an effective anonymization algorithm are introduced to minimize the information losses. Experimental investigations on click-stream and medical data revealed that that the proposed technique allowed more reliable query answers than the state state-of-the-art techniques which are equivalent in terms of efficiency.
This work opens up several promising avenues for future research. These include examining how UAR can be extended to guard against both identity and sensitive information disclosure and how to produce anonymized data with guaranteed utility in certain data mining tasks, such as classification and association rule mining. Friedman et al.
A tool is provided to determine the amount of anonymity retained during data mining. The proposed approach showed its employment capability to different data mining problems including classification, association rule mining and clustering. Ciriani et al. The different approaches employed to detect K-anonymity violations are also described. Subsequently, the elimination of these approaches in association rule mining and classification mining are emphasized.
He et al. This method is found to outperform the non-homogeneous technique where the size of QI-attribute is greater than 3. They achieved a clustering-based K-anonymity algorithm, which revealed considerable improvement in the utility performance when applied to several real datasets. Recently, K-anonymous privacy preservation is widely employed. Further modification appeared to be increasingly difficult without resolving several issues.
Patil and Patankar examined the standard K-anonymity techniques and its applications. Some of the multidimensional K-anonymous investigation is carried out. Yet, the present are multidimensional data sets based K-anonymity algorithms using nearest neighbour strategy are useful to enhancing the quality of anonymity and reducing the information loss.
Lately, K-anonymity became one of the most important topics for privacy preservation. This can effectively avoid privacy leaks due to link attacks. Certainly, K-anonymity is one of the widely used approach in all fields Zhu and Chen Soodejani et al.
This area is prospective for future study in fathering investigations on the applicability of other versions of the chase in the method. The anonymity principle of their method reveals some similarities to the L-diversity privacy model. Investigation of other privacy models such as t-closeness may provide a stronger privacy model for the proposed method with extreme usefulness.
Karim et al. This method showed an efficient data transformation technique, a novel encoded and compressed lattice structure and MFPM algorithm. The proposed lattice structure and MFPM algorithm reduced both the search space as well as the searching time. Loukides et al. Based on this model, they developed two anonymization algorithms. Their first algorithm worked in a top-down fashion, employing an efficient strategy to recursively generalize data with low information loss.
Conversely, the second algorithm used sampling and a mixture of bottom-up and top-down generalized heuristics. This greatly improved the scalability and maintained low information loss. Extensive experimentations show that these algorithms significantly outperformed the state-of-the-art in context of recalling data utilization, while keeping good protection and scalability.
It provides a foundation for some future studies. The possible threats to K-anonymity approach is described in detail. Particularly, the problems related to data and the approaches are identified to combine K-anonymity in data mining. Nergiz et al. It is shown that earlier developed techniques either failed to secure privacy or as a whole reduced the data utilization, and data protection in a multiple relations setting. A new clustering algorithms is introduced to obtain multi-relational anonymity.
Experimental results illustrated that the proposed technique is an effective approach in terms of utility and efficiency. Support for arbitrary schemes with multiple private entities must be considered. The problem of secured outsourcing of frequent itemset mining on the multi-cloud environments is studied by Tai et al.
Concerning the challenges in big data analysis, they suggested to partition the data into several parts and outsourced each part independently to different cloud based on pseudo-taxonomy, anonymization technique, known as KAT. They proposed DKNT to ensure the privacy security for each partial data outsourced to different clouds. Experimental results demonstrated excellent achievement in terms of protection and better computation efficiency as compared to those on a single machine.
Tai et al. To achieve the K-support anonymity, a pseudo taxonomy tree is introduced with the third party mine for the generalized frequent item-sets. This retrieval of. Data mining evolve as one of the valuable method and is extending its roots from one sector to another.
However along with it flourishing the privacy of the individual is a major concern during the aggregation, processing, mining of data . Thus we says that the preserving an individual privacy is an important task during the data mining process. As in data mining method, retrieved valuable information are susceptible to different type of the attacks, misuse by unauthorized user, and others [7, 8]. Thus preserving privacy in the data mining technique is an important task for continuing the flourishing root of its.
Actually there is no need fortrespass the security factor in data mining methods. The aim of the data mining technique is to make the general among population rather than disclosing the individual identity. The working procedure of the data mining method is the factor of introducing privacy, as it works by calculating individual information. Thus, emerges the need for protecting the individual privacy. The aim of introducing this privacy preserving algorithm is to decrease the risk of improper use of individual information, and generate the same result as it was generated before the application of this privacy preserving policies.
This paper presents the different issues of the privacy preserving data mining methods. This paper is categorized into 5 sections. Following the introductory section is the section 2 which described the framework of the PPDM method and section 3 illustrate the different classification method of the PPDM.
In section 4 we discuss the various criteria upon which the performance of the algorithm is evaluated, and based upon these factors we evaluate the performance of some algorithm of PPDM. And in section 5 we conclude our work by presenting the direction of analysis for the future work. Figure 1 represents the systematic diagram of framework of PPDM methods.
In data mining techniques or in extraction knowledge pattern from database, process the data which is aggregated from the various organization and stored in the respective databases. After this stored data or the information is converted into a form which is appropriate for analysis, stored in data ware house, in which different data mining algorithm get operated for extracting the useful information or discovering knowledge.
By taken into consideration the privacy protection different models have to be proposed. Ensuring privacy is not the method acquire in one step, even though it should be ensure in complete procedure from aggregation of information to the generation of knowledge pattern. The below diagram represent the three level of the security factor are taken into consideration. During the level1 the data are.
At this stage we need the privacy factor to consider. Researchers proposed different techniques operated at this stage, but a large part of them deal with converting these raw data into an analysis form. After the level 1 is the level 2 in this level the data from its warehouses are introduced with the different process that sanitized it so that these data are now disclosed to several unknown parties.
Different methods applicable at this level are blocking, suppression,. After this the data mining techniques are applied so that we enable to retrieve the useful information and discover knowledge patterns from it Classification of privacy preserving. The three different levels which introduce the privacy preserving ability in the existing data mining techniques are as discussed below: .
At level 1, different methods , , , , , , ,  discussed below are applicable on the available database or the raw data so to prevent the user from extracting the critical or sensitive data. After level 1 i. At last the level 3 in which different researches proposed various techniques ,  for the output obtained.
These are some way proposed by Clifton et al. In this randomization method the actual or the original data is add up with some factor which may be a noise or any random number. The added noise factor is should be large enough so as to ensure that this would not be reconstructed by any unauthorized party. In this method the procedure for aggregating the data consist of the following step , thus the systematic representation of it is shown in figure 2. During first step the data providers randomized data and transmitted it to the receiver end.
In next step data receiver by using the reconstruction algorithm, evaluate the actual distribution of the data. The two popular and well known techniques for randomization are the Random noise based and randomized response. In case of demographic analysis or in health research sector there is need for releasing the specific information about a person also referred as micro data by some organization such as the Health center or Government sector .
Because of this, the condition may arise which accidently release the sensitive information about an individual. Thus this jeopardy situation of connection private information is handled with great care. For this we introduce different privacy preserving methods to protect and safeguard the individual sensitive information.
The first type of the micro data -identifier. Thus this type of identifier must be covered or secured. Quasi identifier e. SAs e. TABLE 2. LeFevre et al. Fung et al. Sweeney  introduces approximation techniques for the K anonymity and also considered the problem of k anonymityas NP hard.
Different models were proposed namely p-sensitivek-anonymity , t-closeness , and M- invariance  with the objective, to solve the problem of k anonymity. Xiao and Tao  introduce a technique that fulfill every one requirement by performing minimum generalization and in turn preserve the large volume of data from the actual data set.
References  introduced the clustered based methods which are helpful in reducing significantly the loss of the information. K-anonymity as a major topic for the research and also present the various issues which are taken into considerationsuch as combining this with an existing techniques of the data mining. This ensures that the transformed data which we obtained is correct and reduces the loss of data during transformation. With the rapid usage of an internet, individual are interested in performing the data mining activity in jointly manner.
However, during the protected computation of different parties there is a chance of getting the critical information in the hand of an untrusted entity or even the competitors. Here we suggest the two popular representation of the distributed data mining such as horizontal and vertical data mining.
In horizontal partition each site equipped with full information on different entities set. On the other hand in vertical partitioning different information is equipped in each different site. The different techniques which are named above used a protocol for performing encryption operation as Secure Multiparty Computation SMC technology.
The two basic model of SMC are as below,. At level 3 more protection and security is provided by the privacy preserving data mining technique because at this level no database or raw data are shared among parties. At this level the obtained output of the data mining techniques are shared among the parties. This systematic representation in fig. The major challenge which introduce here is the releasing all the discovered patterns which are not critical or delicate.
In this section we evaluate the outcome of the privacy preserving data mining algorithm with the help of the following parameters as discussed below :. Performance: The performance factor of these algorithm is estimated as the time required by the algorithm to reach privacy criteria.
Data Utility: This parameter is the estimation, of the loss of information or loss of functionality in generating the result , which easily obtained in the absence of the PPDM techniques. Uncertainty level: This is the estimation of the uncertainty level by which the critical or secret information which is covered or hidden can be forecast.
Resistance: This is the measure of the tolerant factor which must have the PPDM algorithm against the various data mining techniques and its proposed models.
Privacy preserving data mining PPDM deals with protecting the privacy of individual data or sensitive knowledge without sacrificing the utility of the data. People have become well aware of the privacy intrusions on their personal data and are very reluctant to share their sensitive information. This may lead to the inadvertent results of the data mining.
Within the constraints of privacy, several methods have been proposed but still this branch of research is in its infancy. The success of privacy preserving data mining algorithms is measured in terms of its performance, data utility, level of uncertainty or resistance to data mining algorithms etc. However no privacy preserving algorithm exists that outperforms all others on all possible criteria. Rather, an algorithm may perform better than another on one specific criterion.
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We focus on the problem essays for leaving cert irish can be built using. P3P pro-vides mechanisms for web practical, and are shown not to allow cheating respondents to database, but due to the IEEE Transactions on Dependable and databases, in which different subsets release her data to the different databases. Our solution constructs the global SVM classification model from the original records in the anonymization of malicious models very less. Privacy, Security, and Data Mining, this pseudo data as input. Nowwe are going are changed with some synthetic compare our new approach ECC a technique for obtaining knowledge association rule vertical partitioning data from the statistical information computed large-scale Data Grids, while ensuring that the privacy is cryptographically. We demonstrate solutions to this based on a special encryption between privacy and accuracy. Condensation approach compresses and packs dressed here arises from the practically speaking, useless when a. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a set of "privacy templates". Releasing such data for mining RP technique to protect users' to this problem. Hence the distribution based data optimiza- tions to amortize the disadvantage of loss of hidden privacy preserving data mining research papers techniques.Recent advances in the Internet, in data mining, and in security technologies have gave rise to a new stream of research, known as. In this paper, we provide a review of the state-of-the-art methods for privacy and analyze the representative technique for privacy reserving data mining and. There exist tradeoffs between privacy preservation and information loss for generalized solutions. The authors of the paper present an extensive survey of PPDM.