social problem of homelessness essay

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They will instead make a cash settlement, which reflects the market value at the time the loss happened. This is so a prospective buyer knows a vehicle was previously written off when conducting vehicle history checks. These checks also cover whether the vehicle is stolen or has outstanding finance, too. So, what do the categories mean?

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Social problem of homelessness essay

Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Fuzzy Logic FL and fuzzy cognitive maps FCMs are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form i.

Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence weights for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors.

Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted.

This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the sample scenarios created.

This confirmed that the model worked and that a search of peer reviewed, academic literature is a reasonable foundation upon which to build the model. Further, it was determined that the direction and strengths of relationships between concepts included in this map are a reasonable approximation of their action in reality.

However, dynamic models are not without their limitations and must be acknowledged as inherently exploratory. Homelessness is a complex social problem with a variety of underlying economic and social factors such as poverty, lack of affordable housing, uncertain physical and mental health, addictions, and community and family breakdown. These factors, in varying combinations, contribute to duration, frequency, and type of homelessness.

To be fully homeless is to live without shelter; however, many experience partial homelessness that can include uncertain, temporary, or sub-standard shelter. Homelessness is difficult to define, thus governments struggle with uncertainty when creating and implementing policies they hope will effectively manage or eradicate this problem. Levels of government, in countries like Canada, add to the complexity of dealing with homelessness. Being governed at three different levels, federal, provincial, and municipal, requires high levels of agreement to effectively create and administer policies.

In Canada, each level of government is responsible for different facets of homelessness. The provincial government, responsible for needs of the provinces and territories, creates and administers policies regarding mental illness, addictions, welfare, minimum wage laws, landlord and tenant acts, and child protection services and shares responsibility with the federal government for seniors and social housing.

The municipal governments, are seen as the hands or arms of the provincial government, and are technically not responsible for homelessness; however are often involved in choosing sites for social housing, supporting emergency shelters and hospital emergency wards, as well as providing support, in a variety of ways, to facilitate these initiatives.

This lack of coordination towards policy and funding for homelessness has recently come to the attention of courts in Canada who have begun to make decisions which support shelter as an essential right for Canadians [ 2 ]. The UN Special Rapporteur on adequate housing in Canada has also strongly urged the federal government to commit sufficient funding to create a national housing strategy by working with the provinces and territories [ 3 ].

Metro Vancouver is one city in Canada which conducts a comprehensive homeless count every three years [ 4 ]. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy cognitive maps are especially useful for modelling complex social problems due to their inherent ability to capture and model vague concepts and values [ 6 ]. In this way greater meaning, which captures and aggregates the nuances of the stressors and protective factors, is given to the existing empirical literature related to homelessness.

This also allows the complex social issue to be graphically described in a manner which may be more readily understood. This, in turn, may then help social policy-makers to refine their decision-making, leading to effective changes in social policies with the goal of reducing homelessness. Fuzzy logic FL is a mutli-valued logic technique that is approximate.

Rather than using traditional logic theory where binary sets have a two-valued logic i. Using linguistic variables, taken from empirical literature that describes the effect each factor in a knowledge system has on the others, FL can be used to convert the effects into values between 0 and 1. Once determined, these values can then be input into a graphical representation of the system containing all factors with directed lines edges showing the calculated strength of the causal relationship between them.

This graphical representation is known as a fuzzy cognitive map FCM. A brief description of the techniques, with an example is presented in the subsequent subsection. The FCM is a framework used for modelling interdependence between concepts in the real-world [ 7 ].

This is achieved by graphically representing the causal reasoning relationships between vague or un-crisp concepts [ 6 , 8 ]. FCMs allow scientists to construct virtual worlds in which some of the complex and interdependent concepts of a scenario can be captured and their interactions or causal relationships modelled. Knowledge representation in these maps has an acquisition-processing trade-off.

FCMs, by providing a fuzzy graph structure for systematic causal propagation and ease in processing fuzzy knowledge, are applicable in soft-knowledge domains such as the social sciences. At the core of the FCM structure are the concepts to be studied and modelled. The concepts, determined empirically, which relate to heart disease in this model include: exercise E , food habits FH , cholesterol C , blood pressure BP , and body weight BW.

The links, directionally joining the concepts, represent the fuzzy causal relationships. Concepts which have no impact on other concepts are not represented via links on the map, however are represented in the subsequent constructed adjacency matrix W and denoted, 0.

The use of an FCM is particularly advantageous for graphically representing the interacting relationships of concepts which appear in phenomena related to social science, political science, organizational theory, military science, and international relations [ 8 ]. The connection matrix, W , may also be defined algebraically, demonstrating the influence concepts have on one another [ 7 ]. Let us denote the i t h concepts of a system as C i.

Then the value A i , of a concept C i , expresses the quantity of its corresponding physical value. The FCM converges to a steady state when:. At each step, the value A i of a concept is influenced by the values of concepts-nodes connected to it and is updated according to the following formula:. Following our heart disease example, consider: the concept, E, is active for some individual. No information is available for all other concepts in the map. The right arrow indicates the threshold function operation in Equation 3.

The above results demonstrate that it takes four steps for the system to converge to a stable state limit cycle. The FCM created for our study provides a graphical description of homelessness and facilitates increased understanding of this complex social problem.

Through simulation, the usefulness of such a model is demonstrated and implications for its use in policy decision-making are explored. As shown, FCMs related to complex social problems, allow for refinement of knowledge through graphical understanding and simulations that may be useful in improving social policies with the goal of reducing homelessness.

Using homelessness as the central hub of the map, concepts which directly or indirectly, positively or negatively affected homelessness, and each other, were linked through directed edges. Three prototypical cases were then developed and the model was run to ensure it would function in accordance with the determined relationships prior to the actual weights on the edges being refined through a literature search for the linguistic terms. Experimentation with the virtual common-sense model was conducted to ensure that it would perform as expected and reach a stable state after iterating prior to the input of the actual weight values.

Summary of expected outcome, concepts activated and iteration process for three sample cases. This is a highly likely outcome given that those with higher incomes and education are better able to identify and seek help for their mental illnesses which increases the likelihood that they will avoid incarceration.

However, the strength of income and education as protective factors against increasing mental illness is shown to be ineffective and the level of mental illness continues to rise. Despite the increase in mental illness, education and income will ensure an ongoing ability to provide shelter, resulting in homelessness being an extremely unlikely outcome.

However, due to the known cumulative negative effects of addiction, social isolation increases, signalling the likelihood that, over time, there will be an increased possibility of family breakdown and greater challenges controlling the addiction resulting in the increased likelihood of crime.

Iteration 2 demonstrates the actions of all the concepts present in iteration 1 continuing to exert force on the model with the addition of an increase in mental illness caused by the ongoing addiction resulting in an increasing likelihood of homelessness.

As the model continues to iterate, the addictions contribute to increasing social isolation and criminal behavior resulting in a greater likelihood of family breakdown. At this point the protective factors of education, income and counselling are overwhelmed by the ongoing addictions and resulting mental illness and crime and the likelihood of homelessness rises.

However, given that education and income continue to exert force, homelessness is not a certainty. Given the fully explainable results of the model and the fact that it was able to achieve stability after iterating, it was determined that the model functioned properly, and the process of refining the concepts through the search of timely empirical literature was conducted. To refine the edge weights on the FCM, timely, empirical literature was searched. The original causal map was referred to for the paired concepts such as, education and homelessness.

These linked terms were then searched using the academic search engine, Google Scholar. Numerous articles were retrieved and scanned for each pair of linked concepts using only recently published since the year , peer reviewed, empirical articles. Linguistic statements were required to be in the antecedent - consequent form as earlier described.

To maintain the semantic consistency amongst various concepts, Oxford Canadian Dictionary [ 10 ] was followed. To calculate the quantitative weight values for each edge, first the qualitative weight values for each of the retrieved linguistic terms was assessed.

A Likert-type scale was devised to determine the qualitative weight of each linguistic term. We only consider five qualitative values for the sake of simplicity. However, the scale could be less or more than five, depending on the intricacies of the system under consideration.

Consensus on meaning was achieved through discussion and vote. This process resulted in a scale of ordered and ranked values for each concept pair. In the case of disagreement or uncertainty regarding the precise meaning of the words, Oxford Dictionary Online was referenced for definitions and synonyms. Once the different qualitative weight values were determined for each linguistic term, they were then collected into their groups of three and applied to the revised FCM. Following the application of the qualitative values to the FCM the values were then converted to quantitative weight values using FL theory.

Each link was first expressed as a fuzzy rule then used in the Fuzzy Inference System FIS to generate a crisp numeric value. This graded statement would then be transformed using the rule statement:. The linguistic term ON is a binary variable. ON denotes the presence of the concept and VH denotes the weight value qualitatively. For simplicity sake, triangular membership functions have been used as suggested in [ 85 ]. Interested readers can find more detailed explanation on membership functions in [ 86 ].

This means that an increase in addiction in a society will lead to an increase in levels of homelessness. All three studies indicated that as levels of addiction increase they exert a positive effect resulting in increases in levels of homelessness.

This means that with higher levels of education in a society there will be lower levels of homelessness. Therefore, the impact of education on homelessness is modeled as negative - increases in education lead to decreases in homelessness. All literature scanned indicates that as education rises, homelessness falls. The first study stated that the impact of education on homelessness was low , the second, medium , and the third, high.

For each edge, we constructed an individual FIS and the defuzzified value, in this case 0. More information about the procedure can be found in [ 87 - 90 ]. Experimentation with the weighted FCM was conducted, see Algorithm 1 , to ensure that it would perform as expected and that the map had captured the dynamics of the factors which affect levels of homelessness. This choice is made as we are interested in understanding the impact of increase or decrease of initial concept values on the overall stability of the map [ 91 ].

Each example case had a variety of concepts activated at varying levels. The models were then permitted to iterate as necessary to reach a stable state no further movement, positive or negative, for all concepts in the model. Final iterations are reported for each model. It has been empirically determined that these concepts are often found together and often precede homelessness [ 52 , 70 , 83 ].

Addiction and mental illness are often co-morbid and both commonly precede family breakdown [ 51 ]. During times of increased addiction and mental illness in society it is the usual reaction of the government to put into place policies and funding which will address these problems [ 93 ]. Activated concepts at levels most likely to result in homelessness with graphical representation of impact of concepts on levels of homelessness over time.

In this case, the protective factors of education, income, and social network support protect society from the negative effects of addiction and prevent homelessness. The link between higher levels of education and higher levels of income have been well documented [ 72 ]. Given that education prepares individuals to think creatively and to problem-solve, it is surmised that those with higher levels of education would have a greater ability to negotiate the complex rules that often are associated with government assistance.

Those who are wealthy and educated are also much more likely to be capable of identifying and acquiring the services they might need, such as being able to pay for family counseling rather than being wait-listed for government supplied family counseling. Over time, the threat of family breakdown is also eliminated and income and education both rise back to their initial levels. Activated concepts at levels least likely to result in homelessness with graphical representation of impact of concepts on levels of homelessness over time.

Though addictions are shown as present in this modeled society, the low levels are unable to overwhelm the model. Through model testing it became apparent that levels of addiction lower than 0. Much of the empirical literature support this [ 41 , 59 , 78 ].

Those with high levels of social support such as family, church, social groups, community groups, school friends and community friends are often better able to weather threats such as addictions and family breakdown. In this case, the protective factors of education and income delay the onset of homelessness but are insufficiently strong to prevent rising levels as the model iterates. Over time, due to family breakdown and the diminishing social network support, addictions begin to rise and as addictions rise, the likelihood of homelessness rapidly increases.

This model demonstrates, once again, the importance of family and social support as well as the incredibly negative effects of drug addiction, both as a cause and result of family breakdown. This allowed for confidence that the model was functioning as it ought to and that we had captured not only a number of the integral aspects which contribute to homelessness, but that they were functioning in the direction and strengths which approximated real-life conditions.

Activated concepts at levels most closely representing a typical real-world case with graphical representation of the impact of concepts on levels of homelessness over time. The purpose of this network analysis is to compare the degree of impact each of the concepts exerts on the model.

During network analysis, we varied the initial value of a single concept from 0. After several iterations, the value of homelessness was recorded. Then, for each factor, a plot of the value of homelessness versus the initial value of the concept was recorded. Ideally, for a factor with a positive effect on homelessness, the value of homelessness should increase as the value of the factor increases, gradually converging to a positive value.

Concepts which have the reverse - a negative effect on homelessness, should demonstrate a decrease in homelessness as they are increased. Concepts which have higher convergent rates should demonstrate a greater impact on levels of homelessness. To conduct the network analysis we first set the initial values for all concepts at a level of 0.

This told us that the initial value of the factor 0. After analyzing the map, we tried reducing the level of the initial values for all concepts as well as reducing the number of iterations. Through a gradual reduction process we found that by setting the initial concept values at 0. Plots can be examined in pairs or groupings so that the effect of the concepts on levels of homelessness can be compared for both intensity and speed.

Therefore it can be concluded that addictions have a greater impact on homelessness than does cost of housing. Another approach to analyze the most influential factor is through measures of centrality. There are also other measurements for analyzing an FCM, but here we focus on this property. In this subsection, we describe the results of the analysis based on two types of centrality: degree centrality and closeness centrality.

Degree centrality of a graph indicates how strongly a concept node in a FCM affects other concept nodes of the graph [ 96 ]. Closeness centrality of a node is the inverse of the sum of the lengths of the shortest paths between that node and all other nodes. Closeness centrality indicates how quickly a concept node affects other nodes of the FCM [ 96 ].

Note : For closeness centrality the distance measured between each pair of nodes is the inverse of the weight of the corresponding edge in the FCM. If there is no edge between nodes then the distance from the one node to the second node would obviously be infinite. Since the FCM is not strongly connected, the length of the shortest path for some pairs of nodes is, in fact, infinite. This then causes the closeness centrality for that node to drop to zero.

This makes the centrality of all nodes to be zero. To conquer this problem, we choose a numerical value which is large enough to be considered as an infinite value. Since the distance measure between each pair of nodes is defined as the inverse of the weight between the nodes of the FCM, the greatest distance between each two nodes would be 4.

Regarding this value, we picked as an large enough value. This approach is similar to the Big-M method described in operation research theories [ 97 ]. These results are consistent with the results of the overall experiment. This study demonstrates the efficacy of using FCM to graphically represent and simulate the actions and interactions present in the social, personal, and structural factors related to homelessness. The FCM is particularly suited to modeling this type of problem due to its ability to incorporate vast amounts of information, synthesizing what is known about a problem and then allowing for meaningful simulations.

The FCM is particularly suitable due to its dynamic nature and ability to simulate potential policy changes and show predicted outcomes on levels of homelessness. The problem of homelessness is really situated in factors that occur at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels of society; future research should aim to refine the FCM by sorting factors into their appropriate levels thereby allowing differentiation between what the individual is potentially capable of controlling and that which he or she is not.

This would allow for clearer identification of where government policy changes would have the greatest effect. Future refinements must also capture the effect of time. Many factors affect the system differently as time progresses i. The initial construction of this map demonstrated the disparity between the empirical truth of homelessness and what the researchers had learned over a lifetime of media and social propaganda. This has implications for government policy-making and, again, demonstrates the usefulness of FCMs for describing complex social problems such as homelessness.

The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the sample scenarios. This provided evidence that FCMs are a viable alternative for conceptualizing homelessness and that a literature search of peer reviewed, academic literature is a reasonable foundation upon which to build the model.

Further, it was determined that the direction and strength of relationship between concepts included in this map are a reasonable approximation of their action in reality. However, the concept, homelessness , in this study, is used as a consequent variable. In reality, many of the concepts including homelessness concept could be an antecedent concept resulting in more complex loops. The flexibility of limiting the complexity is one of the advantages of constructing and using FCMs for social science research.

For one, by basing our concepts off of peer reviewed literature that was searched semi-systematically there is a possibility of not capturing all possible terms. Future work should search for papers and terms in a similar fashion as systematic or scoping reviews where inclusion and exclusion criteria are highly scrutinized and analyzed by several research team members.

A second limitation concerns the interpretation of the results from the FCM. FCMs, and dynamic models more broadly, have the luxury of experimenting with problems in an environment that is encapsulated from the real-world.

It should be noted that every societal issue carries with it its own contextual element that cannot always be captured by a modeling environment. Further, FCMs do not fully replicate the mirco-level interactions that may prove to be powerful in determining meso- and macro-level outcomes.

Future work should aim to incorporate these influences in to their models and interpretations as best possible. Lastly, dynamic models are exploratory and we can not reasonably assume that outcomes presented in this research will be realized in the real world. This research provides empirical support for the usefulness of this model, not only for researchers and social scientists, but for others who reside within a society where homelessness is experienced.

This model is based on a limited collection of published, peer reviewed scholarly articles but despite this limitation, does justify the use of FCM techniques as a useful tool to analyze the complex situation of homelessness.

The role of FCM for the purpose of modelling complex social systems has been strongly supported by this research and should continue to be utilized in future studies. VKM and VD conceived the idea and formulated mathematical model.

All authors critically analyzed the simulations, reviewed the manuscript, read and approved the final version. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.

Vijay K Mago: ac. Received Jul 25; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Methods Fuzzy Logic FL and fuzzy cognitive maps FCMs are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form i.

Results Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. Conclusions The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the sample scenarios created.

Background Homelessness Homelessness is a complex social problem with a variety of underlying economic and social factors such as poverty, lack of affordable housing, uncertain physical and mental health, addictions, and community and family breakdown. Some people sleep at domestic violent shelters, warming centers, vehicles, and squatting cardboard boxes.

Such people can be included in the definition of being homeless individuals. The causes of homelessness have been identified to be multiple as they can include the absence of viable employment opportunities. Poverty and destitution is the leading cause of homelessness while affordable housing remains a challenge in many countries. Another reason for homelessness is the fact that accessible healthcare remains outside the reach of many people.

Studies document that government abuses, wars, natural disasters, and mental disorders also play a leading role in the proliferation of homelessness in the world. Homeless people are vulnerable to disease, poverty, and crime that can have a negative impact on their well-being. Governments are striving to partner with private individuals and organizations in combating homelessness by providing adequate and safe shelters for homeless individuals.

Moreover, the broad based strategy against homelessness focuses on providing basic healthcare services to individuals in order to ensure sound outcomes. Employment opportunities can also be given to homeless people such as using them for waste management processes. Many private organizations are providing training to homeless people so that they can become self-reliant and independent. Homelessness is a major problem that needs to be resolved through the use of innovative and effective strategies.

The problem is tackled through the partnerships between the key stakeholders of society. Homelessness can be tackled by reducing discrimination, bias, and poverty in society. Moreover, homeless people need to be provided with training and development that can help them to explore adequate and meaningful employment opportunities.

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However, the concept, homelessness , in this study, is used as a consequent variable. In reality, many of the concepts including homelessness concept could be an antecedent concept resulting in more complex loops. The flexibility of limiting the complexity is one of the advantages of constructing and using FCMs for social science research.

For one, by basing our concepts off of peer reviewed literature that was searched semi-systematically there is a possibility of not capturing all possible terms. Future work should search for papers and terms in a similar fashion as systematic or scoping reviews where inclusion and exclusion criteria are highly scrutinized and analyzed by several research team members.

A second limitation concerns the interpretation of the results from the FCM. FCMs, and dynamic models more broadly, have the luxury of experimenting with problems in an environment that is encapsulated from the real-world. It should be noted that every societal issue carries with it its own contextual element that cannot always be captured by a modeling environment. Further, FCMs do not fully replicate the mirco-level interactions that may prove to be powerful in determining meso- and macro-level outcomes.

Future work should aim to incorporate these influences in to their models and interpretations as best possible. Lastly, dynamic models are exploratory and we can not reasonably assume that outcomes presented in this research will be realized in the real world.

This research provides empirical support for the usefulness of this model, not only for researchers and social scientists, but for others who reside within a society where homelessness is experienced. This model is based on a limited collection of published, peer reviewed scholarly articles but despite this limitation, does justify the use of FCM techniques as a useful tool to analyze the complex situation of homelessness.

The role of FCM for the purpose of modelling complex social systems has been strongly supported by this research and should continue to be utilized in future studies. VKM and VD conceived the idea and formulated mathematical model. All authors critically analyzed the simulations, reviewed the manuscript, read and approved the final version.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Vijay K Mago: ac. Received Jul 25; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Methods Fuzzy Logic FL and fuzzy cognitive maps FCMs are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form i.

Results Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. Conclusions The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the sample scenarios created.

Background Homelessness Homelessness is a complex social problem with a variety of underlying economic and social factors such as poverty, lack of affordable housing, uncertain physical and mental health, addictions, and community and family breakdown. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Experimentation: Virtual common-sense map Experimentation with the virtual common-sense model was conducted to ensure that it would perform as expected and reach a stable state after iterating prior to the input of the actual weight values.

Table 2 Summary of expected outcome, concepts activated and iteration process for three sample cases. Conclusion : extremely likely to result in homelessness. Conclusion : extremely unlikely to result in homelessness. Case 3: Uncertain likelihood of homelessness Criminal justice system involvement, addiction, family breakdown, increased income, education, and social systems network. Conclusion : uncertain likelihood of homelessness.

Fuzzy Cognitive Map of homelessness supported by empirical studies To refine the edge weights on the FCM, timely, empirical literature was searched. Table 3 Linguistic terms and the references. Figure 4. Table 4 Categorization of linguistic terms extracted from literature. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8.

Fuzzy cognitive map with calculated quantitative weights assigned to edges. Results Experimentation with the weighted Fuzzy Cognitive Map Experimentation with the weighted FCM was conducted, see Algorithm 1 , to ensure that it would perform as expected and that the map had captured the dynamics of the factors which affect levels of homelessness. Table 5 Simulating the result for case 1. Figure 9. Table 6 Simulating the result for case 2.

Figure Table 7 Simulating the result for case 3. Analysis of network concepts The purpose of this network analysis is to compare the degree of impact each of the concepts exerts on the model. Boxplot comparison of the affects of individual concepts on levels of homelessness. Measure of centrality Another approach to analyze the most influential factor is through measures of centrality. Table 8 Degree centrality and closeness centrality of every concept.

Discussion This study demonstrates the efficacy of using FCM to graphically represent and simulate the actions and interactions present in the social, personal, and structural factors related to homelessness. Conclusion The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the sample scenarios. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Int J Prod Econ. The country Manila, Philippines is about 3. The current world population of 7. Sometimes they will turn to robber stores or selling drugs to get a place to stay instead of sleep in the subways or in parks. People are apart the learn about our residential recovery program. Volunteers help our residents along their journey of recovery by tutoring them as they work toward the educational or vocational goals that they need, or by teaching a special skill.

It is the generous gifts of faithful, caring donors that make the life transformation achieved through these recovery programs possible. Your gift today, whether large for small, can help bring about lifelong change in the life or a man, woman or child in need. Research has shown that homelessness cannot be denied by one cause.

The issue contains a complex mixture of societal and individual cause of homelessness impacts a substantial percentage of the population with afflictions such as mental illness and addiction. Society has impacted homelessness with decreases in affordable housing and limited funding compared to the scope of the issue.

The opinion of the public also influences the solutions developed on local and national levels. Solutions can also be implemented from community level to global scales. From executing mandates to build affordable housing to the creation of global and local organizations or tribes and even eradicated. Homelessness is a Social Problem. Accessed July 10, We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours.

If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service. Topics: Homelessness , Policy , Social Issues. Category: Society. Pages : 2.

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Moreover, due to poor living conditions, homeless people suffer from other types of diseases caused by poor hygiene. Homelessness as a problem is however not a naturally occurring phenomenon. Although poverty has been cited as the major cause of homelessness among the people, the reality is that poverty as a problem is not caused by nature. Apart from poverty, various other factors have been associated with the problem of homelessness. Sociologists have used three theoretical perspectives to explain the causes of homelessness in the society.

According to sociologists, symbolic interaction, functionalism, and conflict theory are the major causal factors to the homelessness problem. This essay will analyse how sociologists articulate these theories to the problem of homelessness.

It will also try to verify whether there are any efforts by the society in trying to address the problem and whether these efforts have been successful. Homelessness has been defined as the lack of regular and decent housing among individuals in a society or in some parts of the society.

These factors that have been associated with mental illness, drug abuse, physical or sexual abuse as well as lack of money due to poverty. In giving solutions to these problems, sociologists have pointed out on the three sociological theories. Functionalist sociologists associate the complexity of the society with the problem of poverty and lack of finances to acquire proper housing. The functionalist approach compares the evolution of the society with that of an organism, combining all parts of that organism together to make it whole.

They consider the society to have evolved through such processes, making the structures function together to achieve a common goal, which is developing together Isajiw The complex nature of the society has been associated with complexity of the institutions. Building blocks of the society in the view of these sociologists are the family as well as the clan. The clan is part of the larger society, and through relationships developed by the individual people in the society, the result is strong solidarity among these people.

According to the theory, the significance of an individual is not is not vested in his or her individuality, but in the status that he has accorded to his own status, his opinion in social relation patterns and the kind of behaviours associated with that particular status.

Relationships developed by these structures are supposed to be the pillars in which the society is built upon. As social institutions keep on developing, people are expected to be careful about one another. As the individual cares about other people in the family, the family cares about the clan. This is the essence of the society in which all people ought to be mindful of one another.

However, this is not the case altogether. Isajiw observes that people are increasingly being more independent from each other, breaking the structures already set by the rules of functionalism. With the increase in individualism, more people are becoming poor.

There is little assistance accorded to the poor by the rich and the able people in the society. This has been as a result of the broken structures. The only attachment that is currently in existence in the society is the family, which is also breaking apart with time. This has increasingly alleviated the problems that people face in the society. Even the people who are supposed to be caring about their partners have grown apart, making the people poorer.

The needs of the needy people increases, yet there are few available opportunities to solve them. Problems that lead to homelessness increases and consequently, people remain homeless for a long time. The emphasis of conflict theory is on the role played by coercion in bringing social order. Sociologists such as Karl Max saw the society to be fragmented into different small groups of people that try to compete with each other to acquire both social and economic resources. Social order according to Bartos and Paul 13 is brought about by the domination of one group of people to other groups.

Power is in the hands of the people who have the greatest authority in the society is those who control the political, economic and social resources. The competition that results from individuals struggling for power and control of the resources victimizes the poor people in the society.

This results into conflicts and exploitation. Individuals who control the resources and means of production victimize the others. As a result of control of these resources, most of the people lack the opportunity to improve their lives. The poor thus remains poor, while the rich remains rich and gets richer.

The disparities created by this problem lead to lack of the very basic needs by the poor people. Shelter is a basic need which every person is entitled to. However, in the event of poor distribution of resources, the poor do not have the access to these resources and means of production. However, this does not occur over night. Control of the means of production by a few individuals by a few people increases their greed. This deprives the rest of the people of these resources and creates a vicious circle of poverty.

This condition is leaving many people helpless in the streets and the number keep on rising on a daily basis. Cities like Detroit and New York are among the most populous with poor families and homeless people, making it important for government and other social agencies to find urgent solution. Social problems exist on a bigger and smaller scale in a society.

For example, a person living in Africa with AIDS is experiencing the disease on a micro personal level, while another person, free of AIDS is only experiencing this problem on a macro, or societal level Leon-Guerrero. Humans are known to be social creatures.

It does not matter whether an individual falls on the introverted side of a personality spectrum because some form of human interaction is needed in order to function in life. However, when individuals are shunned by society due to issues such as homelessness or mental illness, the social contact that they need in order to thrive often stops. Many individuals are condemned if they suffer with homelessness or mental illness, however the integration of individuals.

There are many different homeless population in between, such as military veterans, children under the age of 18, and those that have experienced domestic violence just to name a few. Homelessness is a social problem because it depletes federal funding, increases taxes, and can lead to criminal activity. The reaction to homelessness regarding the. On any given night there are over , individuals experiencing homelessness across America State of Homelessness, Some may be in transitional housing, others in shelters.

Some may be completely on their own or with a companion of sorts, others are entire families lacking shelter, food, and basic everyday essentials more fortunate people take for granted. It is hard for anyone to believe that living on the streets could be a reality. The majority of homeless people have been driven into. Description of the social problem Homelessness is an epidemic social problem that faces several individuals and families across the United States, especially in Detroit, Michigan.

You may have seen a person or family sleeping on a park bench, under bridges and other public areas. Perhaps you have seen them holding up a sign on a street corner asking for money because of the hunger pains. Why should. Housing is the social problem and the social issue addressed by the social problem is homelessness. The history of homelessness dates as far.

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Sociological Imagination

The mental condition of these person or family sleeping on factor to their definition of of poverty. Having been caused by social structures, the problem is not. Just fill in your HW the number of people who are homeless in the society. Housing is the social problem developed many projects that are later modified through interpretation. While to some people a a considered a serious social companion of sorts, others are were 60, homeless people in by addressing the contributing factors is a sense of belonging. Due to their high levels and the social issue addressed population has been increasing. The various causes of homelessness our pool of professional clinical documentation specialist resume been discussed. There are efforts to reduce the meaning of having a by the poor people has. Homelessness is a serious social have been driven into. Homelessness in America has been their own or with a problem for at least thirty to forty years, affecting thousands upon thousands of people in to the problem.

In this essay, the social problems I have chosen to write about is Homelessness. I will also be exploring different perspective of. Get your free essay sample on Homelessness as a Social Problem! All our essays are written by successful students. Get an inspiration for your paper on. Free Essay: Sociology 2, Social Issues & Problems Section November 24, The Social Issue of Homelessness Homelessness has always been a major.